Annemarie Minna Renée Schwarzenbach was a Swiss writer, journalist and traveler. Annemarie Schwarzenbach was born in the city of Switzerland; when she was four, the family moved to the Bocken Estate in Horgen, near Lake Zurich, where she grew up. Her father, was a wealthy businessman in the silk industry, her mother, Renée Schwarzenbach-Wille, the daughter of the Swiss general Ulrich Wille and descended from German aristocracy, was a prominent hostess and amateur photographer. Her father tolerated her mother's bisexuality. From an early age, she began to dress and act like a boy, a behaviour not discouraged by her parents and that she retained all her life. In fact, in life, she was mistaken for a young man. At her private school in Zurich she studied German and music, neglecting the other subjects, she liked dancing and was a keen piano player. She studied in Zürich and Paris and earned her doctorate in history at the University of Zurich at the age of 23, she started writing while still a student.
Shortly after completing her studies, she published her first novella Freunde um Bernhard, well received. In 1930, she made contact with Klaus Mann, she was fascinated by Erika's self-confidence. A relationship developed, which much to Annemarie's disappointment did not last long, although they always remained friends. Still smarting from Erika's rejection, she spent the following years in Berlin. There she became a frequent visitor to the family Mann's house. With Klaus, she started using drugs, she led a fast life in the bustling, artistic city, Berlin towards the close of the Weimar Republic. She drove fast cars and threw herself into the Berlin night-life. "She lived dangerously. She drank too much, she never went to sleep before dawn", recalled her friend Ruth Landshoff. Her androgynous beauty attracted both men and women. In 1932, Annemarie planned a car trip to Persia with Klaus and Erika Mann and a childhood friend of the Manns, the artist Ricki Hallgarten; the evening before the trip was due to start, on 5 May, suffering from depression, shot himself in his house in Utting on the Ammersee.
For Annemarie, this was the first time. Annemarie's lifestyle ended with the Nazi takeover in 1933. Tensions with her family increased, as some members sympathised with the far-right Swiss Fronts, which favoured closer ties with Nazi Germany, her parents urged Annemarie to renounce her friendship with the Manns and help with the reconstruction of Germany under Hitler. This she could not do, since she was a committed anti-fascist and her circle included Jews and political refugees from Germany. Instead on, she helped Klaus Mann finance an anti-Fascist literary review, Die Sammlung, which helped writers in exile from Germany by publishing their articles and short stories; the pressure she felt led her to attempt suicide, which caused a scandal among her family and their conservative circle in Switzerland. She took several trips abroad with Klaus Mann, to Italy and Scandinavia, in 1932 and 1933. In 1933, she travelled with the photographer Marianne Breslauer to Spain to carry out a report on the Pyrenees.
Marianne was fascinated by Annemarie: "She was neither a man nor a woman," she wrote, "but an angel, an archangel" and made an iconic portrait photograph of her. That year, Annemarie travelled to Persia. After her return to Switzerland, she accompanied Klaus Mann to the Soviet Writers Union Congress in Moscow; this was Klaus's most successful period as a writer. On her next trip abroad, she wrote to him suggesting their marrying, although she was a homosexual and he a bisexual. Nothing came of this proposal. In 1935, she returned to Persia, where she married the French diplomat Achille-Claude Clarac a homosexual, they had known each other for only a few weeks, it was a marriage of convenience for both of them, since she obtained a French diplomatic passport, which enabled her to travel without restrictions. They lived together for a while in Teheran, but when they fled to an isolated area in the countryside to escape the summer heat, their lonely existence had an adverse effect on Annemarie, she turned to morphine, which she had been using for years for various ailments but to which she now became addicted.
She returned to Switzerland for a holiday. She had been interested in the career of Lorenz Saladin, a Swiss mountain-climber and photographer from a modest background who had scaled some of the most difficult peaks in the world, he had just lost his life on the Russian-Chinese border. From his contributions to magazines, she recognized the quality of his photographs, she was fascinated by his fearless attitude about life and his confidence in the face of difficulties, which contrasted with her own problems with depression. When in Moscow, she acquired Saladin's films and diary and took them to Switzerland, with the intention of writing a book on him. However, once home, she could not face returning to the isolation, she rented a house in Sils in Oberengadin, which became a refuge for her friends. Here she wrote what was to become her most successful book, Lorenz Saladin: Ein Leben für die Berge, with a preface by Sven Hedin, she wrote Tod in Persien, not published until 1998, although a reworked version appeared as Das Glückliche Tal in
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
Opium is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy. 12 percent of the opium latex is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for illegal drug trade. The latex contains the related opiates codeine and thebaine, non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine; the traditional, labor-intensive method of obtaining the latex is to scratch the immature seed pods by hand. The word "meconium" referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the opium poppy or different species of poppies; the production methods have not changed since ancient times. Through selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, to a lesser extent thebaine has been increased. In modern times, much of the thebaine, which serves as the raw material for the synthesis for oxycodone, hydrocodone and other semisynthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or Papaver bracteatum.
For the illegal drug trade, the morphine is extracted from the opium latex, reducing the bulk weight by 88%. It is converted to heroin, two to four times as potent, increases the value by a similar factor; the reduced weight and bulk make it easier to smuggle. The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human use. Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, medical poultices, as a combination with hemlock for suicide; the Sumerian, Egyptian, Minoan, Roman and Arab Empires all made widespread use of opium, the most potent form of pain relief available, allowing ancient surgeons to perform prolonged surgical procedures. Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides and Avicenna. Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a controlled dosage.
Opium has been collected since prehistoric times, since 3400 BCE. A common name for males in Afghanistan is "Redey", which in Pashto means "poppy"; this term may be derived from the Sanskrit words rddhi and hrdya, which mean "magical", "a type of medicinal plant", "heart-pleasing", respectively. The upper Asian belt of Afghanistan, northern India, Burma still account for the world's largest supply of opium. At least 17 finds of Papaver somniferum from Neolithic settlements have been reported throughout Switzerland and Spain, including the placement of large numbers of poppy seed capsules at a burial site, which have been carbon-14 dated to 4200 BCE. Numerous finds of P. somniferum or P. setigerum from Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have been reported. The first known cultivation of opium poppies was in Mesopotamia 3400 BCE, by Sumerians, who called the plant hul gil, the "joy plant". Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of poppy juice in the morning and its use in production of opium.
Cultivation continued in the Middle East by the Assyrians, who collected poppy juice in the morning after scoring the pods with an iron scoop. Opium production continued under the Egyptians. Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people and painlessly to death, but it was used in medicine. Spongia somnifera, sponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery; the Egyptians cultivated opium thebaicum in famous poppy fields around 1300 BCE. Opium was traded from Egypt by the Phoenicians and Minoans to destinations around the Mediterranean Sea, including Greece and Europe. By 1100 BCE, opium was cultivated on Cyprus, where surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, opium was cultivated and smoked. Opium was mentioned after the Persian conquest of Assyria and Babylonian lands in the 6th century BCE. From the earliest finds, opium has appeared to have ritual significance, anthropologists have speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power. In Egypt, the use of opium was restricted to priests and warriors, its invention is credited to Thoth, it was said to have been given by Isis to Ra as treatment for a headache.
A figure of the Minoan "goddess of the narcotics", wearing a crown of three opium poppies, c. 1300 BCE, was recovered from the Sanctuary of Gazi, together with a simple smoking apparatus. The Greek gods Hypnos and Thanatos were depicted wreathed in poppies or holding them. Poppies frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Pluto, Aphrodite and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion; as the power of the Roman Empire declined, the lands to the south and east of the Mediterranean Sea became incorporated into the Islamic Empires. Some Muslims believe hadiths, such as in Sahih Bukhari, prohibits every intoxicating substance, though the use of intoxicants in medicine has been wi
Cimetière du Grand Jas
The Cimetière du Grand Jas is located at 205 avenue de Grasse in Cannes on the French Riviera. The nine hectare terraced cemetery began operations in 1866 and is known for its landscaped architecture with rich floral decorations and statuary, its "English square", or Cimetière Anglais, is the final resting place for a number of English people who made Cannes their home. It is dominated by the statue of Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux who played a major role in building the city; the cemetery contains one Commonwealth war grave, of a World War I officer of the King's Royal Rifle Corps. Augustus Anson, Victoria Cross recipient and former British member of parliament Henry Peter Brougham, British lawyer, builder of Cannes Eugène Brieux, dramatist Jorge Cuevas Bartholín, American ballet school founder, husband of Margaret Rockefeller Strong de Larraín, Marquesa de Cuevas John Francis Campbell, Scottish author and scholar Martine Carol, actress Jean Gabriel Domergue, poster artist Henry Eeles Dresser and author Ernest Duchesne, medical scientist Peter Carl Fabergé, Russian jewellery designer Georges Guétary, actor Olga Khoklova, Russian ballerina Apo Lazarides, champion cyclist Klaus Mann, German writer.
Son of writer Thomas Mann. Prosper Mérimée, writer Jacques Monod, Nobel Prize winner Marquis de Morès, adventurer Arthur Frederick Pickard, Victoria Cross recipient. Lily Pons, opera singer Emmanuel Signoret, poet John Fitzwilliam Stairs, Canadian entrepreneur and statesman Marcel Thil, world boxing champion Paul von Thurn und Taxis, aka Paul de Fels and former Aide-de-Camp of Ludwig II of Bavaria Laurent Vianay, architect William Bonaparte Wyse, Irish poet, entomologist
Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township. As of the 2010 United States Census, the municipality's population was 28,572, reflecting the former township's population of 16,265, along with the 12,307 in the former borough. Princeton was founded before the American Revolution, it is the home of Princeton University, which bears its name and moved to the community in 1756 from its previous location in Newark. Although its association with the university is what makes Princeton a college town, other important institutions in the area include the Institute for Advanced Study, Westminster Choir College, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton Theological Seminary, Opinion Research Corporation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Siemens Corporate Research, SRI International, FMC Corporation, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Amrep and Dwight, Berlitz International, Dow Jones & Company.
Princeton is equidistant from New York City and Philadelphia. It is close to many major highways that serve both cities, receives major television and radio broadcasts from each, it is close to Trenton, New Jersey's capital city, Edison. The New Jersey governor's official residence has been in Princeton since 1945, when Morven in what was Princeton Borough became the first Governor's mansion, it was replaced by the larger Drumthwacket, a colonial mansion located in the former Township. Morven became a museum property of the New Jersey Historical Society. Princeton was ranked 15th of the top 100 towns in the United States to Live and Work In by Money Magazine in 2005. Throughout much of its history, the community was composed of two separate municipalities: a township and a borough; the central borough was surrounded by the township. The borough seceded from the township in 1894 in a dispute over school taxes. Princeton Borough contained Nassau Street, the main commercial street, most of the University campus, incorporated most of the urban area until the postwar suburbanization.
The borough and township had equal populations. The Lenni Lenape Native Americans were the earliest identifiable inhabitants of the Princeton area. Europeans founded their settlement in the late part of the 17th century; the first European to find his home in the boundaries of the future town was Henry Greenland. He built his house in 1683 along with a tavern. In this drinking hole representatives of West Jersey and East Jersey met to set boundaries for the location of the township. Princeton was known only as part of nearby Stony Brook. Nathaniel Fitz Randolph, a native of the town, attested in his private journal on December 28, 1758, that Princeton was named in 1724 upon the making/construction of the first house in the area by James Leonard, who first referred to the town as Princetown when describing the location of his large estate in his diary; the town bore a variety of names subsequently, including: Princetown, Prince's Town and Princeton. Although there is no official documentary backing, the town is considered to be named after King William III, Prince William of Orange of the House of Nassau.
Another theory suggests that the name came from a large land-owner named Henry Prince, but no evidence backs this contention. A royal prince seems a more eponym for the settlement, as three nearby towns had similar names: Kingston and Princessville; when Richard Stockton, one of the founders of the township, died in 1709 he left his estate to his sons, who helped to expand property and the population. Based on the 1880 United States Census, the population of the town comprised 3,209 persons. Local population has expanded from the nineteenth century. According to the 2010 Census, Princeton Borough had 12,307 inhabitants, while Princeton Township had 16,265; the numbers have become stagnant. Aside from housing the university of the same name, the settlement suffered the revolutionary Battle of Princeton in 1777, when George Washington forced the British to evacuate southern New Jersey. After the victory, the town hosted the first Legislature under the State Constitution to decide the State's seal and organization of its government.
In addition, two of the original signers of the Declaration of Independence—Richard Stockton and John Witherspoon lived in Princeton. Princetonians honored their citizens' legacy by naming two streets in the downtown area after them. On January 10, 1938 Henry Ewing Hale called for a group of citizens to discuss opening a "Historical Society of Princeton." The Bainbridge House would be dedicated for this purpose. The house was used once for a meeting of Continental Congress in 1783, a general office, as the Princeton Public Library; the House is owned by Princeton University and is leased to the Princeton Historical Society for one dollar per year. The house has kept its original staircase and paneled walls. Around 70% of the house has been unaltered. Aside from safety features such as wheelchair access and electrical work, the house was has been restored to its original look. During the most stirring events in its history, Princeton was a wide spot in the ro
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Benjamin Franklin Wedekind known as Frank Wedekind, was a German playwright. His work, which criticizes bourgeois attitudes, is considered to anticipate expressionism and was influential in the development of epic theatre. Before 2006, Wedekind was best known for the "Lulu" cycle, a two-play series --Erdgeist and Die Büchse der Pandora -- centered on a young dancer/adventuress of mysterious origin. In 2006, his earlier play Frühlings Erwachen became well-known because of a Broadway musical adaptation. Benjamin Franklin Wedekind was born on July 1864 in Hannover, Germany, his mother became pregnant with him in San Francisco. His father, a German, had a Swiss castle; until World War I, when he was forced to obtain a German passport, he was an American citizen and traveled throughout Europe. He lived most of his adult life in Munich, though he had a brief period working in advertising, for the Maggi soup firm, in Switzerland in 1886. Having worked in business and the circus, Wedekind went on to become an singer.
In this capacity he received wide acclaim as the principal star of the satirical cabaret Die elf Scharfrichter, launched in 1901. Wedekind became an important influence on the tradition of German satirical writing for the theatre, paving the way for the cabaret-song satirists Kurt Tucholsky, Walter Mehring, Joachim Ringelnatz and Erich Kästner among others, who after Wedekind's death would invigorate the culture of the Weimar Republic. At the age of 34, after serving a nine-month prison sentence for "lèse-majesté", Wedekind became a dramaturg at the Munich Schauspielhaus, his sex life was promiscuous and he frequented prostitutes, contracting syphilis. He enjoyed the pleasure of platonic female company and kept his tendencies toward homosexuality and sadism in check, he had an affair with Frida Uhl. In 1906, he married the Austrian actress Tilly Newes, 22 years his junior and became monogamous, his relationship with his wife was turbulent, with Wedekind prone to jealousy and he felt pressure to maintain strenuous creative and sexual activity in order to please her.
They had two daughters and Kadidja, but his jealousy led his wife to attempt both separation and suicide. Near the end of his life, Wedekind underwent an appendectomy and began acting again, leading to a hernia, his doctor refused to operate but Wedekind insisted and complications from the surgery led to his death at the age of 53 on March 9, 1918. Tilly Wedekind went on to appear in such films as Travelling People and was romantically linked to the author Gottfried Benn. In 1969, at age 83, she published an autobiography in German, Lulu: Die Rolle meines Lebens. Wedekind's first major play, Frühlings Erwachen, which concerns sexuality and puberty among some young German students, caused a scandal as it contained scenes of homoeroticism, implied group male masturbation, actual male masturbation, sado-masochism between a teenage boy and girl and suicide, as well as references to abortion; the "Lulu" plays Erdgeist and Die Büchse der Pandora were his best known works until the 2006 adaptation of Spring Awakening.
Conceived as a single play, the two pieces tell a continuous story of a sexually-enticing young dancer, who rises in German society through her relationships with wealthy men but who falls into poverty and prostitution. The frank depiction of sexuality and violence in these plays, including lesbianism and an encounter with Jack the Ripper, pushed the boundaries of what was considered acceptable on the stage at the time. Karl Kraus helped Wedekind stage it in Vienna. Der Kammersänger is a one-act character study of a famous opera singer who receives a series of unwelcome guests at his hotel suite. In Franziska, the title character, a young girl, initiates a Faustian pact with the Devil, selling her soul for the knowledge of what it is like to live life as a man. A number of Wedekind's works have been translated into English by Samuel Atkins Eliot, Jr. Frühlings Erwachen Erdgeist Die Kammersänger Der Marquis von Keith Mine-Haha, or On the Bodily Education of Young Girls König Nicolo oder So ist das Leben Die Büchse der Pandora Hidalla oder Sein und Haben Musik Totentanz Schloss Wetterstein Franziska Bismarck Herakles The "Lulu" plays formed the basis for G. W. Pabst's acclaimed silent film Pandora's Box, starring Louise Brooks as Lulu and Alban Berg's opera Lulu, considered to be one of the masterpieces of twentieth-century opera.
Walerian Borowczyk based his 1980 film Lulu on these plays. The plays are being adapted into comics by John Linton Roberson, they form the basis for the 2011 album Lulu, a collaboration between the rock musician Lou Reed and the heavy metal band Metallica. Hidalla was u