Fremont National Forest
The Fremont-Winema National Forest of south central Oregon is a mountainous region with a rich geological, ecological and historical history. Founded in 1908, the Fremont National Forest was protected as the Goose Lake Forest Reserve in 1906; the name was soon changed to Fremont National Forest, named after John C. Frémont, who explored the area for the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1843, it absorbed part of Paulina National Forest on July 19, 1915. In 2002, it was administratively combined with the Winema National Forest as the Fremont–Winema National Forests; the Fremont National Forest is the eastern portion of the Fremont-Winema National Forest, which combined comprises a significant portion of south-central Oregon. Yamsay Mountain is located in the extreme north-northwest of the forest region; the Winema portion includes the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains. The Fremont portion includes an area that begins on the shores of Klamath Marsh in the west, Hagger Mountain in the north, Winter Rim on the east, down to the California border between near Lakeview, Oregon.
This area of Oregon region is nicknamed the ‘pumice plains’, referring to the area having borne the brunt of tephra deposition during the eruption of Mount Mazama in 7,620 BP. The climate is drier on the east side of the Cascades, resulting in a rainshadow effect; this difference in precipitation between the lower and higher elevations of forested areas spans two Köppen climate classifications. The majority of the Fremont is Csb: warm summer Mediterranean, whereas elevations of 7,000 feet and higher are designated as Dsc: dry summer subarctic. Precipitation in the form of winter rains and snow pack feed watersheds that include perennial and annual creeks, fen marshes, small lakes. Perennial rivers include the Chewaucan, Sprague and Sycan; the landscape is flat and rolling, although there are some high peaks that include Yamsay Mountain at 8,196 feet above sea level, 8,370 foot Gearhart Mountain. Both are volcanic in origin but formed during events separate from what formed the nearby Cascade Range.
The volcanoes of the Fremont Forest are older than the Cascades and were a result of tectonic sheering stretching the crust thin which allowed mantle magma to emerge at the surface. Crustal stretching continued through the late Miocene resulting in uplifted fault blocking of what was flat basalt landscapes, creating into towering scarp- mountains that are sloped on one side and terminate into a sharp scarp face on the other; the east portion of the Fremont Forest region is like this, sloping to the west and terminating in a sheer scarp face along the Summer Lake sub-basin. Human presence in the Fremont region extends back thousands of years. Physical evidence of this comes from the Paisley Caves Fort Rock Cave, more Connolly Caves; these sites are within 10 to 20 miles from the Fremont Forest boundary. Further archaeological evidence of human activity can be found at Carlon Village and Picture Rock Pass, many more smaller house rings and artifact scatters throughout the area. Through clear cultural relationships seen in the artifact record, as well as legends and oral knowledge tying them to this place, the decedents of these early people are the Klamath.
The Paiute and Modoc have a long and rich cultural connection to the Fremont Forest. Native people were moved out of their traditional territories through the late 1800s into the mid-1900s as a response to Euro-American settlers in the region that were attracted to rich forest resources and ranching possibilities; the exception was Yamsay Mountain which remained part of the 1901 Klamath Reservation until 1911 when it became listed as part of the Paulina National Forest and was ceded to the Fremont National Forest in 1913. The Klamath tried to recover their previous lands, but in 1954 the Klamath Termination Act meant that the tribe's remaining 525,700 acres of former Indian reservation lands all within the Fremont Forest region, were placed under National Forest administration under the 1953 House Concurrent Resolution 108. Klamath tribal designation was restored in 1986. Euro-American traders began entering the Klamath area at some point between 1825 and 1827, where they worked as trappers for the Hudson's Bay Company.
The Fremont National Forest was established in 1908 and was named for Captain John C. Fremont, sent to explore the area in 1843. After trade routes inland and to the Pacific were opened up in 1846, Fort Klamath was built in 1863 and the Klamath reservation was established. In the beginning the Klamath were able to keep Yamsay Mountain in their territory, but vast economic opportunities present was too much for the federal government to resist. Trappers may have begun the early movements of Euro-Americans into the area, but it was the harvesting of old growth ponderosa pine timber, the real draw in the 19th century. Ecological damage done by excessive logging was exacerbated by the introduction of sheep and cattle ranching, complete fire suppression, other activities which remain visible on the landscape to this day; the Fremont Forest region is listed as part of the Mazama ecoregion due to high amounts of Mazama tephra covering the landscape as a result of its catastrophic eruption 7,620 years ago that resulted in the formation of Crater Lake.
Fremont ecology is at once fragile and robust, with dominant trees including ponderosa and lodgepole
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Deschutes National Forest
The Deschutes National Forest is a United States National Forest located in parts of Deschutes, Klamath and Jefferson counties in central Oregon. It comprises 1.8 million acres along the east side of the Cascade Range. In 1908, the Deschutes National Forest was established from parts of the Blue Mountains and Fremont National Forests. In 1911, parts of the Deschutes National Forest were split off to form the Ochoco and Paulina National Forests, parts of the Cascade and Oregon National Forests were added to the Deschutes. In 1915, the lands of the Paulina National Forest were rejoined to the Deschutes National Forest. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Within the boundaries of the Deschutes National Forest is the Newberry National Volcanic Monument, containing cinder cones, lava flows, lava tubes; the Deschutes National Forest as a whole contains in excess of 250 known caves. The forest contains five wilderness areas, six National Wild and Scenic Rivers, the Oregon Cascade Recreation Area, the Metolius Conservation Area.
Forest headquarters are located in Oregon. There are local ranger district offices in Bend and Sisters. Recreational activities in Deschutes National Forest include boating, wildlife watching, hiking, as well as mountain biking on an extensive system of trails. Hiking and skiing can be done on a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range. There are five designated wilderness areas within Deschutes National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. All of them are shared administratively with neighboring National Forests. Diamond Peak Wilderness Mount Jefferson Wilderness Mount Thielsen Wilderness (mostly in Winema NF or in Umpqua NF Mount Washington Wilderness Three Sisters Wilderness Deschutes River Cascade Lakes Scenic Byway The National Forest Foundation's Conservation Plan for the Deschutes National Forest Deschutes National Forest from the U. S. Forest Service
Lane County, Oregon
Lane County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 351,715, making it the fourth-most populous county in Oregon; the county seat is Eugene. It is named in honor of Oregon's first territorial governor. Lane County comprises OR Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the third largest MSA in Oregon, the 144th largest in the country. Lane County was established on January 29, 1851, it was created from the southern part of Linn County and the portion of Benton County east of Umpqua County. It was named after Joseph Lane, it covered all of southern Oregon east to the Rocky Mountains and south to the California border. When the Territorial Legislature created Lane County, it did not designate a county seat. In the 1853 election, four sites competed for the designation, of which the "Mulligan donation" received a majority vote. In 1846 Elijah Bristow and his wife, the former Susannah Gabbart, had become the first white settlers to build a claim cabin within the present-day boundaries of Lane County, near Pleasant Hill.
They had crossed the plains to California in the previous year, came north with Eugene F. Skinner, Captain Felix Scott, William Dodson; as their party entered the valley between the Coast Fork and Middle Fork of the Willamette River, Bristow gazed around and exclaimed, "What a pleasant hill! Here is my home!"In 1852 John Diamond and William Macy led an exploration party to survey a shortcut for the Oregon Trail across the Cascade Range. The shortcut over the Willamette Pass became known as the Free Emigrant Road. Around 250 wagons with 1,027 people left the usual Oregon Trail route at Vale and followed Elijah Elliott through the central Oregon high desert; this became known as the Elliott Cutoff. When they reached what is now Bend, they sent scouts to the south to look for the road. Once settlers in the Willamette Valley discovered the emigrants were coming, a huge rescue effort was launched as the emigrants were out of supplies and in dire condition; the emigrants of this wagon train doubled the population of Lane County in 1853.
The county has been vastly reduced from its original size by several boundary changes. One of the first changes gave it access to the Pacific Ocean, when it acquired the northern part of Umpqua County in 1853. With the creation of Wasco County in 1854, it lost all of its territory east of the Cascade Mountains. Minor boundary changes occurred with Douglas County in 1852, 1885, 1903, 1915, 1917. According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,722 square miles, of which 4,553 square miles is land and 169 square miles is water. Lane County is one of two Oregon counties that extend from the Pacific Ocean to the Cascades A portion of the Umpqua National Forest is in Lane County. Portions of the Willamette, McKenzie, Siuslaw rivers run through the county. Lincoln County Benton County Linn County Douglas County Deschutes County Klamath County Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge Siuslaw National Forest Umpqua National Forest Willamette National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 322,959 people, 130,453 households, 82,185 families residing in the county.
The population density was 71 people per square mile. There were 138,946 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.64% White, 0.78% Black or African American, 1.13% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 1.95% from other races, 3.32% from two or more races. 4.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 130,453 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.90% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.00% were non-families. 26.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.90% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 96.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,942, the median income for a family was $45,111. Males had a median income of $34,358 versus $25,103 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,681. About 9.00% of families and 14.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.10% of those under age 18 and 7.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 351,715 people, 145,966 households, 86,938 families residing in the county; the population density was 77.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 156,112 housing units at an average density of 34.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.3% white, 2.4% Asian, 1.2% American Indian, 1.0% black or African American, 0.2% Pacific islander, 2.8% from other races, 4.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.8% were German, 14.9% were English, 13.8% were Irish, 5.3% were American.
Of the 145,966 households, 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 10.6% ha
The Klamath people are a Native American tribe of the Plateau culture area in Southern Oregon and Northern California. Today Klamath people are enrolled in the federally recognized tribes: Klamath Tribes, Oregon Quartz Valley Indian Community, California; the Klamath people lived in the area around the Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath and Sprague rivers. They subsisted on fish and gathered roots and seeds. While there was knowledge of their immediate neighbors the Klamath were unaware of the existence of the Pacific Ocean. Gatschet has described this position as leaving the Klamath living in a "protracted isolation" from outside cultures; the Klamath were known to raid neighboring tribes, such as the Achomawi on the Pit River, to take prisoners as slaves. They traded with the Wasco-Wishram at The Dalles. However, scholars such as Alfred L. Kroeber and Leslie Spier consider these slaving raids by the Klamath to begin only with the acquisition of the horse; these natives made southern Oregon their home for long enough to witness the eruption of Mount Mazama.
It was a legendary volcanic mountain, the creator of Crater Lake, now considered to be a beautiful natural formation. In 1826, Peter Skene Ogden, an explorer for the Hudson's Bay Company, first encountered the Klamath people, he was trading with them by 1829; the United States frontiersman Kit Carson admired their arrows, which were reported to be able to shoot through a house. The Klamaths and the Yahooskin Band of Northern Paiute, erroneously called Upper Sprague River Snakes believed to be a Band of Snake Indians, the collective name given to the Northern Paiute and Shoshone Native American tribes, signed a treaty with the United States in 1864, establishing the Klamath Reservation to the northeast of Upper Klamath Lake; this area was part of the traditional territory controlled by the ă′ukuckni Klamath band. The treaty required the tribes to cede the land in the Klamath Basin, bounded on the north by the 44th parallel, to the United States. In return, the United States was to make a lump sum payment of $35,000, annual payments totalling $80,000 over 15 years, as well as providing infrastructure and staff for the reservation.
The treaty provided that, if the Indians drank or stored intoxicating liquor on the reservation, the payments could be withheld. The tribes requested Lindsay Applegate as the agent to represent the United States to them; the Indian agent estimated the total population of the three tribes at about 2,000 when the treaty was signed. Since termination of recognition of their tribal sovereignty in 1954, the Klamath and neighboring tribes have reorganized their government and revived tribal identity; the Klamath, along with the Modoc and Yahooskin, have formed the federally recognized Klamath Tribes confederation. Their tribal government is based in Oregon; some Klamath live on the Quartz Valley Indian Community in California. Traditionally there were several cultural subdivisions among the Klamath, based on the location of their residency within the Klamath Basin. Despite this, the five recognized "tribelets" mutually considered each other the same ethnic group, about 1,200 people in total. Like many Indigenous cultures of the Pacific Northwest, the Klamath lived a semi-sedentary life.
Winter settlements were in permanent locations. Construction of the earth-lodges would begin in Autumn, with materials salvaged from abandoned, dilapidated buildings made in previous years. Leslie Spier has detailed some of the winter settlement patterns for Klamath as follows: The towns are not isolated, compact groups of houses, but stretch along the banks for half a mile or more. In fact, the settlements on Williamson river below the Sprague river junction form a continuous string of houses for five or six miles, the house pits being, in many spots, crowded close together. Informants insisted; when we consider that these earth-lodges may have housed several families, there is strong suggestion of a considerable population. Marriage was a unique practice for the Klamath, compared to neighboring cultures found in the borderlands of modern Oregon, California and Idaho. For example, unlike the Hupa and Yurok, the Klamath didn't hold formal talks between families for a bride price. Notable was the cultural norm that allowed wives to leave husbands, as they were "in no sense chattel... and cannot be disposed of as a possession."
The Klamath use Apocynum eat the roots of Lomatium canbyi. They use the rootstocks of Sagittaria cuneata as food. Dentalium shells were common among the Klamath prior to colonization. Compared to other native cultures dentalium didn't hold as much financial use among the Klamath. However, longer shells were held to be more valuable. Nonetheless these shells were esteemed for as jewelry and personal adornment. Septum piercings were given to younger members of Klamath families to allow inserting dentalium; some individuals wouldn't however use any shells in their septum. Spier gives the following account for their usage: The septum of the nose is pierced and the ear lobes, the latter twice or more frequently. Both sexes insert dentalium shells horizontally through the septum... Ear pendants are a group of four dentalia hung in a bunch by their tips; the use of dentalium i
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas