The Kyrgyz people are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia Kyrgyzstan. There are several theories on the origin of ethnonym Kyrgyz, it is said to be derived from the Turkic word kyrk, with -iz being an old plural suffix, so Kyrgyz means "a collection of forty tribes". It means "imperishable", "inextinguishable", "immortal", "unconquerable" or "unbeatable", as well as its association with the epic hero Manas, who – according to a founding myth – unified the 40 tribes against the Khitans. A rival myth, recorded in 1370 in the Yuán Shǐ, concerns 40 women born on a steppe motherland; the original root of the ethnonym appears to have been the word kirkün meaning "field people". This and the Chinese transcription Tse-gu suggest that the original ethnonym was Kirkut and/or Kirkur, both of which can be traced back to kirkün. By the time of the Mongol Empire, the meaning of the word kirkun had been forgotten – as was shown by variations in readings of it across different reductions of the Yuán Shǐ.
This may have led to the adoption of its mythical explanation. During the 18th and 19th centuries, European writers used the early Romanized form Kirghiz – from the contemporary Russian киргизы – to refer not only to the modern Kyrgyz, but to their more numerous northern relatives, the Kazakhs; when distinction had to be made, more specific terms were used: the Kyrgyz proper were known as the Kara-Kirghiz, the Kazakhs were named the Kaisaks. or "Kirghiz-Kazaks". The early Kyrgyz people, known as Yenisei Kyrgyz, have their origins in the western parts of modern-day Mongolia and first appear in written records in the Chinese annals of the Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, as Gekun or Jiankun, they were described in Tang Dynasty texts as having "red hair and green eyes", while those with dark hair and eyes were said to be descendants of a Chinese general Li Ling. In Chinese sources, these Kyrgyz tribes were described as fair-skinned, green- or blue-eyed and red-haired people with a mixture of European and East Asian features.
This was the result of mixing with Indo-European people in the early genesis of Turkic groups. The Middle Age Chinese composition Tanghuiyao of the 8–10th century transcribed the name "Kyrgyz" as Tsze-gu, their tamga was depicted as identical to the tamga of present-day Kyrgyz tribes Azyk, Cherik, Sary Bagysh and few others. According to recent historical findings, Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 BC; the Yenisei Kyrgyz lived in central Siberia. In Late Antiquity the Yenisei Kyrgyz were a part of the Tiele people. In the Early Middle Ages, the Yenisei Kyrgyz were a part of the confederations of the Göktürk and Uyghur Khaganates. In 840 a revolt led by the Yenisei Kyrgyz brought down the Uyghur Khaganate, brought the Yenisei Kyrgyz to a dominating position in the former Turkic Khaganate. With the rise to power, the center of the Kyrgyz Khaganate moved to Jeti-su, brought about a spread south of the Kyrgyz people, to reach Tian Shan mountains and Xinjiang, bringing them into contact with the existing peoples of western China Tibet.
By the 16th century the carriers of the ethnonym Kirgiz lived in South Siberia, Tian Shan, Pamir-Alay, Middle Asia, Urals, in Kazakhstan. In the Tian Shan and Xinjiang area, the term Kyrgyz retained its unifying political designation, became a general ethnonym for the Yenisei Kirgizes and aboriginal Turkic tribes that presently constitute the Kyrgyz population. Though it is impossible to directly identify the Yenisei and Tien Shan Kyrgyz, a trace of their ethnogenetical connections is apparent in archaeology, history and ethnography. A majority of modern researchers came to the conclusion that the ancestors of Kyrgyz tribes had their origin in the most ancient tribal unions of Sakas/Scythians, Wusun/Issedones, Dingling and Huns. There follow from the oldest notes about the Kyrgyz that the definite mention of Kyrgyz ethnonym originates from the 6th century. There is certain probability that there was relation between Kyrgyz and Gegunese in the 2nd century BC, between Kyrgyz and Khakases since the 6th century A.
D. but there is quite missing a unique mention. The Kyrgyz as ethnic group are mentioned quite unambiguously in the time of Genghis Khan rule, when their name replaces the former name Khakas; the genetic makeup of the Kyrgyz is consistent with their origin as a mix of tribes. For instance, 63% of modern Kyrgyz men of Jumgal District Haplogroup R1a1. Low diversity of Kyrgyz R1a1 indicates a founder effect within the historical period. Other groups of Kyrgyz show lower haplogroup R frequencies and lack haplogroup N. West Eurasian mtDNA ranges from 27% to 42.6% in the Kyrgyz with Haplogroup mtDNA H being the most predominant marker at 21.3% among the Kyrgyz. Because of the processes of migration, conquest and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they speak related languages. According to a genetic study based on geographic location of the 26 Central Asian populations shows the admixture proportions of East Eurasian ancestry is predominant in most Kyrgyz living in Kyrgyzstan.
East Eurasian ancestry makes up two-thirds with exceptions of Kyrgyz living in Tajikistan and the western areas of Kyrgyzstan where it forms only
The Tujia, with a total population of over 8 million, is the eighth-largest ethnic minority in the People's Republic of China. They live in the Wuling Mountains, straddling the common borders of Hunan and Guizhou Provinces, Chongqing Municipality; the endonym Bizika means "native dwellers". In Chinese, Tujia means "local", as distinguished from the Hakka whose name implies wandering. Although there are different accounts of their origins, the Tujia may trace their history back over twelve centuries, beyond, to the ancient Ba people who occupied the area around modern-day Chongqing some 2,500 years ago; the Ba Kingdom reached the zenith of its power between 600 BC and 400 BC but was destroyed by the Qin in 316 BC. After being referred to by a long succession of different names in ancient documents, they appear in historical records as the Tujia from about 14th century onwards; the Tujia tusi chieftains reached the zenith of their power under the Ming Dynasty, when they were accorded comparatively high status by the imperial court.
They achieved this through their reputation as providers of fierce disciplined fighting men, who were employed by the emperor to suppress revolts by other minorities. On numerous occasions, they helped defend China against outside invaders, such as the wokou who ravaged the coast during the 16th century; the Manchus invaded and conquered the Ming in 1644 and established the Great Qing Empire, known in China as the Qing Dynasty. Suspicious of local rulers, the Qing emperors always tried to replace Han officials with Manchu officials wherever they could. In the early 18th century, the Qing court felt secure enough to establish direct control over minority areas as well; this process, known as gaituguiliu, was carried out throughout south-west China and, in general, peacefully. The court adopted a carrot-and-stick approach of lavish pensions for compliant chieftains, coupled with a huge show of military force on the borders of their territories. Most of the Tujia areas returned to central control during the period 1728-1735.
Whilst the Tujia peasantry preferred the measured rule of Qing officials to the arbitrary despotism of the Tujia chieftains whom they had replaced, many resented the attempts of the Qing court to impose national culture and customs on them. With the weakening of central Qing rule, numerous large-scale uprisings occurred culminating in the Taiping Rebellion which affected the area badly. Following the collapse of the Qing, the Tujia found themselves caught between various competing warlords. More and more land was given over to the cultivation of high-earning opium at the insistence of wealthy landlords, banditry was rife. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Tujia areas came under Communist control and banditry was eradicated; the Great Leap Forward led to mass famine in Tujia communities. The Tujia were recognised as one of the 55 ethnic minorities in January 1957, a number of autonomous prefectures and counties were subsequently established. State Councillor Dai Bingguo, one of China's top officials on foreign policy, is the most prominent Tujia in the Chinese government.
Today, traditional Tujia customs can only be found in the most remote areas. The Tujia are renowned for their singing and song composing abilities and for their tradition of the Baishou Dance, a 500-year-old collective dance which uses 70 ritual gestures to represent war, hunting and other aspects of traditional life, they are famous for their richly patterned brocade, known as xilankapu, a product that in earlier days figured in their tribute payments to the Chinese court. For their spring festival they prepare, they gather round the fire to eat grilled ciba. Regarding religion, most of the Tujia worship a white tiger totem, although some Tujia in western Hunan worship a turtle totem. Tujia is a Sino-Tibetan language and is considered an isolate within this group, although it has grammatical and phonological similarities with Nuosu. Today there are at most 70,000 native speakers of the Tujia language, most of whom live in the northern parts Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in north-western Hunan Province.
The vast majority of the Tujia use varieties of Chinese Southwestern Mandarin. Few monolingual Tujia speakers remain. Children now learn Chinese from childhood and many young Tujia prefer to use Chinese when communicating among themselves. Among fluent Tujia speakers, Chinese borrowings, sentence structures, are more common; the Fifth National Population Census of 2000 recorded 8,028,133 Tujia in China. Provincial Distribution of the Tujia In Chongqing, Tujia make up 4.67% of the total population. County-level distribution of the Tujia County-level distribution of the Tujia He Long Dai Bingguo Liao Guoxun Shang Chunsong ADuo 阿朵, singer/artiste Brown, M. J.. "Ethnic Classification and Culture: The Case of the Tujia in Hubei, China," Asian Ethnicity 2: 55-72. Brown, M. J.. "They Came with Their Hands Tied behind Their Backs" - Forced Migrations, Identity Changes, State Classification i
Tajikistan the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of 143,100 km2 and an estimated population of 8.7 million people as of 2016. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, China to the east; the traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilisation, Andronovo culture, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam; the area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, the Russian Empire, subsequently the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.
On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet Union disintegrated. A civil war was fought immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the country, led by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994, has been criticised by a number of non-governmental organizations for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom and widespread violations of human rights. Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8.7 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group. Many Tajiks speak Russian as their second language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is practiced by 98% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of Tajikistan, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Ishkashimi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken.
Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy, dependent on remittances and cotton production. Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO and CSTO as well as an NATO PfP partner. Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks"; the suffix "-stan" is Persian for "place of" or "country" and Tajik is, most the name of a pre-Islamic tribe. According to the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991. This is due to a transliteration from the Russian: "Таджикистан". In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/, therefore дж, or dzh, is used. Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is used in English literature derived from Russian sources.
"Tadjikistan" is the spelling in French and can be found in English language texts. The way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is: تاجیکستان. Cultures in the region have been dated back to at least the 4th millennium BCE, including the Bronze Age Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, the Andronovo cultures and the pro-urban site of Sarazm, a UNESCO World Heritage site; the earliest recorded history of the region dates back to about 500 BCE when much, if not all, of modern Tajikistan was part of the Achaemenid Empire. Some authors have suggested that in the 7th and 6th century BCE parts of modern Tajikistan, including territories in the Zeravshan valley, formed part of Kambojas before it became part of the Achaemenid Empire. After the region's conquest by Alexander the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, a successor state of Alexander's empire. Northern Tajikistan was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states, overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150 BCE.
The Silk Road passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi commercial relations between Han China and Sogdiana flourished. Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade and worked in other capacities, as farmers, carpetweavers and woodcarvers; the Kushan Empire, a collection of Yuezhi tribes, took control of the region in the first century CE and ruled until the 4th century CE during which time Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity and Manichaeism were all practised in the region. The Hephthalite Empire, a collection of nomadic tribes, moved into the region and Arabs brought Islam in the early eighth century. Central Asia continued in its role as a commercial crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north, the Islamic heartland, it was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire and Chinese from 650–680 and under the control of the Umayyads in 710. The Samanid Empire, 819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara which became the cultural centres of Iran and the region was known as Khorasan.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania (which corresponds wit
Uyghur Latin alphabet
The Uyghur Latin alphabet is an auxiliary alphabet for the Uyghur language based on the Latin script. Uyghur is written in an Arabic alphabet and sometimes in a Cyrillic alphabet; the ULY project was finalized at Xinjiang University, Ürümqi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China in July 2001, at the fifth conference of a series held there for that purpose that started in November 2000. In January 2008, the ULY project was amended and identified by Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional Working Committee of Minorities' Language and Writing; the letters in the ULY are, in order: The creators of ULY emphasized that “the proposed alphabet should not replace nor should its introduction represent a new reform of the writing system. It is to be used in computer-related fields as an ancillary writing system”. ULY had a heavy public relations presence on both the Internet and official Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region media but despite official efforts to play down the sense of a massive reform, ULY has acquired that connotation and the public seems wary of it.
The importance of having one-to-one correspondence between Latin and Arabic is noteworthy. The different orthographies are compared in the following table. Below follows an example of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Uyghur: Uyghur Ereb Yëziqi Uyghur alphabets An Introduction to LSU
The Uyghurs or Uighurs, are a Turkic people who live in Central and East Asia. As of 2019, Uyghurs live in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, where they are one of China's fifty-five officially-recognized ethnic minorities. Uyghurs practice Islam. An estimated 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs live in the south-western portion of the region, the Tarim Basin. Outside Xinjiang, the largest community of Uyghurs in China is in Taoyuan County, in north-central Hunan; the World Uyghur Congress estimates the Uyghur population outside of China at 1.0–1.6 million. Significant diasporic communities of Uyghurs exist in the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and in Turkey. Smaller communities live in Afghanistan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Saudi Arabia, Australia and the United States. In the Uyghur language, the ethnonym is written ئۇيغۇر in Arabic script, Уйгур in Russian, Уйғур in Uyghur Cyrillic, Uyghur or Uygur in Latin. In Chinese, this is transcribed into characters as 维吾尔 / 維吾爾, romanized in pinyin as Wéiwú'ěr.
In English, the name is spelt "Uyghur" by the Xinjiang government but appears as "Uighur", "Uigur", "Uygur". The name is pronounced in English as, although some Uyghurs and Uyghur scholars have advocated for using the closer pronunciation instead; the original meaning of the term is unclear. Old Turkic inscriptions record a word uyɣur, transcribed into Tang annals as 回纥 / 回紇, it was used as the name of one of the Turkic polities formed in the interim between the First and Second Göktürk Khaganates. The Old History of the Five Dynasties records that in 788 or 809 the Chinese acceded to a Uyghur request and emended their transcription to 回鹘 / 回鶻. Modern etymological explanations for the name "Uyghur" have ranged from derivation from the verb "follow, accommodate oneself" and adjective "non-rebellious" to the verb meaning "wake, rouse, or stir". None of these is thought to be satisfactory because the sound shift of /ð/ and /ḏ/ to /j/ does not appear to have taken place by this time; the etymology therefore cannot be conclusively determined, its referent is difficult to fix.
The "Huihe" and "Huihu" seem to have been a political rather than a tribal designation or to have just been one group among several others collectively known as the Toquz Oghuz. The name fell out of use in the 15th century, but it was reintroduced in the early 20th century by the Soviet Bolsheviks to replace the previous terms "Turk" and "Turki", it is presently used to refer to the settled Turkic urban dwellers and farmers of the Tarim Basin who follow traditional Central Asian sedentary practices, distinguishable from the nomadic Turkic populations in Central Asia. The Uyghurs appear in Chinese records under other names; the earliest record to a Uyghur tribe appears in accounts from the Northern Wei. They are described as the 高车 / 高車, now read as Gāochē but with the reconstructed Middle Chinese pronunciation *; this in turn has been connected to the Uyghur Qangqil. They were known as the Tiele. Throughout its history, the term Uyghur has taken on an expansive definition. Signifying only a small coalition of Tiele tribes in Northern China and the Altai Mountains, it denoted citizenship in the Uyghur Khaganate.
It was expanded into an ethnicity whose ancestry originates with the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate in the year 842, which caused Uyghur migration from Mongolia into the Tarim Basin. This migration assimilated and replaced the Indo-European speakers of the region to create a distinct identity as the language and culture of the Turkic migrants supplanted the original Indo-European influences; this fluid definition of Uyghur and the diverse ancestry of modern Uyghurs create confusion about what constitutes true Uyghur ethnography and ethnogenesis. Contemporary scholars consider modern Uyghurs to be the descendants of a number of people, including the ancient Uyghurs of Mongolia who arrived at the Tarim Basin after the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, Iranic Saka tribes, other Indo-European peoples who inhabited the Tarim Basin before the arrival of the Turkic Uyghurs. DNA analyses indicate that the peoples of central Asia such as the Uyghurs are all mixed Caucasian and East Asian. Uyghur activists identify with the Tarim mummies, remains of an ancient people who inhabited the region, but research into the genetics of ancient Tarim mummies and their links with modern Uyghurs remains problematic, both to Chinese government officials concerned with ethnic separatism, to Uyghur activists concerned that the research could affect their people's claim of being indigenous to the region.
The Uighurs are the people whom old Russian travellers called Sart, while Western travellers called them Turki, in recognition of their language. The Chinese used to call them Ch'an-t'ou but this term has been dropped, being considered derogatory, the Chinese, using their own pronunciation, now called them Weiwuerh; as a matter of fact there was for centuries no'national' name for them. The term "Uyghur" was not use
Uyghur Arabic alphabet
The Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet is an Arabic alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language by Uyghurs living in China. It is one of several Uyghur alphabets and has been the official alphabet of the Uyghur language since 1982; the first Perso-Arabic derived alphabet for Uyghur was developed in the 10th century, when Islam was introduced there. The version used for writing the Chagatai language, it became the regional literary language, now known as the Chagatay alphabet. It was used nearly up to the early 1920s. Alternative Uyghur scripts began emerging and collectively displaced Chagatai. Between 1937 and 1954 the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Uyghur was modified by removing redundant letters and adding markings for vowels. A Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in the 1950s and a Latin alphabet in 1958; the modern Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet was made official in 1978 and reinstituted by the Chinese government in 1983, with modifications for representing Uyghur vowels. The Arabic alphabet used before the modifications did not represent Uyghur vowels and according to Robert Barkley Shaw, spelling was irregular and long vowel letters were written for short vowels since most Turki speakers were unsure of the difference between long and short vowels.
The pre-modification alphabet used Arabic diacritics to mark short vowels. Robert Shaw wrote that Turki writers either "inserted or omitted" the letters for the long vowels ا, و and ي at their own fancy so multiple spellings of the same word could occur, the ة was used to represent a short a by some Turki writers; the reformed modern Uyghur Arabic alphabet eliminated letters whose sounds were found only in Arabic and spelt Arabic and Persian loanwords, including Islamic religious words, as they were pronounced in Uyghur, not as they were spelt in Arabic or Persian. Several of these alternatives were influenced by security-policy considerations of the Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China. A Pinyin-derived Latin-based alphabet called “New script” or Uyghur Yëngi Yëziq or UYY, was for a time the only approved alphabet used for Uyghur in Xinjiang, it met social resistance.
The Hui people are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of ethnically Sinitic adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region. According to the 2011 census, China is home to 10.5 million Hui people, the majority of whom are Chinese-speaking practitioners of Islam, though some may practise other religions. The 110,000 Dungan people of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are considered part of the Hui ethnicity, their culture has distinct differences. For example, as Muslims, they follow Islamic dietary laws and reject the consumption of pork, the most common meat consumed in China and have given rise to their own variation of Chinese cuisine. Traditional Hui clothing differs from that of the Han in that some men wear white caps and some women wear headscarves, as is the case in many Islamic cultures. However, since the industrialization and modernization of China, most of the young Hui people wear the same clothes as mainstream fashion trends.
The Hui people are one of 56 ethnic groups recognized by China. The government defines the Hui people to include all Muslim communities not included in China's other ethnic groups; the Hui predominantly speak Chinese, while maintaining some Arabic phrases. In fact, the Hui ethnic group is unique among Chinese ethnic minorities in that it associates with no non-Sinitic language; the Hui people are more concentrated in Northwestern China, but communities exist across the country, e.g. Beijing, Xi'an, Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Yunnan. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the term "Hui" was applied by the Chinese government to one of China's ten Islamic minorities. Earlier, the term referred to Chinese-speaking groups with Muslim ancestry. Practising Islam was not a criterion. Use of the Hui category to describe foreign Muslims moving into China dates back to the Song dynasty. Pan-Turkic Uyghur activist, Masud Sabri, viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people, noting that with the exception of religion, their customs and language were identical to those of the Han.
Hui people are of varied ancestry, many directly descending from Silk Road travellers and expatriates. Their ancestors include Central Asians, Middle Eastern ethnic groups such as the Arabs who intermarried with the local Han Chinese. West Eurasian DNA is prevalent—6.7% of Hui people's maternal genetics have a Central Asian and Middle Eastern origin. Several medieval Chinese dynasties the Tang and Mongol Yuan Dynasties, encouraged immigration from predominantly Muslim Central Asia, with both dynasties welcoming traders from these regions and appointing Central Asian officials. In subsequent centuries, the immigrants mixed with the Han Chinese forming the Hui. Nonetheless, included among Huis in Chinese census statistics are members of a few small non-Chinese speaking communities; these include several thousand Utsuls in southern Hainan Province, who speak an Austronesian language related to that of the Vietnamese Cham Muslim minority, said to descend from Chams who migrated to Hainan. A small Muslim minority among Yunnan's Bai people are classified as Hui as well, as are some groups of Tibetan Muslims.
The East Asian O3-M122 Y chromosome Haplogroup is found in large quantities in other Muslims close to the Hui like Dongxiang, Bo'an and Salar. The majority of Tibeto-Burmans, Han Chinese, Ningxia and Liaoning Hui share paternal Y chromosomes of East Asian origin which are unrelated to Middle Easterners and Europeans. In contrast to distant Middle Easterners and Europeans with whom the Muslims of China are not related, East Asians, Han Chinese, most of the Hui and Dongxiang of Linxia share more genes with each other; this indicates that native East Asian populations converted to Islam and were culturally assimilated and that the Chinese Muslim populations are not descendants of foreigners as claimed by some accounts while only a small minority of them are. Huihui was the usual generic term for China's Muslims during the Qing Dynasties, it is thought to have its origin in the earlier Huihe or Huihu, the name for the Uyghur State of the 8th and 9th centuries. Although the ancient Uyghurs were not Muslims the name Huihui came to refer to foreigners, regardless of language or origin, by the time of the Yuan. and Ming Dynasties.
During the Yuan Dynasty, large numbers of Muslims came from the west, since the Uyghur land was in the west, this led the Chinese to call foreigners of all religions, including Muslims, Nestorian Christians and Jews, as Huihui. Kublai Khan called both foreign Jews and Muslims in China Huihui when he forced them to stop halal and kosher methods of preparing food: "Among all the alien peoples only the Hui-hui say "we do not eat Mongol food". "By the aid of heaven we have pacified you. Yet you do not eat our drink. How can this be right?" He thereupon made. "If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime." He issued a regulation to that effect... all the Muslims say: "if someone else slaughters we do not eat". Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman Huihui and Zhuhu Huihui, no matter who kills will eat and must cease s