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Klute

Klute is a 1971 American neo-noir crime thriller film directed and produced by Alan J. Pakula, written by Andy and Dave Lewis, starring Jane Fonda, Donald Sutherland, Charles Cioffi, Roy Scheider, it tells the story of a high-priced prostitute who assists a detective in solving a missing persons case. Klute is the first installment of what has informally come to be known as Pakula's "paranoia trilogy"; the other two films are All the President's Men. The music was composed by Michael Small. Upon its release, the film received widespread critical acclaim for its direction and performances – in particular that of Jane Fonda. Fonda won an Academy Award for Best Actress, the film was nominated for Best Original Screenplay. Klute was a commercial success. A Pennsylvania chemical company executive, Tom Gruneman, has disappeared; the police reveal that an obscene letter was found in Gruneman's office, addressed to a prostitute in New York City named Bree Daniels, who had received several similar letters.

After six months of fruitless police work, Peter Cable, a fellow executive at Gruneman's company, hires family friend and detective John Klute to investigate Gruneman's disappearance. Klute rents an apartment in the basement of Bree's building, taps her phone, follows her as she turns tricks. Bree appears to be liberated by the freedom of freelancing as a call girl while trying to get into acting and modelling, but in a series of visits to her psychiatrist, she reveals the emptiness of her life. Bree refuses to answer Klute's questions at first. After learning that he has been watching her, Bree says, she acknowledges being beaten by a john two years earlier, but cannot identify Gruneman from a photo. Bree takes Klute to meet her former pimp, Frank Ligourin, whose fellow prostitute Jane McKenna passed the abusive client on to Bree. McKenna has committed suicide, their other colleague Arlyn Page has since become a drug addict and has disappeared. Klute and Bree develop a romance, although she tells her psychiatrist that she wishes she could go back to "just feeling numb."

She admits to Klute a deep paranoia or "feeling". They find Page, who tells them the customer was not Gruneman based on the photo but rather an older man. Page's body subsequently turns up in the river. Klute connects the "suicides" of the two prostitutes, surmising that the client was using Gruneman's name and also killed Gruneman, well might kill Bree next, he revisits Gruneman's acquaintances. By typographic comparison, the obscene letters are traced to Cable, to whom Klute has been reporting on his investigation. Klute asks Cable for money to buy the "black book" of clients of McKenna, telling Cable he is certain it will reveal the identity of the abusive client, he makes sure to leave enough bread crumbs to see. Cable follows Bree to one of her client's office and reveals that he sent her the letters, explaining that Gruneman had interrupted him when he was with McKenna and seen what they were doing. Believing that Gruneman would use the incident as leverage against him within the company, Cable attempted to frame Gruneman by planting the letter in his office.

After playing an audiotape he made as he murdered Page, he attacks Bree. Klute rushes in, Cable is seen crashing out through a window to his death. Bree moves out of her apartment with Klute's help, although her voiceover with her psychiatrist reveals her fear of being able to adapt to domestic life, the likelihood that the doctor will "see me next week". Just as they are ready to leave the apartment, Bree answers the phone, telling the caller that she is leaving New York and doesn't expect to be back. To prepare for her role as Bree, Jane Fonda spent a week in New York City observing high-class call girls and madams. Fonda was disturbed that none of the men showed interest in her, which she believed was because they could see that she was just an "upper-class, privileged pretender". Fonda had doubts about whether she could portray the role and asked Alan Pakula to release her from her contract and hire Faye Dunaway instead, but Pakula refused. Fonda turned to her memories of several call girls she had known while living in France, all of whom worked for the famed Madame Claude.

All three had been sexually abused as children, Fonda used this as an "entry" to her own character, as a way to understand Bree's motivations in becoming a prostitute. The film earned US$8 million in theatrical rentals at the North American box office. Klute received wide critical acclaim on its release with major appreciation drawn towards the screenplay and Jane Fonda's performance, it holds a 92% approval rating on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on 38 reviews with an average rating of 7.97/10. Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times gave Klute 3.5 stars out of a possible 4, writing that while the thriller elements were poorly executed, the performances of Sutherland and Fonda carried the film. He suggested that the film should have been titled Bree after her character, the soul of the movie and avoids the hooker with a heart of gold stereotype: "What is it about Jane Fonda that makes her such a fascinating actress to watch? She has a sort of nervous intensity that keeps her so locked into a film character that the character seems distracted by things that come up in the movie."

Jane Fonda received unanimous praise for he

DF-21

The Dong-Feng 21 is a two-stage, solid-fuel rocket, single-warhead medium-range ballistic missile in the Dong Feng series developed by China Changfeng Mechanics and Electronics Technology Academy. Development started in the late 1960s and was completed around 1985-86, but it was not deployed until 1991, it was developed from the submarine-launched JL-1 missile, is China's first solid-fuel land-based missile. The U. S. Department of Defense in 2008 estimated that China had 60 launchers. Developed as a strategic weapon, the DF-21's variants were designed for both nuclear and conventional missions, it is thought able to carry a high explosive and submunition warheads, as well as a nuclear warhead of 300 kt. The latest DF-21D was said to be the world's first anti-ship ballistic missile; the DF-21 has been developed into a space-capable anti-satellite weapon/anti-missile weapon carrier. Though the launcher itself is mobile to reduce vulnerability, an actual launch unit requires support vehicles that can cover a 300×300-meter area, making it hard to move and easier to detect.

The launcher is not made to travel off-road and requires solid ground when firing to prevent backblast and debris damage due to the hard launch, restricting its firing locations to roads and pre-made launch pads. The basic variant DF-21 had a range of 1,770+ km, a payload of 600 kg consisting of a single 500 kt nuclear warhead, with an estimated circular error probable of 300~400 m; the DF-21A has improved accuracy with an estimated CEP of 100 ~ 300 m. This version is reported to have a similar 1,770+ km range, with a potential extended range of 2,150 km. Revealed in 2006, the DF-21C is a terminally guided version that has a maximum range believed to be about 1,700 km and accuracy estimated to be 50~10 m; the missile was the first dual-capable version, able to be armed with either a nuclear or conventional warhead. In 2010, the DF-21C was being deployed in central Western China; this is an anti-ship ballistic missile that has a maximum range exceeding 1,450 kilometres, according to the U. S. National Air and Space Intelligence Center.

The Intelligence Center did not believe it was deployed in 2009. The guidance system is thought to be still in an evolutionary process as more UAVs and satellites are added; the US Department of Defense stated in 2010 that China has developed and reached initial operating capability of a conventionally armed high hypersonic land-based anti-ship ballistic missile based on the DF-21. This is the first ASBM and weapon system capable of targeting a moving aircraft carrier strike group from long-range, land-based mobile launchers; the DF-21D is thought to employ maneuverable reentry vehicles with a terminal guidance system. It may have been tested in 2005-6, the launch of the Jianbing-5/YaoGan-1 and Jianbing-6/YaoGan-2 satellites offering targeting information from radar and visual imaging respectively; the upgrades enhance China's ability to prevent US carriers from operating in the Taiwan Strait. Some have suggested China could develop a DF-21D with multiple reentry vehicles. United States Naval Institute in 2009 stated that such a warhead would be large enough to destroy an aircraft carrier in one hit and that there was "currently... no defense against it" if it worked as theorized.

The United States Navy has responded by switching its focus from a close blockade force of shallow water vessels to return to building deep water ballistic missile defense destroyers. The United States has assigned most of its ballistic missile defense capable ships to the Pacific, extended the BMD program to all Aegis destroyers and increased procurement of SM-3 BMD missiles; the United States has a large network optimized for tracking ballistic missile launches which may give carrier groups sufficient warning in order to move away from the target area while the missile is in flight. Kinetic defenses against the DF-21D would be difficult; the Navy's primary ballistic missile interceptor, the SM-3, would not be effective since it is designed to intercept missiles in the mid-course phase in space, so it would have to be launched immediately to hit before reentry or from an Aegis ship positioned under its flight path. The SM-2 Block 4 can intercept missiles reentering the atmosphere, but the warhead will be performing high-G maneuvers that may complicate interception.

The US Navy has began deploying the vastly more capable SM-6. The SM-6 is designed to intercept ballistic missiles in the terminal phase. Use of such missile has been said by some experts to lead to nuclear exchange, regional arms races with India and Japan, the end of the INF Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union, to which the People's Republic of China is not a party. China has launched a series of satellites to support its ASBM efforts: Yaogan-VII electro-optical satellite - 9 December 2009 Yaogan-VIII synthetic aperture radar satellite - 14 December 2009 Yaogan-IX Naval Ocean Surveillance System constellation - 5 March 2010. Yaogan-XVI Naval Ocean Surveillance System constellation - 25 November 2012China is reported to be working on an Over-the-horizon radar to locate the targets for the ASBM. An apparent test of the missile was made against a target in the Gobi desert in January 2013. In late 2013, a Russian Military Analysis report of the DF-21D concluded that the only way to counter it would be through electronic countermeasures.

Convention

Battle of Nesjar

Battle of Nesjar was a sea battle off the coast of Norway in 1016. It was a primary event in the reign of King Olav Haraldsson. Icelandic skald and court poet Sigvatr Þórðarson composed the poem Nesjavísur in memory of the battle. A monument known as the Nesjar Monument was erected on the 1000th anniversary of the battle, located in Helgeroa village in Larvik, Vestfold County, where the battle is believed to have occurred. Tradition places the location of the battle in west end of Oslofjord; the exact location is unknown, but it is somewhere in today's Langesundfjorden inlet in Frierfjord near Brunlanes, Larvik in Vestfold. The fighting parties were the throne claimant Olav Haraldsson on one side and an alliance backing the Swedish vassal Sveinn Hákonarson on the other. After the defeat of Olav Tryggvason at the Battle of Svolder, Norway had been divided into a Swedish part governed by Sveinn Hákonarson and a Danish part run by Eiríkr Hákonarson. However, after Eiríkr joined his brother-in-law Canute the Great in his campaign to conquer England, Danish rule folded, power was assumed by Olav Haraldsson, a throne claimant from the Harald Fairhair family line.

Sveinn, based in Trøndelag, learned that Olav was rallying support in Eastern Norway. He set sail along the coast of Norway. Along the way he joined forces with those of several allies among Norway's farmer-chieftains; the most prominent of these was Erling Skjalgsson. Olav Haraldsson, on the other hand, had finished raising his forces, had begun his trip northwards to confront Sveinn; the fleets clashed off the coast on Palm Sunday 25 March 1016. Few accounts of the battle survive. None of the major players were killed. However, Sveinn Hákonarson was chased off. Sveinn retreated to Sweden; the road now seemed open for King Olav to establish a unified rule of Norway. However, along the way he was forced to ally with Erling Skjalgsson, an alliance, always uneasy, it ended violently when Erling Skjalgsson was killed in connection with the Battle of Boknafjorden in Rogaland during 1028. His followers got revenge two years when King Olav himself was killed in the Battle of Stiklestad. Krag, Claus Vikingtid og riksamling 800-1130 ISBN 9788203220302 Norwegian Hellberg, Staffan Slaget vid Nesjar och Sven jarl Håkonsson Swedish Ferguson, Robert The Vikings: a History ISBN 978-0143118015 Jones, Gwyn A History of the Vikings ISBN 978-0192801340 Roesdah,Else The Vikings ISBN 978-0140252828 Sturlason, Snorre Heimskringla or the Lives of the Norse Kings ISBN 0-7661-8693-8 Winroth, Anders The Age of the Vikings ISBN 978-0691149851 Slaget om Nesjar

2011 Kelantan FA season

The 2011 season was Kelantan's 3rd season in the Malaysia Super League. Kelantan were defending Malaysia Cup champions, aimed for 2nd cup this season. In addition, they were competing in the FA Cup and the Malaysia Cup. Win Draw Loss Postponed The Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Cup, more popularly known as Piala Sumbangsih, is an annual soccer match contested by the current Malaysia Cup winner and the current Super League Malaysia winner. Kelantan won on aggregate 5–2. Kelantan won on aggregate 6–2. * Kelantan lost on aggregate 3–5. Last updated 23 May 2013 Key: = Appearances, = Goals, = Yellow card, = Red card * On loan from Pahang for Malaysia Cup campaign. All start dates are pending confirmation. List of Kelantan FA seasons

Battle of Yeghevārd

The Battle of Yeghevārd known as the Battle of Baghavard or Morad Tapeh, was the final major engagement of the Perso-Ottoman War of 1730–1735 where the principal Ottoman army in the Caucasus theatre under Koprulu Pasha's command was utterly destroyed by only the advance guard of Nader's army before the main Persian army could enter into the fray. The complete rout of Koprulu Pasha's forces led to a number of besieged Ottoman strongholds in the theatre surrendering as any hope of relief proved ephemeral in light of the crushing defeat at Yeghevārd. One of Nader's most impressive battlefield victories, in which he decimated a force four or five times the size of his own, it helped establish his reputation as a military genius and stands alongside many of his other great triumphs such as at Karnal, Mihmandoost or Kirkuk; the Caucasus theatre, alongside the Mesopotamian theatre was one of the key regions where Ottoman and Persian empires had fought for hegemony throughout much of early modern period.

The collapse of the Safavid state during the 1720s due to the invasion of the Hotaki Afghans gave the Ottomans the opportunity to seize not only the Caucasian territories under Persian suzerainty but to extend their borders deep into western Iran itself. After Nader's successful campaigns in western Persia and Ottoman Iraq the western frontier of the empire was once again secure; however to the north, the Ottomans were still entrenched and Istanbul had seen fit to reinforce the battlements with a fresh army under Koprulu Pasha to ensure the Caucasus remained under Ottoman rule. On 3 November 1734 Nader arrived at the gates of Ganja after subduing Shirvan by capturing its capital Shamakhi in August 1734; the fortifications of Ganja so impressed Nader. Leaving behind a portion of his force around Ganja, he set off with the remainder towards Georgia and Armenia in the west, besieging Tbilisi and Yerevan respectively. Abdollah Koprulu Pasha exited Kars with an army of 50,000 cavalry, 30,000 infantry plus 40 guns in order to find and bring Nader's main force to battle with the purpose of lifting the sieges of Ottoman holdings in the region.

Although primary sources give the figure of 120,000 Ottoman soldiers in total. When news of Koprulu Pasha's entrance into area via crossing the Arpachay river the Armenian chronicler Abraham of Crete records Nader's reaction as being "praise be to god, I had been awaiting this moment for such a lengthy time" and set out to meet him with his advance guard of 15,000–18,000; that night Nader camped on a high ground overlooking the plain nearby a forest. Hearing of Nader's proximity as well as the meagreness of his numbers, Koprulu Pasha hastened his approach. Nader, instead of falling back towards the main body of the Persian army, started to deploy his advance guard on the spot. Battle commenced at 2 o'clock in the afternoon with Nader, having deployed a contingent of troops in the nearby forest, led 3,000 men down onto the valley below beginning a skirmish with the Ottomans to fix their attention; the Turks who were in the process of deploying a significant number of their guns on the crest of a small hill were caught off guard when Nader, in an aggressive manoeuvre, dispatched 2–3,000 of his elite musketeers to seize the hill.

The Ottomans were driven off the hill and their precious artillery pieces were captured causing great dismay among the Ottoman soldiers who witnessed the ease with which their guns fell into enemy hands in just the opening phase of the battle. Nader at this moment sent forward another unit in order to neutralise the other concentration of Ottoman artillery on the left, after which the order for the advance of the Persian centre was given. Nader's own artillery was augmented by the presence of 500 zamburaks. Although zamburaks were vulnerable to cannon fire, all of the Ottoman guns had been silenced allowing the zamburaks to play a decisive role in the battle. Now the Persian artillery came into play supporting the centre's advance into the heart of the Ottoman line by a murderous volley of round shot in addition to the half a thousand zamburaks that unleashed a devastating fire on the Ottoman centre which, having been thrown into disarray, subsequently fell back as the Persians centre closed on them.

In all, the Persian cannon fired over 300 rounds not including the zamburaks while the Ottoman guns fired a pathetic two or three times before being silenced for the remainder of the battle. At this crucial juncture, with the Ottoman centre thrown back and reeling in confusion, Nader summoned his contingent of troops hidden away at the edge of the nearby forest to settle the matter decisively by a brilliant flanking manoeuvre, converting the Ottoman's disarray into a headlong rout. Nader put himself at the head of 1,000 chosen horsemen to seal the path of retreat on his foe. Koprulu Pasha was set upon during the rout by a Persian soldier by the name of Rostam who threw him from his horse, knocking him unconscious just prior to beheading him and taking the morbid trophy back to camp in order to present it to Nader. Many other high-ranking generals were slaughtered and their troops fared worse, being pursued and butchered all the way back to the Arpachay River; the massacre of the Ottoman soldiery was such that Nader himself wrote that "we made a butchery of all the Janissaries.

The defeat at Yeghevārd was so crushing that scarcely 8,000 soldiers made their way back to Kars out of the original number of 80,000 while Persian casualt

Fifty bani

The fifty-bani coin is a coin of the Romanian leu. It is the largest-denomination coin in current circulation, the thickest and heaviest; the fifty-bani is the only coin of Romania to not be steel-based, but be made of an alloy, was the first coin in the country to have a written inscription on its edge, with the introduction of 4 new coins in 2019. In addition to Romania, the coin has been minted in the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland and Russia. A fifty-bani coin was not included in Romania's first set of decimal coins, minted in 1867 in Birmingham, England; the denomination was introduced in weighing 2.5 g. It was 83.5 % 16.5 % copper. The obverse featured the Romanian crown and the date underneath, within a wreath of laurel and oak branches. Below the wreath was the name STERN of the engraver, at the top of the coin was the mintmark of the mint in Brussels, where it was struck; the mintmark was the portrait of Saint Michael. The reverse had the name of the country and the denomination within a smaller wreath of the same appearance.

In 1873 4.81 million of the coin were issued. The only other year of mintage was 1876 with 2,116,980 from the same mint; the coin was known in the Romanian region of Moldavia as a Dutcă, after silver coins of Poland and Russia which circulated in Romania. In the region of Walachia, it was known as a băncutjă; the second fifty-bani was the first to feature a Romanian monarch. It was struck only to the same specifications as the first version; the obverse featured a portrait of Carol I of Romania facing left. His inscription was CAROL I DOMNUL ROMANIEI and the engraver's surname, was written below; the reverse featured the Romanian coat of arms, with the date split on each side. The country's name was above the denomination below. Below the coat of arms on the left was a'V' mintmark of Vienna, Austria where all of the 1,000,000 coins were minted. Below on the right was a grain of wheat, representing Bucharest's mint. In 1884, a third fifty-bani commenced minting in Bucharest, Romania's capital, with the same dimensions and composition of the previous two.

The obverse of Carol I now had the inscription CAROL I REGE AL ROMANIEI. The reverse had the date in a wreath of laurel and oak. One million were issued, without the'B' mintmark. In 1885, 200,000 of the coin were issued, the portrait was slightly different. A fourth fifty-bani was struck in 1894 in Belgium with the same specifications; the new portrait of Carol I was sculpted by an A. SCHARFF. In 1894, 600,000 were issued; the coin's next strike was 1900, 3.838 million were minted in Hamburg, Germany. These coins, the 194,205 struck at the same city in the following year, had a wider diameter at 18.5mm. The fifth coin of the denomination had a minting run from 1910 to 1914, it kept the same composition. The coins were minted at Brussels and Hamburg, the difference being that the Brussels-struck coins had 101 reeds on the edge compared to 120 from Hamburg. A new sculptor, put his name beneath the portrait of Carol I on the obverse; the reverse featured the crown of Romania above olive branches, with the country's name on the left, the denomination on the right and the date below.

Although not a member of the Latin Monetary Union, Romania agreed to its weights and measured which aimed to create a universal currency around Europe. The fifty-bani of 1910-1914 shares many similarities with the French ½ Franc of the same time. A sixth fifty-bani was minted in 1921, with 30 million produced in Le Locle, Switzerland by the company Huguenin Frères & Co; the coin was 21mm in diameter with a hole in the middle, weighed 1.203 g due to being made from aluminium. The hole was 4 4.5 mm depending on the piece. On the obverse was the eagle from the Romanian coat of arms, with a Christian cross in his beak, perched on top of the hole; the country's name is underneath. On the reverse was the denomination, with the 0 in 50 surrounding the hole; the Romanian crown was placed to the right of the hole. The mintmark Huguenin was placed at the bottom of the reverse. After a monetary reform on 15 August 1947, 20,000 old lei became a new leu, a fifty-bani coin was re-introduced, it weighed 1.7 g. The coin was made of 19 % zinc and 1 % nickel.

Its obverse featured the Romanian crown in the centre, with the country name at the top and date at the bottom. The reverse featured the denomination; the coin was minted in Hungary, to an extent of 13.4 million coins. On 30 December 1947 however, the monarchy of Romania was forced out by communists; the only time during the communist rule of Romania that a fifty bani was minted was in 1955–56 during the People's Republic of Romania. The coin weighed 4.55 g and was made of cupro-nickel. The obverse featured the communist coat of arms of Romania and the inscription around it REPUBLICA POPULARA ROMÎNA. Despite the circumflex on the'I' in'ROMINA', the inscription was inaccurate as accents should have been placed on the'A' in'POPULARA' and'ROMINA'; the reverse featured a male worker making tongs on an anvil, with a background of smoking chimneys, conveyor belts and silos. The denomination was split either side of the image; the coin was produced in Bucharest, with 16.7 million in 1955 and 11.4 million in 1956