Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, from which the words derived and copper, first used around 1530.
The encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal
Charles T. Barney
Charles Tracy Barney was the president of the Knickerbocker Trust Company, the collapse of which shortly before Barney's death sparked the Panic of 1907. Charles T. Barney was born on January 27, 1851, in Cleveland, the son of Ashbel H. Barney and Susan Barney, his father was a successful commission merchant. In 1857, the family moved to New York City, where his father was a director, vice president and president of Wells Fargo & Company. Barney attended Williams College in Williamstown, where he was a member of The Kappa Alpha Society, graduating in 1870. Following graduation he entered banking. With his mustache and beard and thinning hair, Barney somewhat resembled his late, well-regarded father in appearance, his ties to the Whitney family helped him achieve great success in banking, real estate investment and opened the door to profitable business opportunities. Barney was made a special member of the firm of Rogers & Gould, members of the New York Stock Exchange, he joined the Knickerbocker Trust Company in 1884, was elected vice president in the 1890s and in 1897 succeeded Robert MacClay as president.
During his tenure at Knickerbocker, the company's total deposits rose from $11 million to over $65 million. At its peak it was the third largest trust company in the city. In 1902-04 it built a new main office at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 34th Street, designed by McKim and White. There were branch offices at 66 Broadway and in Harlem and The Bronx. In his real estate operations, Barney joined William C. Whitney, Henry F. Dimock, W. E. D. Stokes, Francis W. Jenks, others in forming the New York Loan and Improvement Company in 1890; this concern was responsible for the development of the Washington Heights section of New York City. He formed with George D. Sheldon and others in 1899 the so-called Barney-Sheldon real estate syndicate. Besides serving as president and a director of the Knickerbocker Trust Company, Barney was president and a director of the New York Loan and Improvement Company. Dominion Iron and Steel Company Ltd. and the Hudson Navigation Company. He was an investor in the New York City Subway and the Metropolitan Opera and Real Estate Company.
Barney was treasurer of the New York Zoological Society from 1901 to 1903. In 1907, the Knickerbocker entered into a deal organized by speculators F. Augustus Heinze and Charles W. Morse to corner the market of the United Copper Company. On Tuesday, October 15, 1907, their plan failed spectacularly when the share price of United Copper collapsed. Heinze's brokerage firm failed on October 17, he was forced to resign as president of the Mercantile National Bank. On October 19 Morse was forced out of the banks. Realizing that the Knickerbocker was involved in the failed cornering, depositors began to remove their deposits from the bank. On October 21, Monday of the week after the bid collapsed, the board of the Knickerbocker Trust Company asked Barney to resign after he admitted involvement in the Morse speculations; that afternoon, the National Bank of Commerce announced it would no longer clear checks for the Knickerbocker. The next day, a massive bank run forced the Knickerbocker to suspend operations.
George L. Rives, Henry C. Ide and Ernst Thalmann were named receivers; the failure of the Knickerbocker was the keystone of the Panic of 1907. Barney's successor as president of Knickerbocker, A. Foster Higgins of Greenwich, was an unfortunate choice, he was quite garrulous. Foster made public statements, including one following the death of Barney, that embarrassed the Rehabilitation Committee under F. G. Bourne and William A. Tucker, trying to get the trust company on its feet again. Barney himself was not ruined financially. Despite his resignation he still had an estimated $2.5 million in assets above liabilities. But he was disgraced. On the morning of November 14, Barney was in his bedroom on the second floor of the house, with two windows facing 38th Street, he was accustomed to eating breakfast here and conducting business by telephone before dressing in late morning. On this particular morning, Lily Barney and Mrs. Susan Abbott Mead, a guest who had arrived from Europe two weeks before, were in Lily's adjoining bedroom.
Shortly before 10:00 a.m. they heard a shot fired in Barney's room. Mrs. Mead saw Mr. Barney standing. Mrs. Mead called to Lily Barney; as she approached her husband, he fell to the floor and she cradled his head in her lap. Ashbel H. Barney II, who had heard the shot on the first floor, thereupon entered the room. Barney told his son, "Don't move me." Barney had shot himself in the abdomen with a.32 caliber revolver. Lily Barney told Coroner Harburger that pistols were kept on every floor of the house for protection. Medical assistance was summoned, in the meantime Barney made and signed arrangements for the disposal of his affairs in addition to his existing will. Still in his home, he underwent exploratory surgery at the hands of Dr. Joseph A. Blake and the family
Joseph Pennell was an American artist and author. Pennell was born in Philadelphia, first studied there, but like his friend James McNeill Whistler he made his home in London, taught at Slade School of Art, he won a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle, 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. He taught at the Art Students League of New York. Pennell made etchings, his main distinction is as an original etcher and lithographer, notably as an illustrator. He wrote and illustrated an anti-Semitic travel book, The Jew at Home: Impressions of a Summer and Autumn Spent with Him, based on his travels in Europe, he produced many of them in collaboration with his wife, Elizabeth Robins Pennell. In 1886 he published Two Pilgrim's Progress, an illustrated book of his journey with Elizabeth from Florence to Rome, riding a heavy tricycle; the Pennells wrote a biography of Whistler in 1906, after some litigation with his executrix on the right to use his letters, the book was published in 1908. Pennell visited San Francisco in March 1912, where he undertook a series of "municipal subjects".
These were exhibited in December 1912 at "the prestigious gallery of Vickery, Atkins & Torrey". It is possible that Pennell's visit inspired San Francisco printmakers Robert Harshe and Pedro Lemos, along with sculptor Ralph Stackpole and painter Gottardo Piazzoni, to found the California Society of Etchers in 1912, now the California Society of Printmakers. Pennell designed the poster for the fourth Liberty Loans campaign of 1918, it showed the entrance to New York Harbor under aerial and naval bombardment, with the Statue of Liberty destroyed. In 1880 Joseph Pennell created Little Wakefield, an etching of the Little Wakefield estate; the building is a home located on what is now South Campus of La Salle University, is called St. Mutiens hall; this estate was occupied by his families for generations. The etching depicts. During World War I it was used as demonstration center for a local branch of the National League of Women's Service. Little Wakefield was the location where Thomas R. Fisher ran the first knitting factory in America.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pennell, Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by Joseph Pennell at Project Gutenberg Works by Joseph Pennell at Faded Page Works by or about Joseph Pennell at Internet Archive The Winterthur Library Overview of an archival collection on Joseph Pennell. Joseph and Elizabeth R. Pennell's papers at the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin Joseph Pennell: an account by his wife, Elizabeth Robins Pennell, issued on the occasion of a memorial exhibition of his works, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Finding aid for the Pennell family papers from the University of Pennsylvania Libraries Texts on Wikisource: "Pennell, Joseph". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Pennell, Joseph". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Pennell, Joseph". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
National Bank of Commerce (Kansas City)
The National Bank of Commerce was a U. S. bank of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It first chartered as the Kansas City Savings Bank in 1865. After a controlling interest was acquired by Dr. William Stone Woods in 1881, the bank became active in financing the regional growth of Kansas City and areas to the southwest in connection with the development of the city as a center of railroad transportation and distribution. Before establishment of the Federal Reserve System in 1913, business in the United States depended on a system of private banks which in turn used correspondent banks in larger cities to provide credit and liquidity; the National Bank of Commerce was the principal correspondent bank for bank clearings in the area southwest of Chicago and St. Louis; because of this role, Commerce was at one point among the 20 largest banks in the United States, as measured by assets. A casualty of the Panic of 1907, the National Bank of Commerce was placed into receivership by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency on December 5, 1907, after a six-week series of runs on the bank.
The bank paid out its depositors in full and after recapitalization was returned to its previous owners. The National Bank of Commerce was merged into the Commerce Trust Company, which became Commerce Bank of Kansas City, now part of Commerce Bancshares
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. It consists of a flat surface raised from the main wall surface treated as though it were a column, with a capital at the top, plinth at the bottom, the various other elements. In contrast to a pilaster, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above. In discussing Leon Battista Alberti's use of pilasters, which Alberti reintroduced into wall-architecture, Rudolf Wittkower wrote, "The pilaster is the logical transformation of the column for the decoration of a wall, it may be defined as a flattened column which has lost its three-dimensional and tactile value."A pilaster appears with a capital. And entablature in "low-relief" or flattened against the wall. A pilaster repeats all parts and proportions of an order column. Pilasters appear on the sides of a door frame or window opening on the facade of a building, are sometimes paired with columns or pillars set directly in front of them at some distance away from the wall, which support a roof structure above, such as a portico.
These vertical elements can be used to support a recessed archivolt around a doorway. The pilaster can be replaced by ornamental brackets supporting the entablature or a balcony over a doorway; when a pilaster appears at the corner intersection of two walls it is known as a canton. As with a column, a pilaster can have a plain or fluted surface to its profile and can be represented in the mode of any architectural style. During the Renaissance and Baroque architects used a range of pilaster forms. In the giant order pilasters appear as two storeys tall; the fashion of using this element from ancient Greek and Roman architecture was adopted in the Italian Renaissance, gained wide popularity with Greek Revival architecture, continues to be seen in some modern architecture. Pilaster is also referred to as a non-ornamental, load-bearing architectural element in non-classical architecture where a structural load must be carried by a wall or column next to a wall and the wall thickens to accommodate the structural requirements of the wall.
Archivolt Buttress Classical architecture Engaged column Ionic order Lesene List of classical architecture terms Post and lintel Lewis and Gillian Darley, Dictionary of Ornament NY: Pantheon
Stanford White was an American architect. He was a partner in the architectural firm McKim, Mead & White, the frontrunner among Beaux-Arts firms, he designed many houses for the rich as well as numerous public and religious buildings. His design principles embodied the "American Renaissance". In 1906, White was shot and killed by the mentally unstable millionaire Harry Kendall Thaw, who had become obsessed about White's previous relationship with Thaw's wife, actress Evelyn Nesbit; this led to a court case, dubbed "The Trial of the Century" by contemporary reporters. White was born in New York City, the son of Shakespearean scholar Richard Grant White and Alexina Black Mease, his father was a dandy and Anglophile with no money, but a great many connections in New York's art world, including painter John LaFarge, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Frederick Law Olmsted. White had no formal architectural training, he remained with Richardson for six years. In 1878, White embarked for a year and a half in Europe, when he returned to New York in September 1879, he joined Charles Follen McKim and William Rutherford Mead to form McKim and White.
As part of the partnership, all commissions designed by the architects were identified as being the work of the collective firm, not any individual architect. In 1884, White married 22-year-old Bessie Springs Smith, his wife hailed from a prominent Long Island family. Their estate, Box Hill, was not only a home, but a showplace illustrating the luxe design aesthetic White offered prospective wealthy clients. A son, Lawrence Grant White, was born in 1887. In 1889, White designed the triumphal arch at Washington Square, according to White's great-grandson, architect Samuel G. White, is the structure White should be best remembered for. White was the director of the Washington Centennial celebration and created a temporary triumphal arch, so popular, money was raised to construct a permanent version. Elsewhere in New York City, White designed the Villard Houses, the second Madison Square Garden, the Cable Building – the cable car power station at 611 Broadway –, the baldechin and altars of Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph at St. Paul the Apostle Church.
Outside of New York City, White designed the First Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore, now Lovely Lane United Methodist Church. He designed the Cosmopolitan Building, a three-story Neo-classical Revival building topped by three small domes, in Irvington, New York, built in 1895 as the headquarters of Cosmopolitan Magazine, he designed Cocke and Old Cabell halls at the University of Virginia, rebuilt The Rotunda in 1898, three years after it had burned down. Additionally, he designed the Blair Mansion at 7711 Eastern Ave. in Silver Spring, now being used as a violin store. He was responsible for designing the Boston Public Library and the Boston Hotel Buckminster, both still standing today. In 1902, he designed the Benjamin Walworth Arnold House and Carriage House in Albany, New York, he helped to develop Nikola Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower, his last design. Just as his Washington Square Arch still stands, so do many of White's clubhouses, which were focal points of New York society: the Century, Harmonie, Lambs and Players clubs.
His Shinnecock Hills Golf Clubhouse design is said to be the oldest golf clubhouse in America and is now an iconic golf landmark. However, his clubhouse for the Atlantic Yacht Club, built in 1894 overlooking Gravesend Bay, burned down in 1934. Sons of society families resided in White's St. Anthony Hall Chapter House at Williams College, now occupied by college offices. In the division of projects within the firm, the sociable and gregarious White landed the majority of commissions for private houses, his fluent draftsmanship was convincing to clients who might not get much visceral understanding from a floorplan, his intuition and facility caught the mood. White's Long Island houses have survived well, despite the loss of Harbor Hill in 1947 set on 688 acres in Roslyn. White's Long Island houses are of three types, depending on their locations: Gold Coast chateaux, he designed the Kate Annette Wetherill Estate in 1895. White designed a number of other New York mansions as well, including the Iselin family estate "All View" and "Four Chimneys" in New Rochelle.
White was active designing country estate homes in Greenwich, Connecticut. Examples there include the Seaman-Brush House, now the Stanton House Inn, a bed and bre