Equine anatomy refers to the gross and microscopic anatomy of horses and other equids, including donkeys, zebras. While all anatomical features of equids are described in the same terms as for other animals by the International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature in the book Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, there are many horse-specific colloquial terms used by equestrians. Back: the area where the saddle sits, beginning at the end of the withers, extending to the last thoracic vertebrae Barrel: the body of the horse, enclosing the rib cage and the major internal organs Buttock: the part of the hindquarters behind the thighs and below the root of the tail Cannon or cannon bone: the area between the knee or hock and the fetlock joint, sometimes called the "shin" of the horse, though technically it is the metacarpal III Chestnut: a callosity on the inside of each leg Chin groove: the part of the horse's head behind the lower lip and chin, the area that dips down on the lower jaw.
Sometimes used colloquially to refer to the root of the tail, below. Elbow: The joint of the front leg at the point where the belly of the horse meets the leg. Homologous to the elbow in humans Ergot: a callosity on the back of the fetlock Face: the area between the forehead and the tip of the upper lip Fetlock: sometimes called the "ankle" of the horse, though it is not the same skeletal structure as an ankle in humans. Forehead: the area between the poll, the eyes and the arch of the nose Forelock: the continuation of the mane, which hangs from between the ears down onto the forehead of the horse Frog: the elastic wedge-shaped mass on the underside of the hoof, which makes contact with the ground every stride, supports both the locomotion and circulation of the horse Gaskin: the large muscle on the hind leg, just above the hock, below the stifle, homologous to the calf of a human Girth or heartgirth: the area right behind the elbow of the horse, where the girth of the saddle would go. Withers: the highest point of the thoracic vertebrae, the point just above the tops of the shoulder blades, seen best with horse standing square a
Equine coat color
Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings. A specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them. While most horses remain the same color throughout life, a few, over the course of several years, will develop a different coat color from that with which they were born. Most white markings are present at birth, the underlying skin color of a horse does not change, absent disease; the basic outline of equine coat color genetics has been resolved, DNA tests to determine the likelihood that a horse will have offspring of a given color have been developed for some colors. Discussion and controversy continues about some of the details those surrounding spotting patterns, color sub-shades such as "sooty" or "flaxen", markings. Genetically, all horses start out as either chestnut, called "red" by geneticists, represented by the absence of the extension gene; therefore and black are the two base colors. The Bay color is expressed when the Agouti gene, works on black; the vast range of all other coat colors are created by additional genes' action upon one of these three coat colors.
Statistically, the most seen horse color phenotypes are identified by the following terms: Bay: Body color ranges from a light reddish-brown to dark brown with "black points". The main color variations are: Dark bay: dark red or brown hair, difficult to distinguish from seal brown. Sometimes called "black bay", "mahogany bay", or "brown". Blood bay: bright red hair. Brown: The word "brown" is used by some breed registries to describe dark bays. There is a distinct allele that darkens a bay coat to seal brown, but it is not the cause of all forms of dark bay. Informally, "brown" is applied to many distinct coat colors. Most horses described by casual observers as "brown" are bay or chestnut. In the absence of DNA testing and bay can be distinguished from each other by looking at the mane and legs for the presence of black points. Chestnut: A reddish body color with no black. Mane and tail are the same lighter than the body coat; the main color variations are: Liver chestnut: dark brown coat. Sometimes a liver chestnut is simply called "brown".
Sorrel: Reddish-tan to red coat, about the color of a new penny. The most common shade of chestnut. Blond or light chestnut: seldom-used term for lighter tan coat with pale mane and tail. Gray: A horse with black skin but white or mixed dark and white hairs. Gray horses can be born any color, lighten as they age. Most will gray out to either a complete white or to a "fleabitten" coat, which retains speckles of the horses original colour. Most "white" horses are grays with a white hair coat. A gray horse is distinguished from a white horse by dark skin noticeable around the eyes, muzzle and other areas of thin or no hair. Variations of gray that a horse may exhibit over its lifetime include: Salt and Pepper or "steel" gray: Usually a younger horse, an animal with white and dark hairs evenly intermixed over most of the body. Dapple gray: a dark-colored horse with lighter rings of graying hairs, called dapples, scattered throughout. Fleabitten gray: an otherwise white-haired horse that develops red hairs flecked throughout the coat.
Rose gray: a gray horse with a reddish or pinkish tinge to its coat. This color occurs with a horse born bay or chestnut while the young horse is "graying out". Black: Black is uncommon, though it is not "rare". There are two types of fading black and non-fading black. Most black horses will fade to a brownish color. Non-fading black is a blue-black shade. Genetically, the two cannot yet be differentiated, some claim the difference occurs due to management rather than genetics, though this claim is hotly disputed. Most black foals are born a mousy grey or dun color; as their foal coat begins to shed out, their black color will show through, though in some breeds black foals are born jet black. For a horse to be considered black, it must be black except for white markings. A sun-bleached black horse is still black though it may appear to be a dark bay or brown. A visible difference between a true black and a dark chestnut or bay is seen in the fine hairs around the eyes and muzzle. Brindle: One of the rarest colors in horses linked to chimerism.
Characteristics are any color with "zebra-like" stripes, but most common is a brown horse with faint yellowish markings. A heritable brindle pattern in a family of American Quarter Horses, named Brindle1 was identified and announced in late 2016. Buckskin: A bay horse with one copy of the cream gene, a dilution gene that "dilutes" or fades the coat color to a yellow, cream, or gold while keeping the black points. Champagne: Produced by a different dilution gene than the cream gene, it lightens both skin and hair, but creates a metallic gold coat color with mottled skin and light colored eyes. Champagne horses are confused with palomino, dun, or buckskins. Cream dilution, an incomplete dominant gene that produces a diluted coat color with one copy of the allele and a full dilution with two copies. Colors produced include Palomino, Perlino and Smoky Cream or Smoky black. Cremello: A horse with a chestnut base coat and two cream genes that wash out all color until
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
A mare is an adult female horse or other equine. In most cases, a mare is a female horse over the age of three, a filly is a female horse three and younger. In Thoroughbred horse racing, a mare is defined as a female horse more than four years old; the word can be used for other female equine animals mules and zebras, but a female donkey is called a "jenny". A broodmare is a mare used for breeding. A horse's female parent is known as its dam. An uncastrated adult male horse is called a castrated male is a gelding; the term "horse" is used to designate only a male horse. Mares carry their young for 11 months from conception to birth. Just one young is born; when a domesticated mare foals, she nurses the foal for at least four to six months before it is weaned, though mares in the wild may allow a foal to nurse for up to a year. The estrous cycle known as "season" or "heat" of a mare occurs every 19–22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn; as the days shorten, most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period.
The reproductive cycle in a mare is controlled by the photoperiod, the cycle first triggered when the days begin to lengthen. As the days shorten, the mare returns to the anestrus period. Anestrus prevents the mare from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be most difficult for the foal to survive. However, for most competitive purposes, foals are given an official "birthday" of January 1, many breeders want foals to be born as early in the year as possible. Therefore, many breeding farms begin to put mares "under lights" in late winter in order to bring them out of anestrus early and allow conception to occur in February or March. One exception to this general rule is the field of endurance riding, which requires horses to be 60 true calendar months old before competing at longer distances. Fillies are sexually mature by age two and are sometimes bred at that age, but should not be bred until they themselves have stopped growing by age four or five.
A healthy, well-managed mare can produce a foal every year into her twenties, though not all breeders will breed a mare every year. In addition, many mares are kept for riding and so are not bred annually, as a mare in late pregnancy or nursing a foal is not able to perform at as athletic a standard as one, neither pregnant nor lactating. In addition, some mares become anxious when separated from their foals temporarily, thus are difficult to manage under saddle until their foals are weaned. Mares are considered easier to handle than stallions. However, geldings have little to no hormone-driven behavior patterns at all, thus sometimes they are preferred to both mares and stallions. Mares have a notorious, if undeserved, reputation for being "marish," meaning that they can be cranky or unwilling when they come into season. While a few mares may be somewhat more distractible or irritable when in heat, they are far less distracted than a stallion at any time. Solid training minimizes hormonal behavior.
For competitive purposes, mares are sometimes placed on hormone therapies, such as the drug Regumate, to help control hormonally based behavior. Some riders use various herbal remedies, most of which have not been extensively tested for effectiveness. In relation to maternal behaviour, the formation of the bond between a mare and her foal "occurs during the first few hours post-partum, but that of the foal to the mare takes place over a period of days". Mares and geldings can be pastured together. However, mares may be a bit more territorial than geldings though they are far less territorial than stallions. Sex-segregating herds may make for less infighting if kept in close quarters. However, studies have shown that when a "lead mare" or "boss mare" is in charge of a herd, all remaining animals rest for longer periods and seem more at ease than do those in herds led by a gelding. In wild herds, a "boss mare" or "lead mare" leads the band to grazing, to water, away from danger, she drinks first, decides when the herd will move and to where.
The herd stallion brings up the rear and acts as a defender of the herd against predators and other stallions. Mares are used in every equestrian sport and compete with stallions and geldings in most events, though some competitions may offer classes open only to one sex of horse or another in breeding or "in-hand" conformation classes. In horse racing and fillies have their own races and only a small percentage compete against male horses. However, a few fillies and mares have won classic horse races against colts, including the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, the Belmont Stakes, the Melbourne Cup and the Breeders' Cup Classic. Mares are used as dairy animals in some cultures by the nomads and nomadic peoples of Central Asia. Fermented mare's milk, known as kumis, is the national drink of Kyrgyzstan; some mares of draft horse breeding, are kept in North America for the production of their urine. Pregnant mares' urine is the source of the active ingredient in the hormonal drug Premarin.
Until the invention of castration and later where there was less cultural acceptance of the practice, mares were less difficult to manage than stallions and thus preferred for most ordinary work. The Bedouin nomads of the Arabian peninsula preferred mares on their raids, because stallions would nic
Evolution of the horse
The evolution of the horse, a mammal of the family Equidae, occurred over a geologic time scale of 50 million years, transforming the small, dog-sized, forest-dwelling Eohippus into the modern horse. Paleozoologists have been able to piece together a more complete outline of the evolutionary lineage of the modern horse than of any other animal. Much of this evolution took place in North America, where horses originated but became extinct about 10,000 years ago; the horse belongs to the order Perissodactyla, the members of which all share hooved feet and an odd number of toes on each foot, as well as mobile upper lips and a similar tooth structure. This means that horses share a common ancestry with rhinoceroses; the perissodactyls arose in the late Paleocene, less than 10 million years after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. This group of animals appears to have been specialized for life in tropical forests, but whereas tapirs and, to some extent, retained their jungle specializations, modern horses are adapted to life on drier land, in the much harsher climatic conditions of the steppes.
Other species of Equus are adapted to a variety of intermediate conditions. The early ancestors of the modern horse walked on several spread-out toes, an accommodation to life spent walking on the soft, moist grounds of primeval forests; as grass species began to appear and flourish, the equids' diets shifted from foliage to grasses, leading to larger and more durable teeth. At the same time, as the steppes began to appear, the horse's predecessors needed to be capable of greater speeds to outrun predators; this was attained through the lengthening of limbs and the lifting of some toes from the ground in such a way that the weight of the body was placed on one of the longest toes, the third. Wild horses were known since prehistory from central Asia to Europe, with domestic horses and other equids being distributed more in the Old World, but no horses or equids of any type were found in the New World when European explorers reached the Americas; when the Spanish colonists brought domestic horses from Europe, beginning in 1493, escaped horses established large feral herds.
In the 1760s, the early naturalist Buffon suggested this was an indication of inferiority of the New World fauna, but reconsidered this idea. William Clark's 1807 expedition to Big Bone Lick found "leg and foot bones of the Horses", which were included with other fossils sent to Thomas Jefferson and evaluated by the anatomist Caspar Wistar, but neither commented on the significance of this find; the first Old World equid fossil was found in the gypsum quarries in Montmartre, Paris, in the 1820s. The tooth was sent to the Paris Conservatory, where it was identified by Georges Cuvier, who identified it as a browsing equine related to the tapir, his sketch of the entire animal matched skeletons found at the site. During the Beagle survey expedition, the young naturalist Charles Darwin had remarkable success with fossil hunting in Patagonia. On 10 October 1833, at Santa Fe, Argentina, he was "filled with astonishment" when he found a horse's tooth in the same stratum as fossil giant armadillos, wondered if it might have been washed down from a layer, but concluded this was "not probable".
After the expedition returned in 1836, the anatomist Richard Owen confirmed the tooth was from an extinct species, which he subsequently named Equus curvidens, remarked, "This evidence of the former existence of a genus, which, as regards South America, had become extinct, has a second time been introduced into that Continent, is not one of the least interesting fruits of Mr. Darwin's palæontological discoveries."In 1848, a study On the fossil horses of America by Joseph Leidy systematically examined Pleistocene horse fossils from various collections, including that of the Academy of Natural Sciences, concluded at least two ancient horse species had existed in North America: Equus curvidens and another, which he named Equus americanus. A decade however, he found the latter name had been taken and renamed it Equus complicatus. In the same year, he was introduced by Owen to Darwin; the original sequence of species believed to have evolved into the horse was based on fossils discovered in North America in the 1870s by paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh.
The sequence, from Eohippus to the modern horse, was popularized by Thomas Huxley and became one of the most known examples of a clear evolutionary progression. The horse's evolutionary lineage became a common feature of biology textbooks, the sequence of transitional fossils was assembled by the American Museum of Natural History into an exhibit that emphasized the gradual, "straight-line" evolution of the horse. Since as the number of equid fossils has increased, the actual evolutionary progression from Eohippus to Equus has been discovered to be much more complex and multibranched than was supposed; the straight, direct progression from the former to the latter has been replaced by a more elaborate model with numerous branches in different directions, of which the modern horse is only one of many. George Gaylord Simpson in 1951 first recognized that the modern horse was not the "goal" of the entire lineage of equids, but is the only genus of the many horse lineages to survive. Detailed fossil information on the distribution and rate of change of new equid species has revealed that the progression between species was not as smooth and consistent as was once believed.
Although some transitions, such as that of Dinohippus to Equus, were indeed gradual progressions, a number of others, such as that of Epihippus to Mesohippus, were abrupt in geologic time, taking place over only a few million ye
Equine conformation evaluates the degree of correctness of a horse's bone structure and its body proportions in relation to each other. Undesirable conformation can limit the ability to perform a specific task. Although there are several universal "faults," a horse's conformation is judged by what its intended use may be, thus "form to function" is one of the first set of traits considered in judging conformation. A horse with poor form for a Grand Prix show jumper could have excellent conformation for a World Champion cutting horse, or to be a champion draft horse; every horse has good and bad points of its conformation and many horses excel with conformation faults. The standard of the ideal head varies from breed to breed based on a mixture of the role the horse is bred for and what breeders and enthusiasts find appealing. Breed standards cite large eyes, a broad forehead and a dry head-to-neck connection as important to correctness about the head. Traditionally, the length of head as measured from poll to upper lip should be two-thirds the length of the neck topline.
The construction of the horse's head influences its breathing, though there are few studies to support this. A width of 4 fingers or 7.2 cm was associated with an unrestricted airflow and greater endurance. However, a study in 2000 which compared the intermandibular width-to-size ratio of Thoroughbreds with their racing success showed this to be untrue; the relationship between head conformation and performance are not well understood, an appealing head may be more a matter of marketability than performance. Among mammals, morphology of the head plays a role in temperature regulation. Many ungulates have a specialized network of blood vessels called the carotid rete, which keeps the brain cool while the body temperature rises during exercise. Horses lack a carotid rete and instead use their sinuses to cool blood around the brain; these factors suggest that the conformation of a horse's head influences its ability to regulate temperature. A horse with a dished face or dished head has a muzzle with a concave profile on top further emphasized by slight bulging of forehead.
Dished heads are associated with Arabians and Arabian-influenced breeds, which excel at Endurance riding and were bred in the arid Arabian desert. There are several theories regarding the adaptive role of the dished head, it may be an adaptation to increase aerobic endurance. Dished head is not considered a deformity. A Roman nose is a muzzle with a convex profile. Convex heads are associated with Baroque horse breeds and horses from cold regions; this trait plays a role in warming air as it is inhaled, but may influence aerobic capacity. Roman nose is not considered a deformity. A horse with small nostrils or small nares can be found in any breed and accompanies a narrow jaw and muzzle. Small nostrils limit the horse's ability to breathe hard while exerting itself; this affects horses in high-speed activities or those that need to sustain effort over long duration. Horses with small nostrils are therefore best used for non-speed sports. A horse with pig eye has unusually small eyes; this is an aesthetic issue, but claimed by some to be linked to stubbornness or nervousness, thought to decrease the horse's visual field.
The lower jaw should be defined. The space between the two sides of the jawbone should be wide, with room for the larynx and muscle attachments; the width should be 7.2 cm, about the width of a fist. The jaw is called narrow; the jaw is called large. A large jaw adds weight to the head. Too large of a jaw can cause a reduction to the horse's ability to flex at the poll to bring his head and neck into proper position for collection and to help balance. A parrot mouth is an overbite; this can affect the horse's ability to graze. Parrot mouth can be managed with regular teeth floating by a veterinarian. A monkey mouth, sow mouth, or bulldog mouth is an underbite, where the lower jaw extends further out than the upper jaw; this is less common than parrot mouth. This can affect the horse's ability to graze. Monkey mouth can be managed with regular teeth floating by a veterinarian. Ears should be proportional to the head, they should be set just below the level of the poll at the top of the head. Ears should be a position and backward.
Ears that are too large or too small may make the head seem too small or large in proportion with the body. A neck of ideal length is about one third of the horse's length, measured from poll to withers, with a length comparable to the length of the legs. An ideally placed neck is called a horizontal neck, it is set on the chest neither too high nor too low, with its weight and balance aligned with the forward movement of the body. The horse is easy to supple, develop strength, to control with hand and legs aids. Although uncommon, it is seen in Thoroughbreds, American Quarter Horses, some Warmbloods. Horizontal neck is advantageous to every sport, as the neck is flexible and works well for balancing. A short neck is one, less than one third the length of the horse. Short necks are common, found in any breed. A short neck hinders the balancing ability of the horse, making it more prone to stumbling and clumsiness. A short neck adds more weight on the foreha