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Klæbu

Klæbu is a former municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 2020 when it was incorporated into the neighboring Trondheim Municipality, it was located in the southern part of the Trondheim Region, about 20 kilometres south of the city of Trondheim. The administrative center was the village of Klæbu; the other major village in Klæbu municipality was Tanem. Though agriculture has traditionally been the main industry for Klæbu, the municipality most functioned more as a commuter town of Trondheim, where many of Klæbu's inhabitants work or attend school. At the time of its dissolution in 2020, the 186-square-kilometre municipality is the 337th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Klæbu is the 171st most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 6,094; the municipality's population density is 34.8 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 9.6% over the last decade. The municipality of Klæbu was established on 1 January 1838.

On 1 January 1899, the small northwestern part of Klæbu was separated from Klæbu to form the new municipality of Tiller. On 1 January 2018, the municipality switched from the old Sør-Trøndelag county to the new Trøndelag county. On 1 January 2020, the municipality of Klæbu merged with the municipality of Trondheim to the north; the Old Norse form of the name was Kleppabú. The first element is the plural genitive case of kleppr which means'rocky hill' and the last element is bú which means'rural district'; the district/parish has a lot of small rocky hills. The coat of arms was granted on 8 July 1983; the silver and blue arms symbolize the Trangfossen waterfall in the Nidelva river, now the deepest canyon in Norway measuring 56 metres. The river has been of great importance for the local development, for agriculture and hydroelectricity generation, hence the use of the waterfall as a typical symbol for the municipality; the waterfall is no longer visible as that part of the river became part of Bjørsjøen lake after the building of the dam at Hyttfossen.

The Church of Norway had one parish within the municipality of Klæbu. It is part of the Heimdal prosti in the Diocese of Nidaros; the Nidelva river, which runs through the area of Klæbu, is a large source of hydroelectric power with a total of 3 power stations within the municipality borders. The river runs north from the lake Selbusjøen; the mountain Vassfjellet is located along the western border with Melhus. The landlocked municipality of Klæbu has three municipalities that border it: Melhus is located to the west and south, Selbu is located to the east, Trondheim is to the north; the newspaper KlæbuPosten is published in Klæbu. All municipalities in Norway, including Klæbu, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipality falls under the Frostating Court of Appeal.

The municipal council of Klæbu is made up of 23 representatives. The party breakdown of the final municipal council was as follows: Trøndelag travel guide from Wikivoyage Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway Klæbu church

Hispano-Moresque ware

Hispano-Moresque ware is a style of Islamic pottery created in Al Andalus or Muslim Spain, which continued to be produced under Christian rule in styles blending Islamic and European elements. It was the most elaborate and luxurious pottery being produced in Europe until the Italian maiolica industry developed sophisticated styles in the 15th century, was exported over most of Europe; the industry's most successful period was the 15th centuries. Around 711, the Moors conquered Spain. Over the following centuries, they introduced two ceramic techniques to Europe: glazing with an opaque white tin-glaze, lustreware, which imitates metallic finishes with iridescent effects. Hispano-Moresque wares use both processes, applying the paint as an overglaze, fired again. Lustreware was a speciality of Islamic pottery, at least because the use of drinking and eating vessels in gold and silver, the ideal in ancient Rome and Persia as well as medieval Christian societies, is prohibited by the Hadiths, with the result that pottery and glass were used for tableware by Muslim elites, when Christian medieval elites still used metal for both dishes and cups.

At first centred on Málaga in the south, using typical Islamic decoration, by the 15th century the largest production was around Valencia, which had long been reconquered by the Crown of Aragon. Wares from Manises and other Valencian towns were for the Christian market, exported widely; the earliest major centre of fine pottery in Al-Andalus was Málaga in southern Spain. This is the major centre whose best-known wares were produced in a Muslim kingdom, as opposed to by a workforce presumed to be Muslim, or Morisco, under Christian rule, it was celebrated for its gold lustrewares in the 14th century, remained under Muslim rule until 1487, shortly before the fall of Granada, the last Moorish kingdom. Murcia, Almería, Granada itself were early centres of production; this pottery stayed much closer to styles seen in other Islamic countries, although much of it was being exported to Christian markets, as can be seen by the coats of arms on many pieces. Wares from Málaga were celebrated for their gold lustre on white enamel.

At least one authority, Alan Caiger-Smith, excludes this pottery from the term "Hispano-Moresque", but most who use the term at all use it to include Malaga and other Andalusian wares from the Islamic period as well as the Valencian pottery. When Spanish medieval pottery was first studied in the 19th century, there was awareness of the Valencian centres but little of the Al-Andalus ones, there has been a steady re-attribution of types of pottery attributed to Manises to Malaga and the south, still continuing in the 1980s, following archaeological discoveries in Malaga, scientific analysis of the clays used. Though other types of painted pottery, not called Hispano-Moresque ware, were produced in Al-Andaluz earlier, firm evidence of lustreware production is not found before the early or mid-13th century, when it may have been begun by Egyptian potters escaping political disturbances, it was being exported, as some of the earliest evidence is bowls set as decoration into the facades of churches in Pisa when they were built.

An import from Malaga through Sandwich, Kent in England for the Spanish-born Queen Eleanor of Castile was recorded in 1289, consisting of "42 bowls, 10 dishes, 4 earthenware jars of foreign colour". Malagan ware was exported to the Islamic world, has been found at Fustat and elsewhere; the best known and most impressive examples of Andalucian wares are the Alhambra vases, a number of large vases made to stand in niches in the Alhambra in Granada, elsewhere. These are atypical in Islamic pottery in having only a decorative function, with no practical purpose, are "by far" the largest pieces of lustreware known, they are based on traditional shapes descended from the ancient amphora, but at about 115 to 170 cm tall are close to the height of a human. They are thought to come from a range of dates covering the late 14th and the 15th centuries, the decoration and precise shape of the body is different in each surviving example. According to Alan Caiger-Smith, "few other pots in the world make such a strong physical impression".

All are now in museums, five in Spain and others in St Petersburg, Washington D. C. Stockholm and Palermo. Lustre tiles are still in place at the Alhambra; the "Fortuny Tablet", a unique plaque measuring 90 x 44 cm, has a garden-like design, inside a border with an inscription praising Yusuf III, Sultan of Granada. Its design resembles that of some Spanish carpets. After Yusuf's throne was inherited by an eight-year-old in 1418, the Nasrid kingdom went into a decline before its final conquest, the production of fine pottery seems to cease abruptly about 1450 though the name obra de Malequa continued to be used in Valencia for lustreware long afterwards. Valencia and its suburbs Manises and Paterna became important centres after potters migrated there from the south. In 1362 a cardinal commissioned floor-tiles in "obra de Malicha" for the Pope's Palais des Papes in Avignon from two masters in Manises, at least one with an Arabic name. In 1484 a German traveller mentioned vessels "whi

Raffaele Andreassi

Raffaele Andreassi was an Italian film director most known for his movie Flashback from 1969. The movie received many awards, it was nominated for the Golden Palm. Andreassi did many documentaries during his director career. Andreassi began his career as a journalist in the late 1940s, he wrote including the morning paper Giornale di Sicilia. Andreassi published several collections of poems, he devoted himself to writing screenplays for film documentaries. His directorial debut was in 1955 with a comedy "Face rogue" in collaboration with Lance Comfort. In 1960 Andreassi received the Silver Berlin Bear for his short film "I vecchi". In 1968 he directed "Flashback", a war movie that has received the following awards: Golden Globe's Foreign Press, Grolla Silver premium, Award of Tourism and Entertainment, Silverstar Festival San Francisco; the film was shown at Cannes where it was nominated for the Golden Palm and received standing ovations. After Flashback Andreassi collaborated with the most important sections of the RAI.

From 1971 to 1975 he was artistic director of the Audiovisual Mondadori. From 1982 to 1983 he taught "techniques of documentary film" at DAMS in Bologna. In 1999 he wrote and directed the documentary "The wolves inside" with non-professional actors, a journey of the author himself in space and time. Andreassi died on November 20, 2008. Raffaele Andreassi on IMDb