Knickerbockers or knickers are a form of men's or boys' baggy-kneed trousers popular in the early 20th century United States. Golfers' plus twos and plus fours are breeches of this type. Before World War II, skiers wore knickerbockers too ankle-length; until after World War I, in many English-speaking countries, boys customarily wore short pants in summer and knickerbockers in winter. At the onset of puberty, they graduated to long trousers. In that era, the transition to "long pants" was a major rite of passage. See, for example, the classic song "Blues in the Night" by Johnny Mercer: "My mammy done told me, when I was in knee-pants, my mammy done told me, son..." In Britain, they are always called knickerbockers. The fashion was imported from the US around the 1860s and continued until the 1920s, when it was superseded by above-knee length short trousers due to the popularity of the scouting movement whose uniform included shorts. Towards the end of this period, knickerbockers may have been more of a "fancy dress" item, for formal occasions, rather than everyday wear.
At around 13 years, boys exchanged their knickerbockers for long trousers. Today, knickerbockers are sometimes worn for golf. Baseball players wear a stylized form of knickerbockers, although the pants have become less baggy in recent decades and some modern ballplayers opt to pull the trousers close to the ankles; the white trousers worn by American football officials are knickerbockers, while they have become less baggy, they are still worn ending shortly below the knee. In recent years, the NFL has equipped its officials with long trousers rather than knickers in cold weather; the name "Knickerbocker" first acquired meaning with Washington Irving's History of New York, which featured the fictional author Diedrich Knickerbocker, an old-fashioned Dutch New Yorker in Irving's satire of chatty and officious local history. In fact, Washington Irving had a real friend named Herman Knickerbocker. Herman Knickerbocker, in turn, was of the upstate Knickerbocker clan, which descended from a single immigrant ancestor, Harmen Jansen van Wijhe Knickerbocker.
Jansen van Wijhe invented the name upon arriving in New Amsterdam and signed a document with a variant of it in 1682. After Irving's History, by 1831 "Knickerbocker" had become a local byword for an imagined old Dutch-descended New York aristocracy, their old-fashioned ways, their long-stemmed pipes, knee-breeches long after the fashion had turned to slacks. "Knickerbocker" became a byword for a New York patrician, comparable to a "Boston Brahmin". Thus the "New York Knickerbockers" were an amateur social and athletic club organized by Alexander Cartwright on Manhattan's East Side in 1842 to play "base ball" according to written rules, the first organized team in baseball history; the Knickerbocker name stayed with the team after it moved its base of operations to Elysian Fields at Hoboken, N. J. in 1846. The baseball link may have prompted Casey Stengel to joyously exclaim, "It's great to be back as the manager of the Knickerbockers!" when he was named pilot of the newborn New York Mets in 1961.
Hence the locally-brewed "Knickerbocker Beer" brewed by Jacob Ruppert, the first sponsors of the TV show Tonight!. The Knickerbocker name was an integral part of the New York scene when the Basketball Association of America granted a charter franchise to the city in the summer of 1946; as can best be determined, the final decision to call the team the "Knickerbockers" was made by the club's founder, Ned Irish. The team is now referred to as the Knicks. Knickerbockers have been popular in other sporting endeavors golf, rock climbing, cross-country skiing and bicycling. Indeed, in cycling they were standard attire for nearly a hundred years, with the majority of archival photos of cyclists in the era before World War I showing men wearing knickerbockers tucked into long socks, they remained popular in Britain in the years between World War I and World War II, but were eclipsed in popularity by racing tights among the vast majority of cyclists who never raced. Invariably referred to as "knickers" in the US, they lived on as a just-past-the-knee variant of racing tights reserved for colder-weather riding.
Knickers are still worn as part of the conventional uniform in fencing. Knickerbockers are worn in baseball as pants, a custom, practiced since long pants became used in the U. S; the traditional knickerbockers of old were more like pants, folded back with long socks. During the early 1980s, media interest in the then-Lady Diana Spencer brought a brief commercial revival of the look in women's and unisex fashion both in Europe and North America among the "town and country", "New Romantic", "preppie" sets. However, by 1984 the style had waned as more
The Canadian Forces' Decoration is a Canadian award bestowed upon members of the Canadian Armed Forces who have completed twelve years of military service, with certain conditions. By convention, it is given to the Governor General of Canada upon his or her appointment as viceroy, which includes the title of Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada; the decoration is awarded to all ranks, who must have a good record of conduct during the final eight years of claimed service. The first Governor General to receive the CD was Viscount Alexander of Tunis in 1951; the medal was awarded to all members of the Royal Family who served in the Canadian Forces without completion of twelve years of service. The decoration is awarded to officers and non-commissioned members of the Regular and Reserve forces, including honorary appointments within the Canadian Armed Forces. However, time served; the medal may be awarded to persons in possession of any long service, good conduct, or efficiency decoration or medal clasps, provided that the individual has completed the full qualifying periods of service for each award and that no service qualifying towards one award is permitted to count towards any other.
Service in the regular and reserve or auxiliary forces of the Commonwealth of Nations is counted towards the decoration if the final five years have been served with the Canadian Armed Forces and no other long service, good conduct, or efficiency medal has been awarded for the same service. The medal is decagonal, 36 millimetres with raised busts; the King George VI medal is gilded. The Queen Elizabeth II medal is tombac. A gilded copper version was introduced in 2008; the King George VI medal has the uncrowned coinage head of King George VI, facing left, with the inscription GEORGIVS VI D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX FID: DEF around the edge. The Queen Elizabeth II medal has the uncrowned coinage head of Queen Elizabeth II, facing right, with the inscription around the edge ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA with the word CANADA at the bottom; the reverse of the medal has a naval crown, three maple leaves and an eagle representing the navy and air force from top to bottom. The word SERVICE is on a scroll at the base and a fleur-de-lis is on each side of the crown.
The Royal Cypher is superimposed on the centre of the King George VI medal, but is omitted from the Queen Elizabeth II medal. The King George VI medal has the name and rank of the person to whom the medal was awarded to engraved on the reverse of the solid bar while the Queen Elizabeth II medal has the name and rank engraved around the edge of the medal. Early Queen Elizabeth II medals had the letters stamped rather than engraved. A clasp known as a bar, is awarded for every 10 years of subsequent service; the bar is tombac and is 0.25 inches high, has the Canadian coat of arms in the centre surmounted by a crown, is gold in colour. This is indicated on the undress ribbon bar by a rosette. Recipients of the Canadian Forces Decoration are entitled to use the post nominal letters "CD"; this post-nominal is not affected by the awarding of clasps. McCreery, The Canadian Forces' Decoration, Department of National Defence, ISBN 978-1-100-54293-5 "Canadian Forces Decoration". Veterans Affairs Canada. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
"Canadian Forces' Decoration. Department of National Defence. Retrieved 20 January 2011. View Decoration
"I Don't Have the Heart" is the title of a No. 1 hit song, written by Allan Rich and Jud Friedman and recorded by American R&B recording artist James Ingram. It is Ingram's only number-one single as a solo artist on the US Billboard Hot 100, his second number-one single overall, since the Patti Austin-featured "Baby, Come to Me", which topped the Hot 100 in 1983. Ingram received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance at the 33rd Grammy Awards in 1991 for the song. Released as the fourth single from Ingram's 1989 album It's Real, "I Don't Have the Heart" reached the top of the Billboard Hot 100 chart on October 20, 1990; the ballad remained at No. 1 for one week, became his final Top 40 hit. Singer Stacy Lattisaw recorded the song as well, her version was released on Motown Records at the same time as Ingram's, although it was not as commercially successful. Keyboards, Synth Programming: Jud Friedman Bass Guitar, String Conductor: Thom Bell Electric Guitar: Paul Jackson Jr. Drums: Ricky Lawson Background Vocals: The Aquarian Singers