Prambanan or Rara Jonggrang is a 9th-century Hindu temple compound in Special Region of Yogyakarta, dedicated to the Trimūrti, the expression of God as the Creator, the Preserver and the Transformer. The temple compound is located 17 kilometres northeast of the city of Yogyakarta on the boundary between Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces; the temple compound, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest Hindu temple site in Indonesia, one of the biggest in Southeast Asia. It is characterized by its tall and pointed architecture, typical of Hindu architecture, by the towering 47-metre-high central building inside a large complex of individual temples. Prambanan attracts many visitors from around the world; the Prambanan temple is the largest Hindu temple of ancient Java, the first building was completed in the mid-9th century. It was started by Rakai Pikatan as the Hindu Sanjaya Dynasty's answer to the Buddhist Sailendra Dynasty's Borobudur and Sewu temples nearby. Historians suggest that the construction of Prambanan was meant to mark the return of the Hindu Sanjaya Dynasty to power in Central Java after a century of Buddhist Sailendra Dynasty domination.
The construction of this massive Hindu temple signifies that the Medang court had shifted its patronage from Mahayana Buddhism to Shaivite Hinduism. A temple was first built at the site around 850 CE by Rakai Pikatan and expanded extensively by King Lokapala and Balitung Maha Sambu the Sanjaya king of the Mataram Kingdom. According to the Shivagrha inscription of 856 CE, the temple was built to honor Lord Shiva, its original name was Shiva-grha or Shiva-laya. According to the Shivagrha inscription, a public water project to change the course of a river near Shivagrha temple was undertaken during the construction of the temple; the river, identified as the Opak River, now runs north to south on the western side of the Prambanan temple compound. Historians suggest that the river was curved further to east and was deemed too near to the main temple; the project was done by cutting the river along a north to south axis along the outer wall of the Shivagrha Temple compound. The former river course was filled in and made level to create a wider space for the temple expansion, the space for rows of pervara temples.
Some archaeologists propose that the statue of Shiva in the garbhagriha of the main temple was modelled after King Balitung, serving as a depiction of his deified self after death. The temple compound was expanded by successive Mataram kings, such as Daksa and Tulodong, with the addition of hundreds of perwara temples around the chief temple. Prambanan served as the royal temple of the Kingdom of Mataram, with most of the state's religious ceremonies and sacrifices being conducted there. At the height of the kingdom, scholars estimate that hundreds of brahmins with their disciples lived within the outer wall of the temple compound; the urban center and the court of Mataram were located nearby, somewhere in the Prambanan Plain. In the 930s, the court was shifted to East Java by Mpu Sindok. An eruption of Mount Merapi volcano, located north of Prambanan in central Java, or a power struggle caused the shift; that marked the beginning of the decline of the temple. It began to deteriorate; the temples collapsed during a major earthquake in the 16th century.
Although the temple ceased to be an important center of worship, the ruins scattered around the area were still recognizable and known to the local Javanese people in times. The statues and the ruins became the inspiration for the Loro Jonggrang folktale. After the division of Mataram Sultanate in 1755, the temple ruins and the Opak River were used to demarcate the boundary between Yogyakarta and Surakarta Sultanates, adopted as the current border between Yogyakarta and the province of Central Java; the Javanese locals in the surrounding villages knew about the temple ruins before formal rediscovery, but they did not know about its historical background: which kingdoms ruled or which king commissioned the construction of the monuments. As a result, the locals developed tales and legends to explain the origin of temples, infused with myths of giants, a cursed princess, they gave Sewu a wondrous origin. It is the largest Hindu temple of ancient Java The temple attracted international attention early in the 19th century.
In 1811 during the short-lived British occupation of the Dutch East Indies, Colin Mackenzie, a surveyor in the service of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, came upon the temples by chance. Although Sir Thomas subsequently commissioned a full survey of the ruins, they remained neglected for decades. Dutch residents carried off sculptures as garden ornaments and native villagers used the foundation stones for construction material. Half-hearted excavations by archaeologists in the 1880s facilitated looting. In 1918, the Dutch began reconstruction of the compound and proper restoration only in 1930. Efforts at restoration continue to this day; the reconstruction of the main Shiva temple was inaugurated by Sukarno. Since much of the original stonework has been stolen and reused at remote construction sites, restoration was hampered considerably. Given the scale of the temple complex, the government decided to rebuild shrines only if at least 75% of their original masonry was available. Most of the smaller shrines are now visible only in their foundations, with no plans
Mount Merapi, Gunung Merapi, is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted since 1548, it is located 28 kilometres north of Yogyakarta city which has a population of 2.4 million, thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano, with villages as high as 1,700 metres above sea level. Smoke can be seen emerging from the mountaintop, several eruptions have caused fatalities. Pyroclastic flow from a large explosion killed 27 people on 22 November 1994 in the town of Muntilan, west of the volcano. Another large eruption occurred in 2006, shortly before the Yogyakarta earthquake. In light of the hazards that Merapi poses to populated areas, it has been designated as one of the Decade Volcanoes. On 25 October 2010 the Indonesian government raised the alert for Mount Merapi to its highest level and warned villagers in threatened areas to move to safer ground. People living within the range of a 20 km zone were told to evacuate.
Officials said about 500 volcanic earthquakes had been recorded on the mountain over the weekend of 23–24 October, that the magma had risen to about 1 kilometre below the surface due to the seismic activity. On the afternoon of 25 October 2010, Mount Merapi erupted lava from its southern and southeastern slopes; the mountain was still erupting on 30 November 2010, but due to lowered eruptive activity on 3 December 2010 the official alert status was reduced to level 3. The volcano is now 38 metres lower than before the 2010 eruptions. After a large eruption in 2010 the characteristic of Mount Merapi was changed. On 18 November 2013 Mount Merapi burst smoke up to 2,000 meters high, one of its first major phreatic eruptions after the 2010 eruption. Researchers said that this eruption occurred due to combined effect of hot volcanic gases and abundant rainfall; the last eruption was so far May 11, 2018 The name Merapi could be loosely translated as the Mountain of Fire. The etymology of the name came from Meru-Api.
Merapi is the youngest in a group of volcanoes in southern Java. It is situated at a subduction zone, where the Indo-Australian Plate is subducting under the Sunda Plate, it is one of at least 129 active volcanoes in Indonesia, part of the volcano is located in the Southeastern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire–a section of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and South East Asia. Stratigraphic analysis reveals that eruptions in the Merapi area began about 400,000 years ago, from until about 10,000 years ago, eruptions were effusive, the out flowing lava emitted was basaltic. Since eruptions have become more explosive, with viscous andesitic lavas generating lava domes. Dome collapse has generated pyroclastic flows, larger explosions, which have resulted in eruption columns, have generated pyroclastic flows through column collapse. Small eruptions occur every two to three years, larger ones every 10–15 years or so. Notable eruptions causing many deaths, have occurred in 1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, 1930.
Thirteen villages were destroyed in the latter one, 1400 people killed by pyroclastic flows. The large eruption in 1006 is claimed to have covered all of central Java with ash; the volcanic devastation is claimed to have led to the collapse of the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram. In April 2006, increased seismicity at more regular intervals and a detected bulge in the volcano's cone indicated that fresh eruptions were imminent. Authorities put the volcano's neighboring villages on high alert and local residents prepared for a evacuation. On 19 April smoke from the crater reached a height of 400 metres, compared to 75 metres the previous day. On 23 April, after nine surface tremors and some 156 multifaced quakes signalled movements of magma, some 600 elderly and infant residents of the slopes were evacuated. By early May, active lava flows had begun. On 11 May, with lava flow beginning to be constant, some 17,000 people were ordered to be evacuated from the area and on 13 May, Indonesian authorities raised the alert status to the highest level, ordering the immediate evacuation of all residents on the mountain.
Many villagers defied the dangers posed by the volcano and returned to their villages, fearing that their livestock and crops would be vulnerable to theft. Activity calmed by the middle of May. On 27 May, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck 50 km southwest of Merapi, killing at least 5,000 and leaving at least 200,000 people homeless in the Yogyakarta region, heightening fears that Merapi would "blow". The quake did not appear to be a long-period oscillation, a seismic disturbance class, associated with major volcanic eruptions. A further 11,000 villagers were evacuated on 6 June as lava and superheated clouds of gas poured down its upper slopes towards Kaliadem, a location, located southeast of Mt. Merapi; the pyroclastic flows are known locally as "wedhus gembel". There were two fatalities as the result of the eruption. In late October 2010 the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Geological Agency, reported that a pattern of increasing seismicity from Merapi had begun to emerge in early September.
Observers at Babadan 7 kilometres west and Kaliura
Pati Regency is a regency in the northeastern region of Central Java Province, on the island of Java in Indonesia. The regency covers an area of 150368 km2, on the coast of the Java Sea, it had a population of 1.420.292 at the 2017 Census. The administrative capital of Pati Regency is the town of Pati; the regency is divided into twenty-one districts: Pati has a natural tourist attractions, namely: Arga Enchantment, in Beketel Kayen Village Lake Terpus Beketel, in Beketel Kayen Village Grenjengan Sewu Waterfall, in Jrahi Village Rainfowl Waterfall, in Sukolilo Village Grenjengan Seno Waterfall, in Payak, Pati Wareh Cave, in Kedumulyo Kayen Village Pancur Cave, in Jimbaran Kayen Village Lotus Swamp in Pengging Wangi, Kasiyan Klating Waterfall, in the village of Mojoagung / dukuh Klating Bukit Pandang Ki Santa Mulya, in Durensawit Kayen Village Seloromo Reservoir, in Gembong Village Plorodan Semar Waterfall, in Sumbersari, Kayen Pati has historical sights, namely: Mosque Agung Pati, in the village of Puri Majapahit Gate, in Muktiharjo / Rendole Village Petilasan Syech Jangkung, in the village of kayen Genuk Kemiri, in Hamlet Kemiri, Kalidoro Village Pati has tourist attractions for families, namely: Family tour: Juwana Water Fantasy, in Bumimulyo Village Juwana Byar-Byur Water Park, in Winong Village Sendang Tirta Marta Sani, in Tamansari Village TPA Pati Zoo, in Banyuurip Village Pati has pilgrimage places, namely: Tomb of Nyai Ageng Ngerang, in Tambakromo Village Tomb of Sheikh Jangkung, Landoh Village Tomb of Mbah Tabek Merto, in Prawoto Village Tomb of Sheikh Ahmad Mutamakkin, in Kajen Village Tomb of KH.
Abdullah Salam, in Kajen Village Tomb of KH. Sahal Mahfudz, in Kajen Village Tomb of KH. Suyuthi Abdul Qadir, in Guyangan Village, Trangkil Tomb of Sunan Ngerang, in Hamlet Ngerang, Trimulyo Village the tomb of Sunan Makhdum The leader of Walisongo I, in Parenggan Village, Pati Kota Tomb of Syeh Ronggo Kusumo, in Ngemplak Kidul Village, Margoyoso Tomb of Sunan Prawoto, in Prawoto Village Tomb of Bandung Bondowoso Ratu Pengging, Tomb of King Prabu Dhling, in Hamlet Mlawat Baleadi Tomb of Mahapatih Batik Madrim, in Kedung Winong Village Pati has a special tourist attractions shopping, namely: Ada Swalayan Luwes Mall Galaxy Swalayan Plasa pati Salsa Pati Borobudur Plaza pati Plaza Puri Surya baru Swalayan Pati Trade center Pasar Pargola Mall and Resto, di Margorejo Plaza juwana Laris Toserba Pati Town Square Lippo Plaza Juwana Juwana Mega Plaza Kajar Trade Center Pasar Seleko Pati Pengging Wangi Trade Center Pengging Wangi Square In addition to the famous Bandeng Prestonya, Pati is one of the two largest mangosteen producing districts in Central Java besides Cilacap.
Sentra Fruit Guava monkey, in the village of Margorejo Coconut Center Kopyor Genjah in Central Java Sentra of Manggis Fruit, in Jepalo and Gunungsari Villages Brass Craft, in Juwana Village Business of Cow Milk, in Sukoharjo Village Salt Industry, in District Batangan Trangkil Sugar Factory, in Trangkil Village New Pakis Sugar Factory, in Desa Pakis industry criping cassava various flavors Centra Pengodol Kapok Randu, in Karaban Village, Gabus District. The center of rice and green beans, in Jambean Kidul Village, Margorejo Pati. Coffee Plantation, in Jrahi Village and Sitiluhur Tapioca Flour Industry, in Ngemplak Village, Margoyoso Industrial Batik Bakaran Fabrics, in Bakaran Village, Juwana Brick Industry, in Trangkil Village Shrimp Terasi Rebon Industry, in Juwana Village and Tayu Regency of starch is not only famous as mina tani earth city, on the other hand Pati has many achievements that have been achieved because of performance and effort from government Pati own community which have work ethic and ability that known by people around.
Achievements achieved by Pati include: Langse village, Margorejo sub-district, was chosen to represent Pati Regency to become Energy Self-Reliance Village of Central Java Province. Reactor "Submarine" thus the name of the installation of waste processing equipment rabbit and others - the bio-gas and fertilizer plants produced by local residents. Starch Entrance 13 districts in Indonesia. Pati District three times consecutively get Unqualified Opinion from the Audit Agency Representative of Central Java Province. Student of Melati Alfatannafiah from Muhammadiyah Elementary School Representing Indonesia to International Mathematics Competition appointed by Director General of Primary and Secondary Education of Kemendikbud RI to represent Indonesia in Bulgarian International Mathematics Competition competition in Burgas, Bulgaria. SMA / SMK in Pati Regency is as follows: MA Abadiyah, in Gabus District MA Al-Hikmah,in Margoyoso District MA Al-Ikhlas, in Tlogowungu District MA As-Salamah, in Pati District MA Bustanul Ulum, in Wedarijaksa District MA Darul Falah, in Cluwak District MA Darul Ulum, in Jaken District MA Darul Ulum,in Tlogowungu District MA I'anatut Tholibin,in Margoyoso District MA Ihya'ul Ulum,in Wedarijaksa District MA Khoiriyah,in Margoyoso District MA Khoiriyah,in Gembong District MA Khoiriyatul Ulum,in Trangkil District Ma Madarijul Huda,in Dukuhseti District MA Manabi'ul Falah,in Margoyoso District MA Manahijul Hyda, in Dukuhseti MA Manba'ul Ulum,in Pati District MA Matholi’ul Falah,in Margoyoso District Matholi’ul Falah,in Juwana District Matholi’ul Huda,in Pucakwangi District Matholi’ul Huda,in Trangkil District MA Miftahul Falah, in Talun Kayen MA Miftahul Huda,in Tayu District MA Miftahul Ulum, in Tambakrom
Blora is a regency in the northeastern part of Central Java province in Indonesia. Its capital is Blora; this regency is located at the easternmost of Central Java province, is bordered by Bengawan Solo River with East Java province. A mystical religious sect, rose from Blora, gained prominence in the early 20th century. Headed by a Javanese peasant, Surontiko Samin, it followed the teachings of the Islamic prophet Adam, but owed little to the religion. Stressing the village structure and sexuality, it became an early protest movement, was opposed to the local rulers as much as it was against the Dutch East Indies colonial administration, refusing to pay the new Dutch head tax; the movements survived until the 1960s. Blora regency consists of both low hill area between 20 -- 280 meters high above sea level. In the north part of regency is dominated by hilly area that forms the series of Northern Limestone Mountain as well as in the south area that stretches from east of Semarang to Lamongan; the capital of Blora regency is located right on the slope of Northern Limestone Mountain.
Half of Blora regency area are forests on the north and south region while the central low land is used for agricultural purposes. During the dry season, most of the area of Blora regency is short of water supply, either for drinking or irrigation; this regency consists of 17 districts as follows: Banjarejo District Blora City District, containing the administrative capital Bogorejo District Cepu City District Japah, Blora District Jati, Blora District Jepon District Jiken District Kedungtuban District Kradenan District Kunduran District Ngawen District Randublatung District Sambong District Todanan District Tunjungan District Blora is situated on the Inter-Province road that connecting Semarang as the capital of Central Java Province to Surabaya as the capital of East Java Province via Purwodadi. It's the 2nd class road, because most of peoples preferred to choose Semarang-Surabaya via Rembang. Blora situated on a southern railway connection that linked to most big cities in Java. However, Blora main train station is located in Cepu sub-district therefore peoples referred Cepu train station.
Except two above, Blora just like any other regencies in Java has a local public transportation such as: bemo, etc. Ngloram Domestic Airport at Ngloram, Cepu District with 900 meter long runway located at 7°11′41″S 111°32′51″E which built in 1978, but closed in 1984. In 2013, expansion land acquisition is still in the progress inline with reactivated airport plan. Terawang Cave at Todanan district. Kantor Pelaynan Pajaka Pratama Cepu Forest Railway or Cepu Loko Tour with some Berliner Maschinenbau steam locomotives from Berlin, Central Europe at Ngelo, Cepu district. Tempuran reservoir in Blora City Greneng reservoir in Tunjungan Blora City Park in Blora City Sarbini Park or Water splash in Blora City tirtonadi park in Blora City sculpture satay Park in Gagaan Village Kunduran District thousand light park in Cepu City Samin Village in Klopodhuwur Village Kunduran District Bentolo reservoir in todanan Randhakuning reservoir in Muraharjo Village Kunduran District spring vegetables in Soko Village Pencu Hill in Bogorejo District Manggir Mountain in Ngumbul Village The famous Indonesian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer was born in Blora, in 1925.
Leonardus Benjamin Moerdani as born in Blora, in 1932
Banyumas Regency is a regency in the southwestern part of Central Java province in Indonesia. Its capital is the town of Purwokerto, it covers an area of 1,335.30 km2, had a population of 1,554,527 at the 2010 Census. The term Banyumasan is used as an adjective referring to the culture and peoples of the wider Banyumas area, equivalent to the pre-independence Banyumas Residency; the language of Banyumasan is of Austronesian origin, is considered to be a dialect of Javanese. Banyumas Regency comprises twenty-seven districts, tabulated below with their populations at the 2010 Census: Curug Cipendok is a waterfall 93 meters high, about 15 kilometers west of Purwokerto, 500 meters from the road through a walking trail, it is still natural and is accessible on a good road, although there is no public transportation yet. The area surrounding the location belongs to a Forest State Company. North of the capital of Purwokerto, Baturraden Resort features views from the slopes of Mount Slamet, and 8 km to Baturaden, there a Curug Cehenk, this is a waterfall 73 meters, there is an object to holiday.
Among the religious tourism sites in Banyumas is Saka Tunggal Mosque, established in 1871. Official site of Banyumas District Government
A regency is a second level administrative division of Indonesia, directly administrated under a province. The Indonesian term kabupaten is sometimes translated as "municipality". Regencies and cities are divided into districts; the English name "regency" comes from the Dutch colonial period, when regencies were ruled by bupati and were known as regentschap in Dutch. Bupati had been regional lords under the pre-colonial monarchies of Java; when the Dutch abolished or curtailed those monarchies, the bupati were left as the most senior indigenous authority. They were not speaking "native rulers" because the Dutch claimed full sovereignty over their territory, but in practice they had many of the attributes of petty kings; the Indonesian title of bupati is a loanword from Sanskrit originating in India, a shortening of the Sanskrit title bhumi-pati. In Indonesia, bupati was used as a Javanese title for regional rulers in precolonial kingdoms, its first recorded usage being in a Telaga Batu inscription during the Sriwijaya period in which bhupati is mentioned among the titles of local rulers who paid allegiance to Sriwijaya's kings.
Related titles which were used in precolonial Indonesia are adipati and senapati. Regencies in Java territorial units were grouped together into Residencies headed by European Residents; this term hinted that the Residents had a quasi-diplomatic status in relation to the bupati, but in practice the bupati had to follow Dutch instructions on any matter of concern to the colonial authorities. The relationship between those sides was ambivalent: while legal and military power rested with the Dutch government (or, for a long time, with the Dutch East India Company under a Governor General in Batavia on Java, the regents held higher protocollary rank than the assistant-resident who advised them and held day-to-day sway over the population. After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, the terms bupati and kabupaten were applied throughout the archipelago to the administrative unit below the residency. Since the start of the Reform Era in 1998 a remarkable secession of district governments has arisen in Indonesia.
This process has become known as pemekaran. Following the surge of support for decentralisation across Indonesia which occurred following the end of the Soeharto era in 1998, key new decentralisation laws were passed in 1999. Subsequently, there was a jump in the number of regencies from around 300 at the end of 1998 to over 490 in 2008 ten years later; this secession of new regencies, welcome at first, has become controversial within Indonesia because the administrative fragmentation has proved costly and has not brought the hoped-for benefits. Senior levels of the administration have expressed a general feeling that the process of pemekaran now needs to be slowed down but local politicians at various levels across government in Indonesia continue to express strong populist support for the continued creation of new regencies. Since 1998, a large portion of governance have been delegated from central government in Jakarta to local regencies, with regencies now playing important role in providing services to Indonesian people.
Direct elections for regents and mayors began in 2005, with the leaders being elected by local legislative councils
2010 eruptions of Mount Merapi
In late October 2010, Mount Merapi in Central Java, Indonesia began an violent series of eruptions that continued into November. Seismic activity around the volcano increased from mid-September onwards, culminating in repeated outbursts of lava and ashes. Large eruption columns formed, causing numerous pyroclastic flows down the populated slopes of the volcano. Merapi's eruption was said by authorities to be the largest since the 1870s. Over 350,000 people were evacuated from the affected area. However, many returned to their homes while the eruptions were continuing. 353 people were killed during the eruptions, many as a result of pyroclastic flows. The ash plumes from the volcano caused major disruption to aviation across Java; the mountain continued to erupt until 30 November 2010. On 3 December 2010 the official alert status was reduced to level 3, from level 4, as the eruptive activity had subsided. In late October 2010 the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Geological Agency, reported that a pattern of increasing seismicity from Merapi had begun to emerge in early September.
Observers at Babadan 7 kilometres west and Kaliurang 8 km south of the mountain reported hearing an avalanche on 12 September 2010. On 14 September 2010 white plumes were observed rising 800 metres above the crater. Lava dome inflation, detected since March, increased from background levels of 0.1 to 0.3 millimetres per day to a rate of 11 mm per day on 16 September. On 19 September 2010 earthquakes continued to be numerous, the next day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2. Lava from Mount Merapi began flowing down the Gendol River on 23–24 October signalling the likelihood of an imminent eruption. On 25 October 2010 the Indonesian government raised the alert for Mount Merapi to its highest level and warned villagers in threatened areas to move to safer ground. People living within a 10 km zone were told to evacuate; the evacuation orders affected at least 19,000 people however the number that complied at the time remained unclear to authorities. Officials said about 500 volcanic earthquakes had been recorded on the mountain over the weekend of 23–24 October, that the magma had risen to about a 1 km below the surface due to the seismic activity.
Merapi erupted three times on Monday afternoon spewing lava down its southern and south-eastern slopes. Three major eruptions were recorded at 14:24 and 15:15 local time. On this day, 222 volcanic seismic events and 454 avalanche seismic events were recorded by Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation monitoring staff at Merapi; the eruptions on Tuesday started at 17:02. By 18:54 pyroclastic activity had begun to subside following 12 eruption-associated events being recorded by CVGHM monitors. 232 volcanic seismic events, 269 avalanche seismic events, 4 lava flow seismic events and 6 pyroclastic flows were recorded in the 24 hours of 26 October. The eruptive events were classified as explosive events with volcanic bursts of ejected material, visible flame and pyroclastic hot air flows. A column of smoke rose from the top to a vertical distance of 1.5 km from the summit of Mount Merapi. The first fatalities occurred on this day. On Friday eruptive activity included lava ejection with hot ash clouds reported to be flowing 3 km down the slopes of the mountain and lasting four to nine minutes.
Ash falls reached as far as the Central Java town of Magelang. Scientists monitoring the volcano including Surono, chief of the Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation Center, expressed optimism that the volcanic activity should decrease following the release of lava. Safari Dwiyono, a scientist monitoring Mt. Merapi for 15 years, said the volcanic activity appeared to be easing pressure behind a lava dome that had formed in the crater; the International Red Cross reported that on 29 October, from 07:23 to 21:40, pyroclastic flow from Merapi struck Lamat River, Senowo River, Krasak River. By early on the morning of Saturday 30 October the volcano was erupting again. Sri Sumarti, head of the Merapi section at the Volcano Investigation and Technology Development Institution, reported the eruptions were louder and stronger than those of 26 October. Ash from the eruptions on 30 October fell more than 30 km away and now included ash falls upon the city of Yogyakarta. Soldiers and police posted nearest the volcano were seen fleeing along with hundreds of residents who clogged roads with cars and motorcycles.
Black soot fell across a vast area. The morning eruptions lasted for 22 minutes while pyroclastic flows flowed into the Krasak and Boyong Rivers and rose 3.5 km into the air, drifting westward toward Magelang. Yogyakarta's Adisucipto Airport was closed temporarily between 05:00 to 07:00; that day, head of the BPPTK suggested there would be further eruptions as magma continued to push its way up into the volcano's lava dome. A pyroclastic river flowed from Merapi again on 30 October 2010 at 00:35. A pyroclastic flow headed toward Gendol River, Kuning River, Krasak River, Boyong River; this was followed by an explosion from Merapi resulting in a two-kilometre vertical high fire ball rising from the top of the mountain. This eruption caused raining sand to fall on areas to a radius of up to 10 km from the volcano. Amongst activities from government and NGO's the Indonesian Red Cross and Red Crescent had by this time fielded up to 398 volunteers from branches in the provinces of Central Java, Yogyakarta.
These volunteers assisted in disseminating information to communities to warn of Merapi's level IV