SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Knight Bachelor

The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the basic and lowest rank of a man, knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry. Knights Bachelor are the most ancient sort of British knight, but Knights Bachelor rank below knights of chivalric orders. There is no female counterpart to Knight Bachelor; the lowest knightly honour that can be conferred upon a woman is Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, one rank higher than Knight Bachelor. Foreigners are not created Knights Bachelor. Knighthood is conferred for public service, it is possible to be a Knight Bachelor and a junior member of an order of chivalry without being a knight of that order. For instance, Sir Ian Holm, Sir Michael Gambon, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Anthony Hopkins, Sir Elton John, Sir Peter Stearns, Sir Michael Caine, Sir Barry Gibb and Sir Ian McKellen are Commanders of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. None of them would be entitled to use the honorific "Sir" by virtue of their membership of the order alone, but as they are all Knights Bachelor, they are entitled to preface their names with that title.

Knights Bachelor may prefix "Sir" to their forenames and wives of Knights may prefix "Lady" to their surnames. Since recipients are not knights of an order of chivalry there are no post-nominal letters associated with the honour, however when the style "Sir" is awkward or incomplete due to a subsequent appointment, recipients may use the letters "Kt" after their name; this style is adopted by Knights Bachelor who are peers, baronets, or knights of the various chivalric orders. In legal and official documents "Knight" should be added after the name instead of "Kt"; until 1926 Knights Bachelor had no insignia which they could wear, but in that year King George V issued a warrant authorising the wearing of a badge on all appropriate occasions by Knights Bachelor. Measuring 2 3⁄8 inches in length and 1 3⁄8 inches in width, it is described in heraldic terms as follows: Upon an oval medallion of vermilion, enclosed by a scroll a cross-hilted sword belted and sheathed, pommel upwards, between two spurs, rowels upwards, the whole set about with the sword belt, all gilt.

In 1974, Queen Elizabeth II issued a further warrant authorising the wearing on appropriate occasions of a neck badge smaller in size, in miniature. In 1988 a new certificate of authentication, a knight's only personal documentation, was designed by the College of Arms; the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor was founded for the maintenance and consolidation of the Dignity of Knights Bachelor in 1908, obtained official recognition from the Sovereign in 1912. The Society keeps records of all Knights Bachelor, in their interest. Knight banneret Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood British honours system: Knighthood Insignia of knights bachelor—Website of the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor The UK Honours System—Website UK Government Debrett's Media related to Knights Bachelor at Wikimedia Commons

Eckart-Wilhelm von Bonin

Eckart-Wilhelm von Bonin was a German World War II night fighter pilot who served in the Luftwaffe. A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat, he is credited with shooting down 37 enemy aircraft claimed during 150 combat missions. His brother, Oberstleutnant Hubertus von Bonin was killed in action on 15 December 1943, he lost two other brothers during the war. Following the 1939 aerial Battle of the Heligoland Bight, RAF attacks shifted to the cover of darkness, initiating the Defence of the Reich campaign. By mid-1940, Generalmajor Josef Kammhuber had established a night air defense system dubbed the Kammhuber Line, it consisted of a series of control sectors equipped with radars and searchlights and an associated night fighter. Each sector named. In 1941, the Luftwaffe started equipping night fighters with airborne radar such as the Lichtenstein radar; this airborne radar did not come into general use until early 1942.

Von Bonin was credited with 37 aerial victories claimed in 150 combat missions. Two of his claims were over four-engined bombers during daytime operations, the other 35 were claimed during nocturnal missions. Foreman and Matthews, authors of Luftwaffe Night Fighter Claims 1939 – 1945, researched the German Federal Archives and found records for 37 nocturnal victory claims. Matthews and Foreman published Luftwaffe Aces – Biographies and Victory Claims, listing Von Bonin with 33 aerial victories, plus four further unconfirmed claims. Iron Cross 2nd and 1st class Honour Goblet of the Luftwaffe on 8 May 1943 as Oberleutnant and Staffelkapitän German Cross in Gold on 1 August 1943 as Hauptmann in the 6./Nachtjagdgeschweder 1 Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 5 February 1944 as Hauptmann and Gruppenkommandeur of the II./Nachtjagdgeschweder 1

Black Emanuelle 2

Black Emanuelle 2 known as The New Black Emanuelle, is a 1976 Italian psychological drama-sexploitation film directed by Bitto Albertini. It is an unofficial sequel of Black Emanuelle. Although following Albertini's successful 1975 sexploitation film Black Emanuelle and the allusion to the title, Black Emanuelle 2 differs in plot than the first film, featuring Israeli actress Shulamith Lasri, as Emanuelle Richmond Morgan, a supermodel going through a state of amnesia and locked in a mental institution in New York City. Lasri, at her first and only film, is credited just as "Emanuelle Nera"; the lead actor, as in the first film, is Angelo Infanti. The film was shot between New York City and Venice. Emanuelle Richmond Morgan is an African American supermodel married to basketball star Fred Morgan, she fell in the centre of the Lebanese Civil War. She has been going through a state of amnesia since kept at a mental institution in Manhattan. Dr. Paul Gardner, in charge of the clinic takes a special interest in Richmond's case and begins to investigate her past, starting with the photographer John Farmer, with her in Beirut.

Julie Margo credited as Shulamith Lasri as Emanuelle Richmond Morgan Angelo Infanti as Dr. Paul Gardner Percy Hogan as Fred Morgan Dagmar Lassander as Susan Gardner Danielle Ellison as Sharon, Paul's niece Franco Cremonini as John Farmer Don Powell as Emanuelle's father Pietro Torrisi as Simon Attilio Dottesio as The General The film was badly received by critics. According to Manlio Gomarasca, it has an "unattractive story", in which "it is not clear if the irony that winds throughout the film is voluntary or not". Film critic Paolo Mereghetti wrote that the film is "extremely poor", her lead actress has "generous shapes but a rare inexpressiveness". In its DVD Talk review, it is described as "flat and thrilling" and as "a daft and boring entry into the cycle". In his DVD Verdict review, Daryl Loomis wrote that the film is "mind-numbingly dull and looks like a grouping of unconnected scenes". List of Italian films of 1976 Black Emanuelle 2 on IMDb