The Knights of Columbus is a global Catholic fraternal service organization. Membership is composed of practicing Catholic men who accept orthodox Catholic doctrine on theology and social policy, it is led by Supreme Knight Carl A. Anderson; the organization was founded in 1882 as a mutual benefit society for working-class and immigrant Catholics in the United States. It has grown to support refugee relief, Catholic education, local parishes and dioceses, global Catholic causes; the Knights promote a conservative Catholic view on public policy issues, including opposition to same-sex marriage and birth control. Between 2008 and 2012, KoC gave at least $15 million to anti-gay anti-LGBT lobbies; the organization provides certain financial services to affiliated individuals. Its wholly owned insurance company, one of the largest in the world, underwrites more than two million insurance contracts, totaling more than $100 billion of life insurance in force; the order owns the Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors, a money management firm which invests in accordance with Catholic social teachings.
As of 2019, there are nearly two million members around the world. Women may participate in KoC through the Columbiettes and other female auxiliaries, boys may join the Columbian Squires; the Order comprises four different "degrees", each one of which exemplifies one of the core principles of the order. There are more than 16,000 local Knights of Columbus councils around the world, including more than 300 on college campuses. Irish-American priest Michael J. McGivney founded the Knights of Columbus in 1882 as a mutual benefit society for Catholic immigrants in New Haven, Connecticut. During World War I, the Knights established soldiers' welfare centers in the U. S. and abroad. After the war, the Knights participated in education, occupational training, employment programs for veterans; the Oregon Compulsory Education Act of 1922 would have disallowed parochial schools, including Catholic schools, in that state. The Knights of Columbus challenged the law in court, and, in a landmark 1925 ruling, the U.
S. Supreme Court struck it down. In the 1920s, to combat animus targeted at racial and religious minorities, the organization published a series of three books: "Knights of Columbus Racial Contributions Series": The Gift of Black Folk, by W. E. B. Du Bois, The Jews in the Making of America by George Cohen, The Germans in the Making of America by Frederick Schrader. During the nadir of American race relations, the Ku Klux Klan promoted a conspiracy theory claiming that Fourth Degree Knights swore an oath to exterminate Freemasons and Protestants; the Knights began suing distributors for libel in an effort to stop this, the KKK ended its publication of the false oath. According to Church historian Massimo Faggioli, the Knights of Columbus are today "'an extreme version' of a post-Vatican II phenomenon, the rise of discrete lay groups that have become centers of power themselves"; the order is dedicated to the principles of charity, unity and patriotism. The first ritual handbook, printed in 1885, contained only the first two Degrees teaching unity and charity.
Assemblies may form color guards, which are the most visible arm of the Knights, to attend important civic and church events. The Knights of Columbus states. Beginning in 1897, the National Council encouraged local councils to establish funds to support members affected by the 1890s depression. Aid was dispensed to assist victims of natural and man-made disasters in the early 20th century. Councils offered employment agency services and provided aid to the poor and sick as well as people burdened with intellectual disability; the organization has been reluctant to discuss the charitable and social causes it supports, which have tended to be more conservative than the mainstream views of Catholics in general. Membership is restricted to adult male Catholics; as of 2018, there were 1.9 million knights. Each member belongs to one of more than 16,000 local "councils" around the world; the college councils program started with the chartering of University of Notre Dame Council #1477 in 1910. As of 2018, there are more than 300 college councils.
The Supreme Council is the governing body of the order. It elects insurance members to serve three-year terms on a 24-member Board of Directors. Leaders' salaries are set by the board of directors and ratified by the delegates to the Supreme Convention; the seven-figure salaries of senior KofC officers have been criticized as excessive.:1 In 1969, the Knights opened a 23-story headquarters building in New Haven. Since its earliest days, the Knights of Columbus has been a "Catholic anti-defamation society". In 1914, it established a Commission on Religious Prejudices; as part of the effort, the order distributed pamphlets, lecturers toured the country speaking on how Catholics could love and be loyal to America. The creation of the 4th Degree, with its emphasis on patriotism, performed an anti-defamation function as well as asserting claims to Americanism. In response to a defamatory "bogus oath" circulated by the KKK, in 1914 the Knights set up a framework for a lecture series and educational programs to combat anti-Catholic sentiment.
The Knights have been urged to take a prominent role in the new evangelization. The CIS published a series on the new evangelization in 2011, donations to other Catholic mass communication services represent one of the Knights' major expenditures; the Knights have established councils in both secular and Catholic universities. While the Knights were active politically from an early date, in the years following the Second Vatican Council, as the "Catholic anti-defamation character"
The 2016–17 Fresno State Bulldogs women's basketball team represented California State University, Fresno during the 2016–17 NCAA Division I women's basketball season. The Bulldogs, led by third year head coach Jaime White, played their home games at the Save Mart Center and are members of the Mountain West Conference, they finished the season 18–15 overall, 8–10 in Mountain West play to finish in seventh place. As the No. 7 seed in the MW Tournament, they advanced to the championship game, where they lost to Boise State. 2016–17 Fresno State Bulldogs men's basketball team
The Revised Trauma Score is a physiologic scoring system, designed for use in based on the initial vital signs of a patient. A lower score indicates a higher severity of injury; the Revised Trauma Score is made up of a three categories: Glasgow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate. The score range is 0–12. In START triage, a patient with an RTS score of 12 is labeled delayed, 11 is urgent, 3–10 is immediate; those who have an RTS below 3 are declared dead and should not receive certain care because they are unlikely to survive without a significant amount of resources. The score is as follows: These three scores are used to take the weighted sum by RTS = 0.9368 GCS + 0.7326 SBP + 0.2908 RR. Values for the RTS are in the range 0 to 7.8408. The RTS is weighted towards the Glasgow Coma Scale to compensate for major head injury without multisystem injury or major physiological changes. A threshold of RTS < 4 has been proposed to identify those patients who should be treated in a trauma centre, although this value may be somewhat low.
Online Calculator of the Revised Trauma Score
Pieter Nieuwland was a Dutch nautical scientist, chemist and poet. During his life he has been called the Dutch Isaac Newton. Nieuwland was born as his wife Marretje Klinkert. At a young age he had a great curiosity and a strong memory, his father began teaching him mathematics, but the young Pieter soon outpaced his father, the mathematician Henricus Aeneae continued his education. Nieuwland wrote poems at the age of seven, his genius attracted the attention of the wealthy brothers De Bosch, who had a country house in the Watergraafsmeer, they set themselves up as patrons for the boy, financed his studies at the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam, Jeronimo de Bosch taught him Latin. At the athenaeum he followed the teaching of the Literature Professor Herman Tollius, translated several Greek and Latin works into Dutch, wrote and defended a thesis on the Stoic philosopher Gaius Musonius Rufus. Following his education at the atheneum he studied at Leiden University. In 1788 Nieuwland published his first bundle of poetry.
In 1789, he became lector in mathematics and nautical sciences at the University of Amsterdam. At the end of 1790, he helped found the Gezelschap der Hollandsche Scheikundigen, a group that lasted only ten years but provided early support for Antoine Laurent Lavoisier's work in chemistry; the other founders included Nicolaas Bondt, merchant Adriaan Paets van Troostwijk and physician Jan Rudolph Deiman. On July 24, 1791, Nieuwland married Anna Hartigina Pruijssenaar. Anna died only 9 months in child birth, on 29 March 1792, while their newborn daughter died two days later; this sad event inspired Nieuwland to write one of his better known poems, Ter Gedachtenisse van mijne Echtgenoote. To soften the blow, the University of Amsterdam gave him leave to go on a sabbatical to Germany that summer. Among others he visited Franz Xaver von Zach, with whom he did some surveying studies around Gotha in September. On Jun 1, 1793, Nieuwland was appointed as a professor in mathematics and astronomy at Leiden University.
That year he published a book on nautical sciences. Before or around this time, Nieuwland had found the largest cube that can pass through a hole in a unit cube, a problem, posed 100 years earlier by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and given an inferior solution by English mathematician John Wallis. Nieuwland's solution was found among his papers after he died, published in 1816 by his mentor Jan Hendrik van Swinden. After five days of sudden severe illness, Nieuwland died on November 14, 1794, he was buried in Diemen on the 24th. The Mathematics Genealogy Project lists Nieuwland as being the doctoral advisor of one student at Leiden, Simon Speijert van der Eyk, through whom he has over 600 academic descendants. In his birthplace, the secondary school Pieter Nieuwland College is named after him. Pieter Nieuwland at the Digital Library for Dutch Literature Spaans, L. Pieter Nieuwland en de Watergraafsmeer, Pieter Nieuwland College
Dimitar Kondovski was a Macedonian painter and professor. He was studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade. Kondovski spearheaded the first wave of post-war generation of artists Macedonia, was part of "Today" and "Dawn" as performed by the great masters who preceded him: Dimitar Avramovski–Pandilov, Lazar Ličenoski, Nikola Martinoski, Borko Lazeski, he was a professor at the Pedagogical Academy in Skopje. He was one of the key figures in the painting Barbie Casual Fashion in the second half of the last century, he had 15 solo exhibitions in Macedonia, the former Yugoslavia, the United States and Canada, participated in many representative group presentations in prestigious galleries worldwide. His works reflect the rich tradition of medieval Macedonian art, he is one of the founders of the art-graphic activity in Macedonia, is the author of more than 2,000 illustrations and 200 scenery for television shows, theater and ballet performances. The geometric phase was his most characteristic phase.
In this phase, he synchronized dialogue with Macedonian folk tradition. His more recent work had a tendency to synthesize selected sequences of the spiritual - the aesthetic and plastic repertoire of medieval art and those forms of nonfigurative and associated art, as it tradicionalist tissue could allow modern cohesion, his painting was a complex composite assemblage, with delicate and formal structures using various aesthetic and visual data, in order to become a work of art autonomous aesthetic phenomenon. These are bands that resemble the cult, sacred objects: through them goes to a modern sense of the artist's inner needs, spiritual ritual, aesthetics of these pieces to fit into the current art movement, the meditative and skeptics understanding of the world, he won in 1964 The October Award of the Federal Republic of Macedonia for painting, prizes at the 8th Mediterranean Biennale in Alexandria and the 3rd Belgrade Triennial in Belgrade. He was the author of the monumental painting facility in Zhelezarnicata in Skopje 1967.
He is considered to be one of the most distinguished names in the field of scenography, along with Vasilie Popovic-Cico, Tomo Vladimirski, Branko Kostovski, Dime Sumka, Vladimir Georgievski. A stamp was issued by the Macedonian government on April 15, 2012 in honor of the 75th anniversary of his birth. Dimitar Kondovski Biography and Gallery ArtFact - Dimitar Kondovski http://wiki.cultured.com/people/Dimitar_Kondovski/
The history of Christianity in Romania began within the Roman province of Lower Moesia, where many Christians were martyred at the end of the 3rd century. Evidence of Christian communities has been found in the territory of modern Romania at over a hundred archaeological sites from the 3rd and 4th centuries. However, sources from the 7th and 10th centuries are so scarce that Christianity seems to have diminished during this period; the vast majority of Romanians are adherent to the Orthodox Church, while most other populations that speak Romance languages follow the Catholic Church. The basic Christian terminology in Romanian is of Latin origin, though the Romanians, referred to as Vlachs in medieval sources, borrowed numerous South Slavic terms due to the adoption of the liturgy officiated in Old Church Slavonic; the earliest Romanian translations of religious texts appeared in the 15th century, the first complete translation of the Bible was published in 1688. The oldest proof that an Orthodox church hierarchy existed among the Romanians north of the river Danube is a papal bull of 1234.
In the territories east and south of the Carpathian Mountains, two metropolitan sees subordinate to the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople were set up after the foundation of two principalities and Moldavia in the 14th century. The growth of monasticism in Moldavia provided a historical link between the 14th-century Hesychast revival and the modern development of the monastic tradition in Eastern Europe. Orthodoxy was for centuries only tolerated in the regions west of the Carpathians where Roman Catholic dioceses were established within the Kingdom of Hungary in the 11th century. In these territories, transformed into the Principality of Transylvania in the 16th century, four "received religions" – Catholicism, Calvinism and Unitarianism – were granted a privileged status. After the principality was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, a part of the local Orthodox clergy declared the union with Rome in 1698; the autocephaly of the Romanian Orthodox Church was canonically recognized in 1885, years after the union of Wallachia and Moldavia into Romania.
The Orthodox Church and the Romanian Church United with Rome were declared national churches in 1923. The Communist authorities abolished the latter, the former was subordinated to the government in 1948; the Uniate Church was reestablished when the Communist regime collapsed in 1989. Now the Constitution of Romania emphasizes churches' autonomy from the state; the religion of the Getae, an Indo-European people inhabiting the Lower Danube region in antiquity, was characterized by a belief in the immortality of the soul. Another major feature of this religion was the cult of Zalmoxis. Modern Dobruja – the territory between the river Danube and the Black Sea – was annexed to the Roman province of Moesia in 46 AD. Cults of Greek gods remained prevalent in this area after the conquest. Modern Banat and Transylvania were transformed into the Roman province of "Dacia Traiana" in 106. Due to massive colonization, cults originating in the empire's other provinces entered Dacia. Around 73% of all epigraphic monuments at this time were dedicated to Graeco-Roman gods.
The province of "Dacia Traiana" was dissolved in the 270s. Modern Dobruja became a separate province under the name of Scythia Minor in 297; the oldest proof that an Orthodox church hierarchy existed among the Romanians north of the river Danube is a papal bull of 1234. In the territories east and south of the Carpathian Mountains, two metropolitan sees subordinate to the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople were set up after the foundation of two principalities and Moldavia in the 14th century; the growth of monasticism in Moldavia provided a historical link between the 14th-century Hesychast revival and the modern development of the monastic tradition in Eastern Europe. Orthodoxy was for centuries only tolerated in the regions west of the Carpathians where Roman Catholic dioceses were established within the Kingdom of Hungary in the 11th century. In these territories, transformed into the Principality of Transylvania in the 16th century, four "received religions" – Calvinism, Catholicism and Unitarianism – were granted a privileged status.
After the principality was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, a part of the local Orthodox clergy declared the union with Rome in 1698. The core religious vocabulary of the Romanian language originated from Latin. Christian words that have been preserved from Latin include a boteza, Paște, cruce; some words, such as biserică and Dumnezeu, are independent of their synonyms in other Romance languages. The exclusive presence in Romanian language of Latin vocabulary for concepts of Christian faith proves the antiquity of Daco-Roman Christianity; the Romanian language adopted many Slavic religious terms. For example, words like duh, iad and taină are of South Slavic origin; some terms of Greek and Latin origin, such as călugar and Rusalii, entered Romanian through Slavic. A smaller number of religious terms were borrowed from Hungarian, for instance mântuire and pildă. Several theories exist regarding the origin of Christianity in Romania; those who think that the Romanians descended from the inhabit