Austrian Decoration for Science and Art
The Austrian Decoration for Science and Art is a state decoration of the Republic of Austria and forms part of the national honours system of that country. The "Austrian Decoration for Science and Art" was established by the National Council as an honour for scientific or artistic achievements by Federal Law of May 1955. At the same time, the National Council established the "Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art", awarded as "Cross of Honour, First Class" and "Cross of Honour". While not technically counted as lower classes of the Decoration for Science and Art, these crosses are affiliated with it; the number of living recipients of the Decoration for Science and Art is limited to a maximum of 72 at any one time. In each of these two groups there are 18 foreign nationals. There are no limits on the number of recipients. There are no limits on the number of recipients. 2014: Abbas Kiarostami, film director, photographer 2013: Gerhard Rühm, composer, artist 2012: Christoph Waltz, director.
2010: Paul Holdengräber, curator 2008: Marina Abramović, performance artist 2007: Otto Tausig, actor 2006: Bruno Ganz, actor. C. Artmann, writer 1990: Ernst Jandl, writer. American chemist. D. 2008: Arvo Pärt, Estonian composer 2007: Herbert W. Franke, writer, artist. 1999: Peter Simonischek, Erich Gruen, historian. 1998: S
The Clarendon Laboratory, located on Parks Road with the Science Area in Oxford, England, is part of the Department of Physics at Oxford University. It houses the atomic and laser physics, condensed matter physics, biophysics groups within the Department, although four other Oxford Physics groups are not based in the Clarendon Lab; the Oxford Centre for Quantum Computation is housed in the laboratory. The Clarendon Laboratory consists of two adjoining buildings, the Lindemann Building and the Grade II listed Townsend Building. A new Beecroft Building is due to open in front of the Lindemann Building in 2017, designed by Hawkins Brown, with a budget of £40 million; the Clarendon is named after Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, whose trustees paid £10,000 for the building of the original laboratory, completed in 1872, making it the oldest purpose-built physics laboratory in England. The building was designed by Robert Bellamy Clifton; the brothers Fritz and Heinz London developed the London equations when working there in 1935.
In 2007, the laboratory was granted chemical landmark status. The award was bestowed due to the work carried out by Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley in 1914; the original building enlarged, is now part of the Oxford Earth Sciences Department. The Oxford Electric Bell apparatus, constructed in 1840, is located in the foyer of the Clarendon Laboratory. Denys Wilkinson Building, another Department of Physics building Department of Physics, University of Oxford A brief history of Physics at Oxford A longer history of Physics at Oxford
Pour le Mérite
The Pour le Mérite is an order of merit established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia. The Pour le Mérite was awarded as both a military and civil honour and ranked, along with the Order of the Black Eagle, the Order of the Red Eagle and the House Order of Hohenzollern, among the highest orders of merit in the Kingdom of Prussia. After 1871, when the various German kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies and Hanseatic city states had come together under Prussian leadership to form the federally structured German Empire, the Prussian honours assumed, at least in public perception, the status of honours of Imperial Germany though many honours of the various German states continued to be awarded; the Pour le Mérite was an honour conferred both for civil services. It was awarded as a recognition of extraordinary personal achievement, rather than as a general marker of social status or a courtesy-honour, although certain restrictions of social class and military rank were applied; the order was secular, membership endured for the remaining lifetime of the recipient, unless renounced or revoked.
New awards of the military class ceased with the end of the Prussian monarchy in November 1918. The civil class was revived as an independent organization in 1923. Instead of the King of Prussia, the President of Germany acted as head of the order. After the Second World War, the civil class was re-established in 1952; this version of the Pour le Mérite is still active today. The Pour le Mérite is still an order into which a person is admitted into membership, like the United Kingdom's Order of the British Empire, is not a medal or state decoration. German author Ernst Jünger, who died in 1998, was the last living recipient of the military class award; the Pour le Mérite was founded in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia. It was named in French, the leading international language and the favoured language at Frederick's court; the French name was retained, despite the rising tide of nationalism and increasing hostility between French and Germans during the 19th century, many of its recipients were honoured for acts performed in wars against France.
The insignia of the military award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with golden eagles between the arms and the Prussian royal cypher and the words Pour le Mérite written in gold letters on the body of the cross. The ribbon was black with edge stripes of silver-white; the order consisted of only one class, both civil and military, until 1810. Only a few civilians were honored: Francesco Algarotti and Voltaire. In January 1810, during the Napoleonic wars, King Frederick William III decreed that the award could be presented only to serving military officers. In March 1813, the king added an additional distinction, a spray of gilt oak leaves attached above the cross. Award of the oak leaves indicated extraordinary achievement in battle, was reserved for high-ranking officers; the original regulations called for the capture or successful defense of a fortification, or victory in a battle. By World War I, the oak leaves indicated a second or higher award of the Pour le Mérite, though in most cases the recipients were still high-ranking officers.
In early 1918, it was proposed to award the oak leaves to Germany's top flying ace, Manfred von Richthofen, but he was deemed ineligible under a strict reading of the regulations. Instead, Prussia awarded von Richthofen a less prestigious honor, the Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class with Crown and Swords; this was still a high honor, as the 3rd Class was awarded to colonels and lieutenant colonels, von Richthofen's award was one of only two of the 3rd Class with Crown and Swords during World War I. In 1866, a special military Grand Cross class of the award was established; this grade of the award was given to those who, through their actions, caused the retreat or destruction of an army. There were only five awards of the Grand Cross: to King Wilhelm I in 1866, to Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia and Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia in 1873, to Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1878, to Helmuth Graf von Moltke in 1879; the Pour le Mérite gained international fame during World War I.
Although it could be awarded to any military officer, its most famous recipients were the pilots of the German Army Air Service, whose exploits were celebrated in wartime propaganda. In aerial warfare, a fighter pilot was entitled to the award upon downing eight enemy aircraft. Aces Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke were the first airmen to receive the award, on January 12, 1916, it was awarded to Germany's highest-scoring ace, Manfred von Richthofen, in January 1917. Although it has been reported that because of Immelmann's renown among his fellow pilots and the nation at large, the Pour le Mérite became known, due to its color and Immelmann's first name, as the "Blue Max," that has not been confirmed; the number of aerial victories necessary to receive the award continued to increase during the war. However, other aviation recipients
Chemnitz University of Technology
Chemnitz University of Technology is a public university in Chemnitz, Germany. With over 11,000 students, it is the third largest university in Saxony, it was founded in 1836 as Königliche Gewerbeschule and was elevated to a Technische Hochschule, a university of technology, in 1963. With 1,500 employees in science and management, TU Chemnitz counts among the most important employers in the region; the tradition of science in this region goes back to the 16th century when Georg Agricola, a famous German scholar of minerals, served as the city's mayor. In 1836, the Royal Mercantile College was established as a scientific base to support the industrial revolution. In 1882 more than 1,000 students registered at the college. Modern scientific areas like electrical engineering were included in the curriculum; these developments made it possible for the institution to become a Königliche Gewerbeakademie. This academy played a major role in helping Chemnitz to become one of the industrial centers at the beginning of the 20th century.
At this time Chemnitz had the highest number of patent registrations in the whole of Germany and hence in the whole world. The city of Chemnitz and the Technical Academy were damaged during the World War II. In the German Democratic Republic era, after some time of adaptation to the new conditions, the status of a Technische Hochschule was awarded in 1963. At the end of the 1960s, the university was composed of faculties for mathematics, natural sciences and humanities. With the rising number of students, the institution became a Technische Universität in 1986. At the end of the German Democratic Republic, the academic system of Eastern Germany was absorbed by the West German system. Chemnitz University of Technology was supported to remain as a third university in Saxony besides University of Leipzig and TU Dresden. Therefore, in 1992 and 1993 two new faculties were established: The Faculty of Economics and Business Administration and the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences expanded the university's field of studies.
These new faculties started to work on interdisciplinary projects with the established faculties of science and engineering and introduced joint degree programs. Within a few years, the number of students doubled to the current level of around 10,000; the university is organised into the following eight faculties: Faculty of Computer Science Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Faculty of Mathematics Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Natural Sciences Faculty of Humanities Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences The Smart Systems Campus, built near the university campus, is now the location of the Institute of Physics, including a cleanroom at the Centre for Microtechnologies, the Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems, a building providing office space for startups and industrial real estate. The ancient industrial building Alte Aktienspinnerei will be reconstructed and serve as the location for the Central University Library.
Other university institutions will be relocated along the tram route within the reorganization of the public transport system in Chemnitz according to the so-called'Chemnitz Model'. In winter term 2013/2014 about 2,500 young people started their bachelor's or master's degree studies at TU Chemnitz. All in all, the university offers 50 master's degree programs. On the international level TU Chemnitz cooperates with 126 partner institutions in 39 countries; this includes 19 members of the international university network Academic Consortium for the 21st Century. TU Chemnitz is supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research within the project'Teaching Quality Pact' as well as by Saxony's Centre for Teaching and Learning funded by the Saxon State Ministry of Science and the Arts; the university has concentrated its research to six main profiles: New materials Production Life Cycle Microelectronics & Micro-electromechanical systems Applications & development of systems Communications, Technology Modeling, High Performance ComputingFurthermore, TU Chemnitz runs the following research centers: ALT - Allianz Textiler Leichtbau Chemnitzer Initiative Technologien für die Elektromobilität CATI - Chemnitzer Automative Institute Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Fahrerassistenzsysteme Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Hochleistungsrechnen Innovationslabor Faserkunststoffverbunde mit integrierter Zustandsüberwachung in Echtzeit Interdisziplinäres Forschungslabor für eingebettete, selbstorganisierende Hardware / Software Systeme Kompetenzzentrum „Virtual Humans“ Kompetenzzentrum Maschinenbau Chemnitz / Sachsen Kompetenzzentrum „Self-organizing Energy Efficient Driving Assistance and Communication“ Zentrum für Integrative Leichtbaulösungen Zentrum für MikrotechnologienA key research area'Energy-efficient Production Processes' stands the Federal Cluster of Excellence'Merge Technologies for Multifunctional Lightweight Structures'.
Funded with €34 million, this cluster is the only one in Germany focusing on the field of lightweight engineering. The breeding ground for this cluster was prepared by the Saxon State Cluster of Excellence'Energy-efficient Product and Process Innovations in Production Engineering', jointly established with the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology; these initiatives are complemented by additional collaborative research areas funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft which develop intelligent materials and energy-efficient production technologies. Within the key research
Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics, it is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Through 2018, a total of 209 individuals have been awarded the prize. Only three women have won the Nobel Prize in Physics: Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963, Donna Strickland in 2018. Alfred Nobel, in his last will and testament, stated that his wealth be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one was written a year before he died and was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee who were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences were to award the Prize in Physics. A maximum of three Nobel laureates and two different works may be selected for the Nobel Prize in Physics. Compared with other Nobel Prizes, the nomination and selection process for the prize in Physics is long and rigorous; this is a key reason why it has grown in importance over the years to become the most important prize in Physics. The Nobel laureates are selected by the Nobel Committee for Physics, a Nobel Committee that consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In the first stage that begins in September, around 3,000 people – selected university professors, Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry, etc. – are sent confidential forms to nominate candidates. The completed nomination forms arrive at the Nobel Committee no than 31 January of the following year; these nominees are scrutinized and discussed by experts who narrow it to fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations on the final candidates into the Academy, where, in the Physics Class, it is further discussed.
The Academy makes the final selection of the Laureates in Physics through a majority vote. The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, neither are they told that they have been considered for the prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can be made if the individual died in the months between the decision of the prize committee and the ceremony in December. Prior to 1974, posthumous awards were permitted; the rules for the Nobel Prize in Physics require that the significance of achievements being recognized has been "tested by time". In practice, it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. For example, half of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar for his work on stellar structure and evolution, done during the 1930s; as a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized.
Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a prize, as the discoverers die by the time the impact of their work is appreciated. A Physics Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money; the Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal has an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse; the Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Physiology or Medicine, Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a different design; the image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design of Nature, as a Goddess, whose veil is held up by the Genius of Science.
These medals and the ones for Physiology/Medicine and Literature were designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902. Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the
Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
The Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art was first established on 28 November 1853 by King Maximilian II von Bayern. It is awarded to acknowledge and reward excellent and outstanding achievements in the field of science and art. From 1933 onwards the order was no longer awarded, until 1980 when it was reinstated by the Minister-President of the Free State of Bavaria Franz Josef Strauß. Munich jewellers Hemmerle have been responsible for making the medal since 1905. In continuation of a Bavarian tradition, the Bavarian Maximialian Order for Science and Art was created, it is awarded to reward outstanding achievements in the field of art. The Maximilian Order is preferably awarded to German artists, it is not restricted to citizens of Bavaria. The order was instituted in two sections; the order is restricted to 100 living members. The Minister-President, the minister of state for their respective portfolio, the two sections of the order are eligible to nominate new members; these proposals are evaluated by an advisory committee.
It gives its recommendation to the Minister-President for the final decision. The advisory committee consists of: the President of the Landtag of Bavaria, the member of the government, deputy of the Minister-President, the State Minister of Sciences and the Arts, the President of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the President of the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts, the President of one of the Bavarian Art Colleges, the President of one of the Bavarian Universities and a representative of the applied sciences, named by the Minister-President. All members of the advisory committee are selected for a period of five years; the committee decides with the majority of its members. From 1980 to 2018 the order has been awarded to 222 recipients; the number of living members of the order cannot exceed 100. As of December 2018 there are 95 living members of the order. From 1853 to 1932 the order has been issued 351 times. Schreiber, Georg. Die Bayerischen Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Munich: Prestel-Verlag.
Körner, Hans. "Der Bayerische Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst und seine Mitglieder". Zeitschrift für Bayerische Landesgeschichte. 47: 299–398. Retrieved 24 July 2012.. 2. Kommission für bayerische Landesgeschichte bei der Akademie der Wissenschaften. 2001. ISBN 3-7696-9700-6. "Gesetz über den Bayerischen Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst". Bayerische Staatsregierung. München. 18 March 1980. Retrieved 25 February 2018. Official website www.ordenmuseum.de: Der Bayerische Verdienstorden und Bayerischen Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst
Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses
The Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses is a research institution of the CNRS. It is based at two sites: one in Grenoble, specialised in static fields, one in Toulouse, specialised in pulsed fields; the LNCMI provides a base for research related to high-strength magnetic fields by both resident scientists and visiting researchers from around the world. It is one of the three founding members of the European Magnetic Field Laboratory created in 2014; the LNCMI was created in 2009 by the merger of the pulsed magnetic field Laboratory of Toulouse and the Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The Service National des Champs Magnétiques Pulsés was created at the French National Institute of Applied Sciences of Toulouse in the early 60’s under the direction of S. Askénazy. In the early 1990s, it became the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Pulsés, a Joint research unit of the CNRS associated with the French National Institute of Applied Sciences, with the Paul Sabatier University of Toulouse.
In 1962, when CNRS’s laboratories were built on the Polygone Scientifique of Grenoble, Louis Néel began conducting high magnetic field projects. Following those projects, the SNCI was created in 1970; the dynamic created by the Élysée Treaty signed in 1963 between France and Germany led to collaboration between the SNCI and the Max Planck Institute from 1972 to 2004. This French-German collaboration led to the development of sciences under high magnetic fields in competition at that time with the MIT in Boston; the quantum hall effect was discovered at the laboratory and Klaus Van Klitzing received the Nobel Price for this discovery in 1985. A world record of high magnetic field was achieved in 1987 within a collaboration including the CEA, the CNRS and the MPI. In 1990 a new 24 MW power supply was set into operation that led to the development of a new generation of magnet that reached progressively 33 T. In 2005 the Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory became a CNRS laboratory and the German effort is focused on the development of the Dresden pulsed field laboratory.
In 2009, the LNCMI is created by the merger of the Toulouse laboratories. The development of static high magnetic field is pursued. 37 T is reached in 2018 paving the way for a new hybrid magnet to be set into operation in 2019. The LNCMI has several missions Generating High Magnetic fields: At the Grenoble site, static magnetic fields of up to 37 Teslas are generated and long duration measurements are available thanks to the continuous cooling capacity of the neighboring river. A hybrid magnet aiming at a magnetic field of 43 Teslas of static field in a 34 mm room temperature bore is under construction. At the Toulouse site, fields of up to 98 T are generated within a pulse of a hundred milliseconds. 200 T are reached for microseconds due to the Megagauss generator, however in this last case the coil is destroyed during the experiment leaving only the sample intact. Moreover, transportable generators and magnets have been developed at the Toulouse site in order to be used for research off-site.
To generate these fields and allow physics measurements, some large electrical and hydraulic installations as well as advanced instrumentation are required. Producing research: The scientific researches published by the LNCMI focused on Condensed Matter Physics with a ongoing development on Magnetoscience and applied superconductivity. Hosting other users: As a research infrastructure, the LNCMI hosts researchers from all around the world so that they can conduct experiments using the highest magnetic fields possible in a given volume; the LNCMI is a founding member of the European Magnetic Field Laboratory research consortium created in 2014. The two other founding members are the High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Nijmegen and the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Germany. There are no constraints in cooling power for these resistive magnets: operation at full power for unlimited time is possible; the typical operating time of the magnets is 3 x 6.5 hours per day at workdays, 1 x 11 hours at weekends.
Two 12 MW magnets can operate in parallel. The basic interface for magnet access is an x-y table mounted on an elevator which allows adjustment of height and horizontal alignment. Open diameter: 400 mm. Fixing: 12 tapped holes M8 on 420 mm diameter. Users can control the field on-site during their experiment manually or by a GPIB interface. Template Labview VIs are available