Experimental archaeology is a field of study which attempts to generate and test archaeological hypotheses by replicating or approximating the feasibility of ancient cultures performing various tasks or feats. It employs a number of methods, techniques and approaches, based upon archaeological source material such as ancient structures or artifacts, it is distinct from uses of primitive technology without any concern for archaeological or historical study. Living history and historical reenactment, which are undertaken as a hobby, are the non archaeological person's version of this academic discipline. One of the main forms of experimental archaeology is the creation of copies of historical structures using only accurate technologies; this is sometimes known as reconstructional archaeology. In recent years, experimental archaeology has been featured in several television productions, such as BBC's "Building the Impossible" and the PBS's Secrets of Lost Empires. Most notable were the attempts to create several of Leonardo da Vinci's designs from his sketchbooks, such as his 15th century armed fighting vehicle.
A good example is Butser Ancient Farm in the English county of Hampshire, a working replica of an Iron Age farmstead where long-term experiments in prehistoric agriculture, animal husbandry, manufacturing are held to test ideas posited by archaeologists. In Denmark, the Lejre Experimental Centre carries out more ambitious work on such diverse topics as artificial Bronze Age and Iron Age burials, prehistoric science and stone tool manufacture in the absence of flint. Other examples include: The Kon-Tiki expedition, a balsa raft built by Thor Heyerdahl, sailed from Peru to Polynesia to demonstrate the possibility of cultural exchange between South America and the Polynesian islands. Attempts to transport large stones like those used in Stonehenge over short distances using only technology that would have been available at the time; the original stones were moved from Pembrokeshire to the site on Salisbury Plain. Since the 1970s the re-construction of timber framed buildings has informed understanding of early Anglo Saxon buildings at West Stow, England.
This extensive program of research through experiment and experience continues today. The reconstruction of part of Hadrian's Wall at Vindolanda, carried out in limited time by local volunteers. Greek triremes have been reconstructed by skilled sailors from plans and archaeological remains and have been tried at sea. Attempts to manufacture steel that matches all the characteristics of Damascus steel, whose original manufacturing techniques have been lost for centuries, including computational fluid dynamics reconstructions by the University of Exeter of the Sri Lanka furnaces at Samanalawewa, thought to be the most sources for Damascus steel. Experiments using reproduction bâtons de commandement as spear throwers. Guédelon Castle, a medieval construction project located in Treigny, France. Ozark Medieval Fortress, a sister project to Guédelon The Pamunkey Project – Dr. Errett Callahan led a series of extended Late Woodland living experiences in Tidewater Virginia. Marcus Junkelmann constructed Roman devices and gear for various museums.
He tested and analyzed them in various reenactments, among them a group of legionaries in full authentic gear crossing the Alps from Augsburg to Verona. Ma'agen Michael II, A replica of a 2400 year old merchantman. Reconstruction of Lomonosov's discovery of Venus's atmosphere. Construction of a monastic community according to the ninth-century Plan of Saint Gall at Campus Galli. Janet Stephens utilizing her own skill as a hairdresser to reconstruct Roman-era hairstyles, rebutting held theories about single-prong pins being used to hold them in place. Ben Marwick trampled experimentally-produced flaked stone artefacts into sediments excavated from Malakunanja II to show that it was unlikely that they had moved extensively through the deposit during the Pleistocene. Killian Driscoll undertook a series of experiments to examine the prehistoric use of vein quartz; this involved experimental knapping to understand the fracture mechanics of the material. Other types of experimental archaeology may involve burying modern replica artifacts and ecofacts for varying lengths of time to analyse the post-depositional effects on them.
Other archaeologists have built modern earthworks and measured the effects of silting in the ditches and weathering and subsidence on the banks to understand better how ancient monuments would have looked. One example is Overton Down in England; the work of flintknappers is a kind of experimental archaeology as much has been learnt about the many different types of flint tools through the hands-on approach of making them. Experimental archaeologists have equipped modern professional butchers and lumberjacks with replica flint tools to judge how effective they would have been for certain tasks. Use wear traces on the modern flint tools are compared to similar traces on archaeological artifacts, making probability hypotheses on the possible kind of use feasible. Hand axes
Jacques Tixier was a French archaeologist and prehistorian notable for his work on prehistory in Qatar and North Africa. He led the first French archaeological mission to Qatar in 1976, his team, Mission Archéologique Français à Qatar, discovered Al Khor Island that year. He discovered an archaeological site in Shagra. Tixier published one of two volumes of the team's findings in 1980, with the second volume being published by his colleague Marie‐Louise Inizan in 1988
Phil Harding (archaeologist)
Philip'Phil' Harding DL FSA is a British field archaeologist. He has become a familiar face on the Channel 4 television series Time Team. Harding trained on various excavations with the Bristol University Extra Mural Department and other bodies from 1966. Born in Oxford on 25 January 1950 and brought up in Wexcombe, Phil Harding was educated at Marlborough Royal Free Grammar School in Marlborough; as a young boy, Harding became fascinated with the Stone Age. He learned flint-knapping from his Uncle Fred, in only a few months became a skilled knapper, crafting many different hunting tools from pieces of flint, he made his first archaeological finds digging up his parents' garden, much to the annoyance of his mother Elsie. In 1966, while still at school, he attended a training excavation by Bristol University Extra Mural Department in Fyfield and West Overton. Since he has dug every year, though at first his archaeological activities had to be fitted into holidays and any spare time. After Harding left school he worked in a puppet factory in Marlborough, until he became a full-time archaeologist in 1971.
He worked for the Southampton City Council Archaeology Unit, combining this with five seasons of excavations run by the British Museum at the Neolithic flint mines of Grimes Graves, Norfolk. He has since become an acknowledged expert on flint-knapping and is skilled in lithic reduction using both percussive techniques and pressure flaking, in which instead of striking the flint with blows, pressure is exerted on the edges to shape the tool. From the mid-1970s he worked on excavations in Berkshire, Dorset and the Isle of Wight for the Department of the Environment. In 1979 the archaeological section of the DOE for the region became Wessex Archaeology, a non-profit organisation, one of the biggest archaeological practices in the country, he continues to work for Wessex Archaeology. Harding has been a member of the Institute of Field Archaeologists since 1985, in 2006 was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. On 24 July 2008 he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Southampton in archaeology.
As a qualified SCUBA diver he is the president of the Nautical Archaeology Society, a Portsmouth-based charity formed to further interest in nautical cultural heritage. Harding won the Henry Stopes Memorial Medal of the Geologists' Association in 2012; the medal is awarded once in every three years for work on the Prehistory of Man. He was voted Archaeologist of the Year in March 2013 by readers of Current Archaeology magazine. In 1991 Harding took part in the series Time Signs, produced by Tim Taylor, who went on to create Channel 4's popular archaeology series Time Team. Harding was a regular on Time Team from the first series in 1994 until its cancellation in 2013, he took part in the various spin-off series such as Time Team Extra, Time Team Digs and Time Team Live. In addition, he has appeared in Chris Moyles' Quiz Night, he appeared in an episode of BBC's Digging for Britain in December 2016. Wessex Archaeology The Guardian: Why I love Phil Harding
The Oldowan is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry in prehistory. These early tools were simple made with one or a few flakes chipped off with another stone. Oldowan tools were used during the Lower Paleolithic period, 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago, by ancient Hominin across much of Africa, South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. This technological industry was followed by the more sophisticated Acheulean industry. Oldowan is pre-dated by Lomekwian tools at a single site dated to 3.3 mya. It is not clear; the term Oldowan is taken from the site of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, where the first Oldowan lithics were discovered by the archaeologist Louis Leakey in the 1930s. However, some contemporary archaeologists and palaeoanthropologists prefer to use the term Mode 1 tools to designate pebble tool industries, with Mode 2 designating bifacially worked tools, Mode 3 designating prepared-core tools, so forth. Classification of Oldowan tools is still somewhat contentious.
Mary Leakey was the first to create a system to classify Oldowan assemblages, built her system based on prescribed use. The system included choppers and pounders. However, more recent classifications of Oldowan assemblages have been made that focus on manufacture due to the problematic nature of assuming use from stone artefacts. An example is Isaac et al.'s tri-modal categories of "Flaked Pieces", "Detached Pieces", "Pounded Pieces" and "Unmodified Pieces". Oldowan tools are sometimes called "pebble tools", so named because the blanks chosen for their production resemble, in pebble form, the final product, it is not known for sure which hominin species used Oldowan tools. Its emergence is associated with the species Australopithecus garhi and its flourishing with early species of Homo such as H. habilis and H. ergaster. Early Homo erectus appears to inherit Oldowan technology and refines it into the Acheulean industry beginning 1.7 million years ago. The oldest known Oldowan tools have been found in Gona and are dated to about 2.6 mya.
The use of tools by apes including chimpanzees and orangutans can be used to argue in favour of tool-use as an ancestral feature of the hominin family. Tools made from bone, wood, or other organic materials were therefore in all probability used before the Oldowan. Oldowan stone tools are the oldest recognisable tools which have been preserved in the archaeological record. There is a flourishing of Oldowan tools in eastern Africa, spreading to southern Africa, between 2.4 and 1.7 mya. At 1.7 mya. the first Acheulean tools appear as Oldowan assemblages continue to be produced. Both technologies are found in the same areas, dating to the same time periods; this realisation required a rethinking of old cultural sequences in which the more "advanced" Acheulean was supposed to have succeeded the Oldowan. The different traditions may have been used by different species of hominins living in the same area, or multiple techniques may have been used by an individual species in response to different circumstances.
Sometime before 1.8 mya Homo erectus had spread outside of Africa, reaching as far east as Java by 1.8 mya and in Northern China by 1.66 mya. In these newly colonised areas, no Acheulean assemblages have been found. In China, only "Mode 1" Oldowan assemblages were produced, while in Indonesia stone tools from this age are unknown. By 1.8 mya early Homo was present in Europe, as shown by the discovery of fossil remains and Oldowan tools in Dmanisi, Georgia. Remains of their activities have been excavated in Spain at sites in the Guadix-Baza basin and near Atapuerca. Most early European sites yield "Mode 1" or Oldowan assemblages; the earliest Acheulean sites in Europe only appear around 0.5 mya. In addition, the Acheulean tradition does not seem to spread to Eastern Asia, it is unclear from the archaeological record. Other tool-making traditions seem to have supplanted Oldowan technologies by 0.25 mya. To obtain an Oldowan tool, a spherical hammerstone is struck on the edge, or striking platform, of a suitable core rock to produce a conchoidal fracture with sharp edges useful for various purposes.
The process is called lithic reduction. The chip removed by the blow is the flake. Below the point of impact on the core is a characteristic bulb with fine fissures on the fracture surface; the flake evidences ripple marks. The materials of the tools were for the most part quartz, basalt, or obsidian, flint and chert. Any rock that can hold an edge will do; the main source of these rocks is river cobbles, which provide both hammer stones and striking platforms. The earliest tools were split cobbles, it is not always clear, the flake. Tool-makers identified and reworked flakes. Complaints that artifacts could not be distinguished from fractured stone have helped spark careful studies of Oldowon techniques; these techniques have now been duplicated many times by archaeologists and other knappers, making misidentification of archaeological finds less likely. Use of bone tools by hominins producing Oldowan tools is known from Swartkrans, where a bone shaft with a polished point was discovered in Member I, dated 1.8–1.5 mya.
The Osteodontokeratic industry, the "bone-tooth-horn" industry hypothesized by Raymond Dart, is less certain. Mary Leakey classified the Oldowan tools as Heavy Duty, Light Duty, Utilized Pieces and Debitage, or waste. Heav
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is used, there is no agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe include the rise of Rome, the adoption of Greek culture during the Roman Republic, the adoption of Christianity by Roman Emperors, the division of the Latin West and Greek East, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the reign of Charlemagne, the Viking invasions, the East–West Schism, the Black Death, the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Protestant Reformation as well as the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church, the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the two world wars, the Cold War, the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the expansion of the European Union. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture; as the Roman domain expanded, a cultural and linguistic division appeared between the Greek-speaking eastern provinces, which had formed the urbanized Hellenistic civilization, the western territories, which in contrast adopted the Latin language.
This cultural and linguistic division was reinforced by the political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire controlled the two divergent regions between the 3rd and the 5th centuries; the division between these two was enhanced during Late antiquity and the Middle Ages by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire known as the Greek or Byzantine Empire and thrived for another 1000 years; the rise of the Carolingian Empire in the west, in particular the Great Schism between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western Europe. After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Muslim Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire, the division between Roman Catholic and Protestant became more important in Europe than that with Eastern Orthodoxy.
In East Asia, Western Europe was known as taixi in China and taisei in Japan, which translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty; the Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci was one of the first writers in China to use the Far West as an Asian counterpart to the European concept of the Far East. In Ricci's writings, Ricci referred to himself as "Matteo of the Far West"; the term was still in use in the late early 20th centuries. Christianity is still the largest religion in Western Europe, according to a 2018 study by the Pew Research Center, 71.0% of the Western European population identified themselves as Christians. The East–West Schism, which has lasted since the 11th century, divided Christianity in Europe, the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. With certain simplifications, Western Europe is thus Catholic or Protestant and uses the Latin alphabet. Eastern Europe uses the Greek alphabet or Cyrillic script.
According to this definition, Western Europe is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, including countries which are considered part of Central Europe now: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom. Eastern Europe, meanwhile is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, including Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine for instance; the schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches. This division dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather short-lived Cold War division of four decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however problematic.
During the four decades of the Cold War, the definition of East and West was rather simplified by the existence of the Eastern Bloc. Historians and social scientists view the Cold War definition of Western and Eastern Europe as outdated or relegating. During the final stages of World War II, the future of Europe was decided between the Allies in the 1945 Yalta Conference, between the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, the U. S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Premier of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the Western Bloc, influenced by the United States, the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain; this term had been used during World War II by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels and Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk in the last days of the war.
Brittany is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as if it were a separate nation under the crown. Brittany has been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain, it is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the south. Its land area is 34,023 km². Brittany is the site of some of the world's oldest standing architecture, home to the Barnenez, the Tumulus Saint-Michel and others, which date to the early 5th millennium BC. Today, the historical province of Brittany is split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany.
The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region. At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71 % lived in the region of Brittany. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the traditional homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic; the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "Britons' land". This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain, more the Roman province of Britain; this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC.
The Greek word itself comes from the common Brythonic ethnonym reconstructed as *Pritanī, itself from Proto-Celtic *kʷritanoi. The Romans called Brittany Armorica, together with a quite indefinite region that extended along the English Channel coast from the Seine estuary to the Loire estuary, according to several sources, maybe along the Atlantic coast to the Garonne estuary; this term comes from a Gallic word, which means "close to the sea". Another name, was used until the 12th century, it means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many Britons settled in western Armorica, the region started to be called Britannia, although this name only replaced Armorica in the sixth century or by the end of the fifth. Authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor and Britannia major to distinguish Brittany from Britain. Breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin.
Breton can be divided into the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it and would write it Breih; the official spelling is a compromise with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, a standard which has never been accepted. On its side, Gallo language has never had a accepted writing system and several ones coexist. For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, a couple of other scripts exist. Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic; the first settlers were Neanderthals. This population was scarce and similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe, their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian". One of the oldest hearths in the world has been found in Finistère, it is 450,000 years old. Homo sapiens settled in Brittany around 35,000 years ago.
They replaced or absorbed the Neanderthals and developed local industries, similar to the Châtelperronian or to the Magdalenian. After the last glacial period, the warmer climate allowed the area to become wooded. At that time, Brittany was populated by large communities who started to change their lifestyles from a life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers. Agriculture was introduced during the 5th millennium BC by migrants from the east. However, the Neolithic Revolution in Brittany did not happen due to a radical change of population, but by slow immigration and exchange of skills. Neolithic Brittany is characterised by important megalithic production, it is sometimes designated as the "core area" of megalithic culture; the oldest monuments, were followed by princely tombs and stone rows. The Morbihan département, on the southern coast, comprises a large share of these structures, including the Carnac stones and the Broken Menhir of Er Grah in the Locmariaquer megaliths, the largest single stone erected by Neoli
Ishi was the last known member of the Native American Yahi people from the present-day state of California in the United States. The rest of the Yahi were killed in the California genocide in the 19th century. Ishi, acclaimed as the "last wild Indian" in America, lived most of his life isolated from modern American culture. In 1911, aged 50, he emerged near the foothills of Lassen Peak in Northern California. Ishi, which means "man" in the Yana language, is an adopted name; the anthropologist Alfred Kroeber gave him this name because in the Yahi culture, tradition demanded that he not speak his own name until formally introduced by another Yahi. When asked his name, he said: "I have none, because there were no people to name me," meaning that there was no other Yahi to speak his name on his behalf. Ishi was taken in by anthropologists at the University of California, who both studied him and hired him as a research assistant, he lived most of his remaining five years in a university building in San Francisco.
His life was depicted and discussed in multiple films and books, notably the biographical account Ishi in Two Worlds published by Theodora Kroeber in 1961. In 1865, Ishi and his family were attacked in the Three Knolls Massacre, in which 40 of their tribesmen were killed. Although 33 Yahi survived to escape, cattlemen killed about half of the survivors; the last survivors, including Ishi and his family, went into hiding for the next 44 years. Their tribe was popularly believed to be extinct. Prior to the California Gold Rush of 1848–1855, the Yahi population numbered 404 in California, but the total Yana in the larger region numbered 2,997; the gold rush brought tens of thousands of miners and settlers to northern California, putting pressure on native populations. Gold mining killed fish; the settlers brought new infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles. The northern Yana group became extinct while the central and southern groups and Yahi populations dropped dramatically. Searching for food, they came into conflict with settlers, leading to the latter setting bounties on the natives.
Prices included 5 dollars per head. In 1865, the settlers attacked the Yahi. Richard Burrill wrote, in Ishi Rediscovered: "In 1865, near the Yahi’s special place, Black Rock, the waters of Mill Creek turned red at the Three Knolls Massacre.'Sixteen' or'seventeen' Indian fighters killed about forty Yahi, as part of a retaliatory attack for two white women and a man killed at the Workman’s household on Lower Concow Creek near Oroville. Eleven of the Indian fighters that day were Robert A. Anderson, Hiram Good, Sim Moak, Hardy Thomasson, Jack Houser, Henry Curtis, his brother Frank Curtis, as well as Tom Gore, Bill Matthews, William Merithew. W. J. Seagraves visited the site, but some time after the battle had been fought. Robert Anderson wrote, "Into the stream they leaped. Instead many dead bodies floated down the rapid current." One captive Indian woman named Mariah from Big Meadows, was one of those. The Three Knolls battle is described in Theodora Kroeber’s Ishi in Two Worlds. Since more has been learned.
It is estimated that with this massacre, Ishi's entire cultural group, the Yana/Yahi, may have been reduced to about sixty individuals. From 1859 to 1911, Ishi's remote band became more and more infiltrated by non-Yahi Indian representatives, such as Wintun and Pit River individuals. In 1879, the federal government started Indian boarding schools in California; some men from the reservations became renegades in the hills. Volunteers among the settlers and military troops carried out additional campaigns against the northern California Indian tribes during that period. In late 1908, a group of surveyors came across the camp inhabited by two men, a middle-aged woman, an elderly woman; these were Ishi, his uncle, his younger sister, his mother, respectively. The former three fled while the latter hid herself in blankets to avoid detection, as she was sick and unable to flee; the surveyors ransacked Ishi's mother died soon after his return. His sister and uncle never returned. After the 1908 attack, Ishi spent three more years in the wilderness, alone.
Starving and with nowhere to go, at around the age of 50, on August 29, 1911, Ishi walked out into the Western world. He was captured attempting to forage for meat near Oroville, after forest fires in the area; the local sheriff took the man into custody for his protection. The "wild man" caught the attention of thousands of onlookers and curiosity seekers. Professors at the University of California, Museum of Anthropology—now the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology —read about him and brought him to their facility housed on the University of California, San Francisco campus in an old law school building. Studied by the university, Ishi worked with them as a research assistant and lived in an apartment at the museum for most of the remaining five years of his life. In June 1915, he temporarily lived in Berkeley with the anthropologist Thomas Talbot Waterman and his family. Waterman and Alfred L. Kroeber, director of the museum, studied Ishi over the years and interviewed him at length in an effort to reconstruct Yahi culture.
He described family units, naming patterns, the ceremonies that he knew. Much tradition had been lost when he was growing up, as there were few older survivors in his group, he showed the techniques by which they were made. Ishi provided valuable in