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Klamath people

The Klamath people are a Native American tribe of the Plateau culture area in Southern Oregon and Northern California. Today Klamath people are enrolled in the federally recognized tribes: Klamath Tribes, Oregon Quartz Valley Indian Community, California; the Klamath people lived in the area around the Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath and Sprague rivers. They subsisted on fish and gathered roots and seeds. While there was knowledge of their immediate neighbors the Klamath were unaware of the existence of the Pacific Ocean. Gatschet has described this position as leaving the Klamath living in a "protracted isolation" from outside cultures; the Klamath were known to raid neighboring tribes, such as the Achomawi on the Pit River, to take prisoners as slaves. They traded with the Wasco-Wishram at The Dalles. However, scholars such as Alfred L. Kroeber and Leslie Spier consider these slaving raids by the Klamath to begin only with the acquisition of the horse; these natives made southern Oregon their home for long enough to witness the eruption of Mount Mazama.

It was a legendary volcanic mountain, the creator of Crater Lake, now considered to be a beautiful natural formation. In 1826, Peter Skene Ogden, an explorer for the Hudson's Bay Company, first encountered the Klamath people, he was trading with them by 1829; the United States frontiersman Kit Carson admired their arrows, which were reported to be able to shoot through a house. The Klamaths and the Yahooskin Band of Northern Paiute, erroneously called Upper Sprague River Snakes believed to be a Band of Snake Indians, the collective name given to the Northern Paiute and Shoshone Native American tribes, signed a treaty with the United States in 1864, establishing the Klamath Reservation to the northeast of Upper Klamath Lake; this area was part of the traditional territory controlled by the ă′ukuckni Klamath band. The treaty required the tribes to cede the land in the Klamath Basin, bounded on the north by the 44th parallel, to the United States. In return, the United States was to make a lump sum payment of $35,000, annual payments totalling $80,000 over 15 years, as well as providing infrastructure and staff for the reservation.

The treaty provided that, if the Indians drank or stored intoxicating liquor on the reservation, the payments could be withheld. The tribes requested Lindsay Applegate as the agent to represent the United States to them; the Indian agent estimated the total population of the three tribes at about 2,000 when the treaty was signed. Since termination of recognition of their tribal sovereignty in 1954, the Klamath and neighboring tribes have reorganized their government and revived tribal identity; the Klamath, along with the Modoc and Yahooskin, have formed the federally recognized Klamath Tribes confederation. Their tribal government is based in Oregon; some Klamath live on the Quartz Valley Indian Community in California. Traditionally there were several cultural subdivisions among the Klamath, based on the location of their residency within the Klamath Basin. Despite this, the five recognized "tribelets" mutually considered each other the same ethnic group, about 1,200 people in total. Like many Indigenous cultures of the Pacific Northwest, the Klamath lived a semi-sedentary life.

Winter settlements were in permanent locations. Construction of the earth-lodges would begin in Autumn, with materials salvaged from abandoned, dilapidated buildings made in previous years. Leslie Spier has detailed some of the winter settlement patterns for Klamath as follows: The towns are not isolated, compact groups of houses, but stretch along the banks for half a mile or more. In fact, the settlements on Williamson river below the Sprague river junction form a continuous string of houses for five or six miles, the house pits being, in many spots, crowded close together. Informants insisted; when we consider that these earth-lodges may have housed several families, there is strong suggestion of a considerable population. Marriage was a unique practice for the Klamath, compared to neighboring cultures found in the borderlands of modern Oregon, California and Idaho. For example, unlike the Hupa and Yurok, the Klamath didn't hold formal talks between families for a bride price. Notable was the cultural norm that allowed wives to leave husbands, as they were "in no sense chattel... and cannot be disposed of as a possession."

The Klamath use Apocynum eat the roots of Lomatium canbyi. They use the rootstocks of Sagittaria cuneata as food. Dentalium shells were common among the Klamath prior to colonization. Compared to other native cultures dentalium didn't hold as much financial use among the Klamath. However, longer shells were held to be more valuable. Nonetheless these shells were esteemed for as jewelry and personal adornment. Septum piercings were given to younger members of Klamath families to allow inserting dentalium; some individuals wouldn't however use any shells in their septum. Spier gives the following account for their usage: The septum of the nose is pierced and the ear lobes, the latter twice or more frequently. Both sexes insert dentalium shells horizontally through the septum... Ear pendants are a group of four dentalia hung in a bunch by their tips; the use of dentalium i

Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra

The Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra is an orchestra located in Belgrade, Serbia. It is considered as one of the finest in the country. Unlike most European countries and cities and Belgrade were rather late in receiving a fine orchestra, thus the Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra was founded in 1923. Its founder, first director and chief conductor was Stevan Hristić, one of the most important Serbian composers and conductors; the inauguration concert of the Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra took place on April 28, 1923 under the baton of maestro Hristić. With a steady increase in popularity of fine music in Serbia the orchestra and its programme expanded over the years building up to an exceptional level of musical performance reaching its peak in the 1960s; the Belgrade Philharmonic was ranked 5th best European orchestra by international experts, at the time when it was led by Živojin Zdravković. The downfall of the orchestra occurred in 1990s. Due to the civil wars in Yugoslavia the Belgrade Philharmonic was banned from playing internationally for some time.

As a consequence many musicians left the orchestra. Without funding, the orchestra played. However, as the political situation in Serbia changed and the country welcomed back into the international community so was the orchestra. After 2000 the orchestra was revived, it first toured Slovenia, Austria and Sweden. The young musicians, educated outside of Serbia in specialist musician centers arrived in at Belgrade Philharmonic creating a new image of the Orchestra, with an average age of just 28. In 2001, the Orchestra general manager became Ivan Tasovac, who stayed on that position until he became the Minister of Culture decade later. In 2004, the performance hall in Belgrade was rebuilt and modernized to facilitate the new needs of the orchestra; the hall has a total of 201 seats. Most of the concerts, by tradition, take place in the Ilija M. Kolarac Endowment's Hall, while the "Central Hall" is used for special events; the Belgrade Philharmonic Foundation was set up in 2004 to improve the financial situation within the orchestra through sponsorship and cooperation.

The foundation was successful and the whole orchestra renewed their instruments in 2005. The Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra holds multiple concerts, its season starts in October and ends in June. Its New Year's concert is popular and is held in the large Sava Centar performance hall in Belgrade. For its New Year's concert, the orchestra is conducted by a special guest; the Belgrade Philharmonic Hall is modernly equipped. Therefore this is. Besides usual orchestra rehearsals, the Belgrade Philharmonic Hall lends itself to soloists and other orchestra performances, as well as to promotions, presentations and exhibitions; the hall has exceptional acoustics. The appealing interior of the Belgrade Philharmonic Hall attracts numerous renowned companies to promote their products, present their services, as well as to hold their jubilees. Among those there were the American Economic Chamber, companies like Roche, Pharma Swiss, Common Sense, "Atika Media" and many others; the Belgrade Philharmonic Hall has been the setting for many videos.

The Orchestra was led by eminent conductors: Lovro Matačić, Oskar Danon, Mihajlo Vukdragović, Krešimir Baranović, Živojin Zdravković, Angel Šurev, Anton Kolar, Horst Ferster, Jovan Šajnović, Vassily Sinaisky, Emil Tabakov, Uroš Lajovic, Dorian Wilson and from September 2010 to June 2015 Muhai Tang. A great number of renowned conductors and soloists have appeared with the Orchestra, including: Rafael Kubelík, Malcolm Sargent, sir Colin Davis, André Navarra, Karl Boehm, Leopold Stokowski, Kiril Kondrashin, Genady Rozhdestvensky, Lorin Maazel, Aaron Copland, Zubin Mehta, Yehudi Menuhin, David Oistrakh, Isaac Stern, Henrik Schering, Leonid Kogan, Mstislav Rostropovich, Julian Lloyd Webber, Arthur Rubinstein, Sviatoslav Richter, Emil Gilels, Bruno Brun, Milenko Stefanović, Ernest Ačkun, Ante Grgin, Božidar Milošević, Radmila Bakočević, Biserka Cvejić, Miroslav Čangalović, Dušan Trbojević, Rudolf Kempf, Gidon Kremer, Ivo Pogorelić, Tatjana Olujić, Gustav Kuhn, Ivan Fischer, Vladimir Krainev, Maksim Vengerov, Julian Rachlin, Valery Afanassiev, Dorian Wilson, Nigel Kennedy, Sarah Chang, Muhai Tang.

Maksimović, M.: Beogradska filharmonija 1951–1971, Beogradska filharmonija, Beograd, 1971 Mala enciklopedija Prosveta, I, Beograd, 1978 Muzička enciklopedija, I, Jugoslovenski leksikografski zavod, Zagreb, 1971 Pro Musica, No. 79–80, Udruženje muzičkih umetnika Srbije, Beograd, 1975 Official website 011INFO. COM on the Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra History of the Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra

Chloroplast membrane

Chloroplasts contain several important membranes, vital for their function. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have a double-membrane envelope, called the chloroplast envelope, but unlike mitochondria, chloroplasts have internal membrane structures called thylakoids. Furthermore, one or two additional membranes may enclose chloroplasts in organisms that underwent secondary endosymbiosis, such as the euglenids and chlorarachniophytes; the chloroplasts come via endosymbiosis by engulfment of a photosynthetic cyanobacterium by the eukaryotic mitochondriate cell. Over millions of years the endosymbiotic cyanobacterium evolved structurally and functionally, retaining its own DNA and the ability to divide by binary fission but giving up its autonomy by the transfer of some of its genes to the nuclear genome; each of the envelope membranes is a lipid bilayer, between 6 and 8 nm thick. The lipid composition of the outer membrane has been found to be 48% phospholipids, 46% galactolipids and 7% sulfolipids, while the inner membrane has been found to contain 16% phospholipids, 79% galactolipids and 5% sulfolipids in spinach chloroplasts.

The outer membrane is permeable to most ions and metabolites, but the inner membrane of the chloroplast is specialised with transport proteins. For example, carbohydrates are transported across the inner envelope membrane by a triose phosphate translocator; the two envelope membranes are separated by a gap of 10–20 nm, called the intermembrane space. Within the envelope membranes, in the region called the stroma, there is a system of interconnecting flattened membrane compartments, called the thylakoids; the thylakoid membrane is quite similar in lipid composition to the inner envelope membrane, containing 78% galactolipids, 15.5% phospholipids and 6.5% sulfolipids in spinach chloroplasts. The thylakoid membrane encloses a continuous aqueous compartment called the thylakoid lumen; these are the sites of light absorption and ATP synthesis, contain many proteins, including those involved in the electron transport chain. Photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophylls a,b,c and some others, e.g. xanthophylls, phycobilins are embedded within the granum membrane.

With exception of chlorophyll a, all the other associated pigments are "accessory" and transfer energy to the reaction centers, Photosytems I and II. The membranes of the thylakoid contain photosystems I and II which harvest solar energy to excite electrons which travel down the electron transport chain; this exergonic fall in potential energy along the way is used to draw H+ ions from the lumen of the thylakoid into the cytosol of a cyanobacterium or the stroma of a chloroplast. A steep H+ gradient is formed, which allows chemiosmosis to occur, where the thylakoid, transmenbrane ATP-synthase serves a dual function as a "gate" or channel for H+ ions and a catalytic site for the formation of ATP from ADP + a PO43− ion. Experiments have shown that the pH within the stroma is about 7.8, while that of the lumen of the thylakoid is 5. This corresponds to a six-hundredfold difference in concentration of H+ ions; the H+ ions pass down through the ATP-synthase catalytic gate. This chemiosmotic phenomenon occurs in mitochondria.

TIC/TOC complex

HMS Diana (1794)

HMS Diana was a 38-gun Artois-class fifth rate frigate of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1794; because Diana served in the Royal Navy's Egyptian campaign between 8 March 1801 and 2 September, her officers and crew qualified for the clasp "Egypt" to the Naval General Service Medal that the Admiralty authorized in 1850 to all surviving claimants. Diana participated in an attack on a French frigate squadron anchored at Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue at the Action of 15 November 1810, which led to the destruction of the Elisa. On 7 March 1815 Diana was sold to the Dutch navy for £36,796. On 27 August 1816 she was one of six Dutch frigates. Diana was destroyed in a fire on 16 January 1839 while in dry-dock at Den Helder. Notes Sources ReferencesColledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1794–1817: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1-86176-246-1.

HMS Diana at - ship model with a short description. HMS Diana at Jotika Ltd. - another model with additional info

Thomas Clarke (Australian politician)

Thomas Clarke JP was an Australian politician and businessman who served several terms as Mayor of Redfern. Clark was born to a Methodist family in 1846 in County Fermanagh and emigrated to the Colony of New South Wales in 1861, he commenced business as a commercial agent and produce merchant in Sydney and entered politics when he was elected as an Alderman on the first Broughton Vale Municipal Council on 19 June 1871. Clarke was first elected to serve on Redfern Municipal Council in February 1887 for Golden Grove Ward, he rose to become mayor on two occasions, from February 1890 to February 1891 and from October 1898 to February 1900. Clarke first stood for the NSW Parliament at the 1895 election as a Free Trade candidate for Darlington, but was unsuccessful, he was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for Darlington in 1898 as a Free Trader, sat after federation as a member of the Liberal Reform Party. However he was defeated at the following election in 1901. Clarke continued to serve on Redfern Council until his retirement in February 1906.

For thirty-five years, Clarke operated as a commission agent on Sussex Street, but retired owing to ill health a few years before his death. In 1902 The Catholic Press reported that Clarke had been elected a vice-president of the Orange Order in Sydney, noting: "Can any of our readers inform us whether this is the same Tom Clarke, potato-seller, of Sussex-street, whom many Catholics of Golden Grove helped to return to Parliament a few years ago? If so, what do his old Catholic supporters and fellow-aldermen think of the Christian gratitude of Alderman T. Clarke?."He died at his residence,'The Willows', in Hazelbrook on 28 December 1922 aged 74, with his obituary noting that he "was a popular figure in Redfern, in the affairs of which he always took a deep and active interest." Survived by his wife, Susanna Robinson, he was buried in the family plot at Lawson Cemetery alongside his son Sydney Charles Adam Clarke who had predeceased him by two months

Great Bear Recreation Park

Great Bear Recreation Park, more referred to as Great Bear, is a small ski hill in the northeastern section of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, in the United States. It is owned by the City of Sioux Falls, co-managed by Great Bear Recreation Park Inc. Great Bear Ski Area was established in 1963 by Jerry Dirks. Great Bear started out as an old gravel pit with two runs. One longer run to the left of the rope tow and one shorter run to the right. Dennis and Jerry built the first chalet at the ski area. In the early days Great Bear was open Thursday, Friday and Sunday expanding hours in the 1970s to everyday. By the early 1970s Great Bear had expanded to seven runs. Great Bear began expanding into a year-round recreation park in the summer of 1998; the renovation of the Chalet at Great Bear was completed December 2001 and offers a wonderful 270-degree panoramic view of the surrounding area. The 2002 completion of the Ralph and Doris Wallin Nature Trail System marked the completion of the Great Bear Expansion Project and opened the park to four-season use.

Great Bear Ski Valley, eastern South Dakota's largest ski resort, features over 220 acres of outdoor fun just minutes from downtown Sioux Falls. In the winter, the park features 14 downhill ski trails with a terrain park; the Kirby Family Tubing Park has 8 to 12 lanes with a magic carpet lift. Both the ski and tubing hills have snowmaking; the park has 4 miles of cross country and snow shoeing trails that provide. Great Bear offers complete equipment rentals; the park features a chalet offering a selection of food and beverage and ample seating. Great Bear does not offer onsite lodging. In the summer, The Ralph and Doris Wallin Nature trail system, nearly 4 miles of trails, provides 3 distinct trail loops through hills and valleys with scenic views. Mountain biking is not allowed on the trails; the lodge is rented out for private events during the spring and fall months including company retreats and weddings. Great Bear's web-site