Knights of Labor

Knights of Labor Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was an American labor federation active in the late 19th century the 1880s. It operated in the United States as well in Canada, had chapters in Great Britain and Australia, its most important leader was Terence V. Powderly; the Knights promoted the social and cultural uplift of the working man, demanded the eight-hour day. In some cases it acted as a labor union, negotiating with employers, but it was never well organized or funded, it was notable in its ambition to organize across lines of gender and race and in the inclusion of both skilled and unskilled labor. After a rapid expansion in the mid-1880s, it lost its new members and became a small operation again, it was founded by Uriah Smith Stephens on December 28, 1869, reached 28,000 members in 1880 jumped to 100,000 in 1884. By 1886, 20% of all workers were affiliated, nearly 800,000 members, its frail organizational structure could not cope as it was battered by charges of failure and violence and calumnies of the association with the Haymarket Square riot.

Most members abandoned the movement in 1886–1887, leaving at most 100,000 in 1890. Many opted to join groups that helped to identify their specific needs, instead of the KOL which addressed many different types of issues; the Panic of 1893 terminated the Knights of Labor's importance. Remnants of the Knights of Labor continued in existence until 1949, when the group's last 50-member local dropped its affiliation. In 1869, Uriah Smith Stephens, James L. Wright, a small group of Philadelphia tailors founded a secret organization known as the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor; the collapse of the National Labor Union in 1873 left a vacuum for workers looking for organization. The Knights became better organized with a national vision when they replaced Stephens with Terence V. Powderly; the body became popular with Pennsylvania coal miners during the economic depression of the mid-1870s it grew rapidly. The KOL was a diverse industrial union open to all workers; the leaders felt that it was best to have a versatile population in order to get points of view from all aspects.

The Knights of Labor barred five groups from membership: bankers, land speculators, liquor dealers and gamblers. Its members included low skilled workers, railroad workers and steel workers; as membership expanded, the Knights began to function more as a labor union and less of a secret organization. During the 1880's, the Knights of Labor played a huge role in third-party movements. Local assemblies began not only to emphasize cooperative enterprises, but to initiate strikes to win concessions from employers; the Knights of Labor brought together workers of different religions and genders and helped them all create a bond and unify all for the same cause. The new leader Powderly opposed strikes as a "relic of barbarism," but the size and the diversity of the Knights afforded local assemblies a great deal of autonomy. In 1882, the Knights ended their membership rituals and removed the words "Noble Order" from their name; this was intended to mollify the concerns of Catholic members and the bishops who wanted to avoid any resemblance to freemasonry.

Though averse to strikes to advance their goals, the Knights did aid various strikes and boycotts. The Wabash Railroad strike in 1885 saw Powderly adapt and support an successful strike against Jay Gould's Wabash Line. Gould met with Powderly and agreed to call off his campaign against the Knights of Labor, which had caused the turmoil originally; this gave momentum to the Knights and membership surged. By 1886, the Knights had more than 700,000 members; the Knights' primary demand was for the eight-hour workday. They called for legislation to end child and convict labor as well as a graduated income tax, they supported cooperatives. The only woman to hold office in the Knights of Labor, Leonora Barry, worked as an investigator, she described the horrific conditions in factories employing children. These reports made Barry the first person to collect national statistics on the American working woman. Powderly and the Knights tried to avoid divisive political issues, but in the early 1880s, many Knights had become followers of Henry George's radical ideology known now as georgism.

In 1883, Powderly recommended George's book and announced his support of "single tax" on land values. During the New York mayoral election of 1886, Powderly was able to push the organization towards the favor of Henry George; the Knights of Labor helped to bring together many different types of people from all different walks of life. The KOL appealed to them because they worked closely with the Irish Land League; the Knights had a mixed record on exclusiveness. They accepted women and blacks and their employers as members, advocating the admission of blacks into local assemblies. However, the organization tolerated the segregation of assemblies in the South. Bankers, lawyers and liquor manufacturers were excluded because they were considered unproductive members of society. Asians were excluded, in November 1885, a branch of the Knights in Tacoma, Washington violently expelled the city's Chinese workers, who amounted to nearly a tenth of the overall city population at the time; the Union Pacific Railroad came into conflict with the Knights.

When the Knights in Wyoming refused to work more hours in 1885, the railroad hired Chinese workers as strikebreakers and to stir up racial animosity. The result was the Rock Springs massacre, that killed scores of Chinese workers, drove the rest out of Wyoming. Abo

Center tap

In electronics, a center tap is a contact made to a point halfway along a winding of a transformer or inductor, or along the element of a resistor or a potentiometer. Taps are sometimes used on inductors for the coupling of signals, may not be at the half-way point, but rather, closer to one end. A common application of this is in the Hartley oscillator. Inductors with taps permit the transformation of the amplitude of alternating current voltages for the purpose of power conversion, in which case, they are referred to as autotransformers, since there is only one winding. An example of an autotransformer is an automobile ignition coil. Potentiometer tapping provides one or more connections along the device's element, along with the usual connections at each of the two ends of the element, the slider connection. Potentiometer taps allow for circuit functions that would otherwise not be available with the usual construction of just the two end connections and one slider connection. Volts center tapped describes the voltage output of a center tapped transformer.

For example: A 24 VCT transformer will measure 24 VAC across the outer two taps, 12 VAC from each outer tap to the center-tap. These two 12 VAC supplies are 180 degrees out of phase with each other, thus making it easy to derive positive and negative 12 volt DC power supplies from them. In early vacuum tube audio amplifiers, center-tapped transformers were sometimes used as the phase inverter to drive the two output tubes of a push-pull stage; the technique is nearly as old as electronic amplification and is well documented, for example, in The Radiotron Designer's Handbook, Third Edition of 1940. This technique was carried over into transistor designs part of the reason for, that capacitors were large and unreliable. However, since that era, capacitors have become vastly smaller and more reliable, whereas transformers are still expensive. Furthermore, as designers acquired more experience with transistors, they stopped trying to treat them like tubes. Coupling a class A intermediate amplification stage to a class AB power stage using a transformer doesn't make sense anymore in small systems powered from a single-voltage supply.

Modern higher-end equipment is based on dual-supply designs. It is possible for an amplifier, from the input all the way to the loudspeaker, to be DC coupled without any capacitance or inductance. In vacuum tube amplifiers, center-tapped transformers are used to couple a push-pull output stage to the speaker; this use is still relevant today because tubes and tube amplifiers continue to be produced for niche markets. In analog telecommunications systems center-tapped transformers can be used to provide a DC path around an AC coupled amplifier for signalling purposes. Power distribution, see 3 wire single phase. Producing full-wave DC with a center-tapped transformer and two rectifiers was preferred to the full bridge rectifier when rectifier costs were higher than the extra cost of copper windings and iron laminations They saved the cost of two diodes, halved the voltage drop across the rectifying stage. However, now the economic case has reversed and bridge rectifiers are much more common. Phantom power can be supplied to a condenser microphone using center tap transformers.

One method, called "direct center tap" uses two center tap transformers, one at the microphone body and one at the microphone preamp. Filtered DC voltage is connected to the microphone preamp center tap, the microphone body center tap is grounded through the cable shield; the second method uses the same center tap transformer topology at the microphone body, but at the microphone preamp, a matched pair of resistors spanning the signal lines in series creates an "artificial center tap"

Ilse Witch

Ilse Witch is a fantasy novel by American writer Terry Brooks, the first book in The Voyage of the Jerle Shannara fantasy trilogy. First published in 2000, it was the first novel in which Brooks described the use of futuristic technology, including airships as well as robots and lasers from the Old World. A conversation between the Druid Walker Boh and the Shade of Allanon, edited from Ilse Witch was published as part of Unfettered, a collection of fantasy short stories. Set 130 years after the events of the Heritage of Shannara series, the Free-born and the Federation are still at war; the story follows a quest organized by the last surviving Shannara Druid. Thirty years before the story begins, the Elven prince Kael Elessedil led an expedition in search of a legendary magic, said to be the most ancient and powerful in the world. At the beginning of the narrative, Kael is found floating in the sea of the Blue Divide. Walker is the only man, but there is another: the Ilse Witch, a beautiful but twisted young woman, as practiced in magic as Walker himself.

She will stop at nothing to possess the map and the magic it leads to. To stop her, Walker must find the magic first, thus begins the voyage of the sleek, swift airship, the Jerle Shannara. The company chosen by Walker must fly into the face of unknown terrors while the Ilse Witch and her dark allies pursue; the main characters are: Bek Ohmsford Ilse Witch Quentin Leah Walker Boh Ahren Elessedil Panax Cree Bega Ryer Ord Star Morgawr Redden Alt Mer Rue Meridian Hunter Predd Truls Rohk Del Rey Online | The Voyage of the Jerle Shannara: Ilse Witch by Terry Brooks – official webpage for mass market paperback edition