A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country in a military capacity. The background of knighthood can be traced back to the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity. In the Early Middle Ages in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms.
In that sense, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Islamic world. In the Late Medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete. Yet, the titles remained in many countries; the ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his knights of the Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in English language is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on
The Yao people, waYao, are a major Bantu ethnic and linguistic group based at the southern end of Lake Malawi, who played an important part in the history of Southeast Africa during the 19th century. The Yao are a predominantly Muslim people of about 2 million spread over three countries, northern Mozambique, in Ruvuma Region and Mtwara Region of Tanzania; the Yao people have a strong cultural identity. The majority of Yao are Fishermen; when Arabs arrived on the southeastern coast of Africa they began trading with the Yao people ivory and people who were forced to be slaves in exchange for clothes and guns. Because of their involvement in this coastal trade they became one of the richest and most influential tribes in Southern Africa. Large Yao kingdoms came into being as Yao chiefs took control of the Niassa province of Mozambique in the 19th century. During that time the Yao began to move from their traditional home to today's Malawi and Tanzania, which resulted in the Yao populations they now have.
The most important result of the chiefdoms was the turning of the whole nation to Islam around the turn of the 20th century and after World War I. Because of their trade with the Arabs and Swahili, the Yao chiefs needed scribes who could read and write; the Islamic teachers who were employed and lived in the Yao villages made a significant impact on the Yao people because they could offer them literacy, a holy book, religious clothes, square, instead of round, houses. Furthermore, the Yao sultans resisted Portuguese and German colonial rule, viewed as a major cultural and economic threat to them; the British tried to stop the ivory and slave trade by attacking some of the Yao trade caravans near the coast. The Yao chief Mataka rejected Christianity, as Islam offered them a social system which would assimilate their traditional culture; because of the political and ritual domination of the chiefs, their conversion to Islam caused their subjects to do likewise. The Folk Islam which the Yao people have embraced is syncretized with their traditional animistic belief system.
The Yao lived in northern Mozambique. A close look at the history of the Yao people of Mozambique as a whole shows that their ethno-geographic center was located in a small village called Chiconono, in the northwestern Mozambican province of Niassa; the majority of Yao were subsistence farmers, but some were active as ivory and slave traders. They faced social and political decline with the arrival in today's Niassa Province of the Portuguese, who established the Niassa Company, settled in the region founding cities and towns, destroying the indigenous independent farm and trade economy and changing it to a plantation economy controlled by themselves; the expanding Portuguese Empire had established trading posts and ports in East Africa since the 15th century, in direct competition with the diverse influential Muslim political forces: Somali, Ottomans and Yemeni Sufi orders to a limited extent, Ibadi influences from independent Southeastern Arabia. The spice route and Christian evangelization were the main driving forces behind Portuguese expansion in the region.
However in the 19th century, the Portuguese were involved in a large slave trade that transported African slaves from Mozambique to Brazil. The Portuguese Empire was by one of the greatest political and economic powers in the world. Portuguese-run agricultural plantations started to expand, offering paid labour to the tribal population; the Yao became poor plantation workers under Portuguese rule. However, they preserved their traditional subsistency agriculture; as Muslims, the Yao could not stand domination by the Portuguese, who offered Christian education and taught the Portuguese language to the Muslim ethnic group. There are a minimum estimated 450,000 Yao people living in Mozambique, they occupy the eastern and northern part of Niassa province and form about 40% of the population of Lichinga, the capital of this province. The Yao moved into what is now the eastern region of Malawi around the 1830s, when they were active as farmers and traders. Rich in culture and music, the Yao are Muslim, count among their famous progeny two former Presidents of the Republic of Malawi, Bakili Muluzi and Joyce Banda.
The Yao had close ties with the Swahili on the coast during the late 19th century and adopted some parts of their culture, such as architecture and Islam, but still kept their own national identity. Their close cooperation with the Arabs gave them access to firearms, which gave them an advantage in their many wars against neighbouring peoples, such as the Ngoni and the Chewa; the Yao resisted the German forces that were colonizing Southeast Africa. In 1890, King Machemba issued a declaration to Commander Hermann von Wissmann saying that he was open to trade but not willing to submit to his authority. After further engagements, the Yao ended up surrendering to German forces. In Zimbabwe the Yaos came as immigrants and have established a society in Mvurwi under the leadership of the Jalisi clan known as Chiteleka or Jalasi, they were among the first to bring Islam to Zimbabwe on the great dyke mountains. The Yao played a major role in the Maji Maji Rebellion in German East Africa; the Yao speak a Bantu language known as Chiyao, with an estimated 1,000,000 speakers in Malawi, 495,000 in Mozambique, 492,000 in Tanzania.
The BL 14 inch 45 calibre gun were various similar naval guns designed and manufactured by Elswick Ordnance Company to equip ships that Armstrong-Whitworth built and/or armed for several countries before World War I. When World War I began, Armstrong-Whitworth were building the battleship Almirante Latorre for Chile, armed with 10 of its 14-inch guns; the battleship was acquired by the British government and completed as HMS Canada and served in the Royal Navy in World War I, with its guns designated BL 14 inch Mk I. After World War I the battleship was sold to Chile as Almirante Latorre as intended. Elswick built several guns for Japan which went into British service as railway guns in World War I under the designation BL 14 inch Mk III, they were similar to but lighter than Mk I, were modified to give similar performance as Mk I. List of naval guns 14"/45 caliber gun US equivalent Vickers 14 inch/45 naval gun Vickers/Japanese equivalent Tony DiGiulian, British 14"/45 Marks I and III I. V. Hogg & L.
Johannes Fritzsch is a German conductor. His father, a cantor and organist, was his first music teacher, in organ, his brother Georg Fritzsch is a conductor. His other brother, Rainer Fritzsch, is a cantor in Radeberg. Fritzsch continued his musical studies on trumpet, he attended the Carl Maria von Weber Music Academy in Dresden, studying conducting and trumpet. In 1982, Fritzsch took his first conducting post, as second Kapellmeister at the Rostock Volkstheater, where his conducting duties included the first East German performances of Hans Werner Henze's The English Cat in 1986. From 1987 to 1992, Fritzsch was a Kapellmeister with the Staatsoper Semperoper. From 1992 to 1993, he was first Kapellmeister at the Staatsoper Hannover. From 1993 to 1999, he served as music director and chief conductor at the Städtische Bühnen and the Philharmonisches Orchester in Freiburg, he was Generalmusikdirektor of the Staatsoper Nürnberg in the 2005/2006 season. In Austria, he became chief conductor of the Graz Philharmonic Orchestra and the Graz Opera in 2006.
In January 2013, Fritzsch resigned his Graz posts, effective at the end of January 2013. Fritzsch made his first conducting appearance in Australia in 1992 for an Opera Australia production of Hänsel und Gretel, he conducted a recording of Richard Strauss' tone poems with The Queensland Orchestra. In July 2007, Fritzsch was named chief conductor of the TQO for an initial contract of three years, beginning in 2008, his first concert as the TQO's chief conductor was in March 2008. In February 2010, the orchestra, whose name reverted to its former name of the Queensland Symphony Orchestra in 2010, announced the extension of Fritzsch's contract as chief conductor for another three years, through 2013. In September 2013, the QSO announced the scheduled conclusion of Fritzsch's chief conductorship at the end of 2014, he now has the title of conductor laureate of the TQO. In 2001, Fritzsch first guest-conducted the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra. In April 2017, the TSO announced the appointment of Fritzsch as its first-ever principal guest conductor, effective January 2018, with an initial contract of three years.
Fritzsch has recorded commercially with the TSO for Hyperion Records. In 1999, Fritzsch married Susan Collins the deputy concertmaster of the Sydney Opera House orchestra, they have three daughters. The family resides in Hobart. Profile, Patrick Togher Artists' Management Conductor Laureate, Queensland Symphony Orchestra
Hessel Oosterbeek is a Dutch economist. He works as Professor of Economics at the University of Amsterdam. In particular, Oosterbeek has conducted extensive research on the returns to schooling, the economics of training, investment contracts, overeducation and has performed impact evaluations for various interventions in education. Oosterbeek ranks among the world's leading education economists. A native of Gouda, Hessel Oosterbeek began working as a bookseller after finishing high school, but began studying economics in 1980 at the University of Amsterdam. Therein, he earned a MSc and a PhD in 1985 and 1992, the latter with a thesis on human capital theory. While studying at UVA, Oosterbeek worked at several research institutions in Amsterdam, including the Foundation for Economic Research, the Center for Educational Research, the Institute for Public Expenditures, became an assistant professor at UVA. After his graduation and several visiting appointments at Cornell University, Stanford University, the University of California, Oosterbeek was promoted to associate professor at UVA in 1998 and to full professor in 2000.
Additionally, he maintains professional affiliations with CESifo, Tinbergen Institute, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Max Goote Center for Vocational Education and Training, the Latin American Social Sciences Institute. Moreover, he has been a member of the editorial boards of the Economics of Education Review and Effective Education. Hessel Oosterbeek's research interests include the economics of education, impact evaluation, experimental economics and development economics, which he has explored in collaborations with notably Edwin Leuven, Randolph Sloof, Bas van der Klaauw and Joep Sonnemans, his research with Dinand Webbink in De Economist on higher education enrollment in the Netherlands won the 1997 Hennipman Award. According to IDEAS/RePEc, Oosterbeek belongs to the top 3% of economists registered on IDEAS as ranked by research output. One early but persistent area of Oosterbeek's research is over-education in the Netherlands. Together with Joop Hartog, he finds that due to more higher education enrollment, undereducation in the Netherlands decreased throughout the 1960s and 1970s while overeducation increased, though the rate of return to education is positive in cases of "overeducation", implying that overeducation doesn't imply private or social inefficiency.
By contrast and Hartog don't observe health, wealth or happiness among Dutch to increase linearly in education: individuals with only a non-vocational secondary school degree are healthier and happier than TVET or university graduates. Oosterbeek's research on overeducation are reviewed in his and Leuven's synthesis of those economic literatures in the Handbook of the Economics of Education. Another early area of Oosterbeek's research concerns the returns to education. Together with Wim Groot, he finds strong support for the hypothesis that schooling enhances rather than uncovers productivity once schooling is disaggregated into effective, skipped, inefficient routing, dropout years. Moreover, Oosterbeek argues – along with Colm Harmon and Orley Ashenfelter – that estimates of the returns to education are warped by reporting bias, which they find to account for a large share of the differences in earlier estimates that were attributed to differences in the methods of estimation. S. and to have increased throughout the 1980s and 1990s.
In another contribution to the discussion on the sign and size of returns to education, Oosterbeek and Ian Walker review the literature on the microeconomic returns to education and find that education unambiguously and increases individuals' earnings. In work with Leuven and Hans van Ophem, Oosterbeek observes that about one third of the variation in wage differentials between skill groups in developed economies are explained by differences in the net supply of skill groups, with relative demand and supply supply being a strong determinant of relative wages of low-skilled workers. A third area of research of Oosterbeek's research are the economics of private sector training. For the Netherlands in 1995, he finds workers' schooling, personal backgrounds, job characteristics to determine their willingness to receive work-related training, while industry and workers' gender and age determine firms' gains from having a better trained workforce. Moreover, whereas for half of the untrained workers the expected net returns to training for the firms would be positive and those of the workers negative, for another third of untrained workers the opposite would have held true.
Furthermore, comparing the demand and supply of training in Canada, the Netherlands and the US, Oosterbeek and Leuven find that the employer is the provider of training and willing to pay for general training, that international differences in training reflect differences in the weights of certain worker and job characteristics, that the demand for training tends to increase in workers' education and training. Analysing the impact of legislation enabling Dutch firms to claim a larger share of their expenditures on employees' training if they are aged 40 or older, they find that the training rate of workers just above the age of 40 is 15–20% higher than that of workers just below 40, with the effect reflecting the postponem
This section of the list of rampage killers contains those cases that occurred in the Americas. This section does not include school massacres. Cases where the primary motive for the murders was to facilitate or cover up another felony, like robbery, are excluded. A rampage killer has been defined as follows: A rampage involves the killing of multiple persons at least in public space by a single physically present perpetrator using deadly weapons in a single event without any cooling-off period; this list should contain every case with at least one of the following features: Rampage killings with 6 or more dead Rampage killings with at least 4 people killed and least ten victims overall Rampage killings with at least 2 people killed and least 12 victims overall An incidence of rampage killing shall not be included in this list if it does not include at least two people killed. In all cases the perpetrator is not counted among those injured. W – A basic description of the weapons used in the murders F – Firearms and other ranged weapons rifles and handguns, but bows and crossbows, grenade launchers, flamethrowers, or slingshots M – Melee weapons, like knives, spears, axes, rods, stones, or bare hands O – Any other weapons, such as bombs, hand grenades, Molotov cocktails and poisonous gas, as well as vehicle and arson attacks A – indicates that an arson attack was the only other weapon used V – indicates that a vehicle was the only other weapon used E – indicates that explosives of any sort were the only other weapon used P – indicates that an anaesthetising or deadly substance of any kind was the only other weapon used