"Combat Sports" redirects here, for The Vaccines' album, see Combat Sports. A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Common combat sports include mixed martial arts, wrestling, savate, Muay Thai, Tae Kwon Do, Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, HMB, Kyokushin, Kūdō, sometimes Ninjutsu. Tradition styles of wrestling exist in most cultures. Boxing contests date back to ancient Sumer in the 3rd millennium BCE and ancient Egypt circa 1350 BCE; the ancient Olympic Games included several combat-related sports: armored foot races, boxing and pankration, introduced in the Olympic Games of 648 BCE. In ancient China, combat sport appeared in the form of lei tai, it was a no-holds barred combat sport that combined wrestling. There is evidence of similar combat sports in ancient Egypt and Japan. Through the Middle ages and Renaissance, the tournament was popular.
Tournaments were competitions that featured several mock combat events, with jousting as a main event. While the tournament was popular among aristocrats, combat sports were practiced by all levels of society; the German school of late medieval martial arts distinguished sportive combat from serious combat. In the German Renaissance, sportive combat competitions were known as Fechtschulen, corresponding to the Prize Playing in Tudor England. Out of these Prize Playing events developed the English boxing of the 18th century, which evolved into modern boxing with the introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in 1867. Amateur boxing has been part of the modern Olympic Games since their introduction in 1904. Professional boxing became popular in the United States in the 1920s and experienced a "golden age" after World War II; the creation of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is attributed to the Gracie family of Brazil in 1925 after Asian martial arts were introduced to Brazil. Vale-tudo, muay thai kickboxing and luta livre gained popularity.
Modern Muay Thai was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. Sambo was introduced in the Soviet Union. Modern Taekwondo emerged after the Japanese occupation of Korea and became an Olympic sport in 2000. Sanshou as part of modern wushu was developed in the People's Republic of China since the 1950s. Kickboxing and full contact karate were developed in the 1960s and became popular in Japan and the West during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern Mixed Martial Arts developed out of the interconnected subcultures of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and shoot wrestling, it was introduced in Japan in the form of Shooto in 1985, in the United States as Ultimate Fighting Championship in 1993. The Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts were introduced in 2000, the sport experienced peak popularity in the 2000s. During this period, multiple brands and promotions were established; the most well-known promotion for MMA is UFC. Combat sports are more popular among men, both as athletes and as spectators. For many years, participation in combat sports was exclusive to men.
A study conducted by Greenwell, Hancock and Thorn in 2015 revealed that combat sports had a male audience. Combat sport promotions such as UFC or Bellator MMA are advertised to men. Combat athletes fight one-on-one. Different sports moves. For example, boxing only allows punches, taekwondo involves kicks, both Muay Thai and Burmese boxing allow the use of elbows and knees. There are combat sports based on grappling, such as both freestyle and Collegiate wrestling. Modern MMA is similar to the ancient Greek Olympic sport of pankration; some combat sports involve the use of weapons and armor, such as fencing and the new sport SCA Heavy Combat. Boxing Historical Ancient Greek boxing Historical Russian Fist Fighting Historical English Bare-Knuckle Boxing Modern Amateur Boxing Modern Professional Boxing Kickboxing and analogous styles Musti-yuddha Savate Sanda Indochinese Kickboxing Muay Thai Muay Lao Lethwei Shoot boxing Japanese combat sport introduced in 1985. Karate Full Contact Karate Taekwondo Pinning and takedown oriented wrestling Ancient Greek wrestling Beach wrestling Belt wrestling Judo Freestyle wrestling Greco-Roman wrestling Scholastic wrestling Sport Sambo Sumo Submission grappling: Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu luta livre FILA Grappling Folk wrestling shuai jiao Catch wrestling Hybrid martial arts, combining striking and grappling elements: Pankration.
Modern Amateur Pankration Dambe traditional form of boxing, including kicking and wrestling elements, practiced by the Hausa people. Combat Sambo: Russian sport introduced in the 1920s. Kudo Vale Tudo, derived from Brazilian circus shows of the 1920s. Sanshou, institutionalized as part of modern Wushu since the 1950s. Shoot-style wrestling, since the 1980s. Shootfighting Shoot boxing Japanese combat sp
Mixed martial arts
Mixed martial arts is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from various combat sports and martial arts. The first documented use of the term mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg in 1993; the term gained popularity when newfullcontact.com one of the largest websites covering the sport and republished the article. The question of who coined the term is subject to debate. During the early 20th century, various mixed-style contests took place throughout Japan, in the countries of the Four Asian Tigers. In Brazil, there was the sport of Vale Tudo, in which fighters from various styles fought with little to no rules; the Gracie family was known to promote Vale Tudo matches as a way to promote their own Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu style. An early high-profile mixed martial arts bout was Masahiko Kimura vs. Hélio Gracie in 1951, fought between judoka Masahiko Kimura and Brazilian jiu jitsu founder Hélio Gracie in Brazil.
In the West, the concept of combining elements of multiple martial arts was popularized by Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do during the late 1960s to early 1970s. A precursor to modern MMA was the 1976 Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki bout, fought between boxer Muhammad Ali and wrestler Antonio Inoki in Japan, where it inspired the foundation of Pancrase in 1993 and Pride Fighting Championships in 1997. In 1980, CV Productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA league in the United States, called Tough Guy Contest, renamed Battle of the Superfighters. The company sanctioned ten tournaments in Pennsylvania. However, in 1983 the Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill prohibiting the sport. In 1993, the Gracie family brought Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, developed in Brazil from the 1920s, to the United States by founding the Ultimate Fighting Championship MMA promotion company; the company held an event with no rules due the influence of Art Davie and Rorion Gracie attempting to replicate Vale Tudo fights that existed in Brazil, would implement a different set of rules, which differed from other leagues which were more in favour of realistic fights.
Promoted as a competition to find the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat, competitors from different fighting styles were pitted against one another in contests with few rules. Individual fighters incorporated multiple martial arts into their style. MMA promoters were pressured to adopt additional rules to increase competitors' safety, to comply with sport regulations and to broaden mainstream acceptance of the sport. Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing and professional wrestling. In Ancient Greece, there was a sport called pankration, which featured a combination of grappling and striking skills similar to those found in modern MMA. Pankration was formed by a combination of the established wrestling and boxing traditions and, in Olympic terms, first featured in the 33rd Olympiad in 648 BC. All strikes and holds were allowed with the exception of gouging, which were banned; the fighters, called pankratiasts, fought until someone could not continue or signaled submission by raising their index finger.
According to E. Norman Gardiner,'No branch of athletics was more popular than the pankration.' From its origins in Ancient Greece, pankration was passed on to the Romans. In Ancient China, combat sport appeared in the form of Leitai, a no-holds-barred mixed combat sport that combined Chinese martial arts and wrestling. There is evidence of similar mixed combat sports in Ancient Egypt and Japan; the mid-19th century saw the prominence of the new sport savate in the combat sports circle. French savate fighters wanted to test their techniques against the traditional combat styles of its time. In 1852, a contest was held in France between French savateurs and English bare-knuckle boxers in which French fighter Rambaud alias la Resistance fought English fighter Dickinson and won using his kicks. However, the English team still won the four other match-ups during the contest. Contests occurred in the late 19th to mid-20th century between French Savateurs and other combat styles. Examples include a 1905 fight between French savateur George Dubois and a judo practitioner Re-nierand which resulted in the latter winning by submission, as well as the publicized 1957 fight between French savateur and professional boxer Jacques Cayron and a young Japanese karateka named Mochizuki Hiroo which ended when Cayron knocked Hiroo out with a hook.
No-holds-barred fighting took place in the late 1880s when wrestlers representing style of Catch wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches throughout Europe. In the USA, the first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan heavyweight world boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, wrestling champion William Muldoon, was slammed to the mat in two minutes; the next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. In September 1901, Frank "Paddy" Slavin, a contender for Sullivan's boxing title, knocked out future world wrestling champion Frank Gotch in Dawson City, Canada; the judo-practitioner Ren-nierand, who gained fame after defeating George Dubois, would fight again in another similar contest, which he lost to Ukrainian Catch wrestler Ivan Poddubny. Another early example of mixed martial arts was Bartitsu, which Edward William Barton-Wright founded i
Samuel Edgar Langford, known as the Boston Tar Baby, Boston Terror, Boston Bonecrusher, was a Black Canadian boxing standout of the early part of the 20th century. Called the "Greatest Fighter Nobody Knows", by ESPN, many boxing historians consider Langford to be one of the greatest fighters of all time. From Weymouth Falls, a small community in Nova Scotia, Canada, he was known as "The Boston Bonecrusher", "The Boston Terror", his most infamous nickname, "The Boston Tar Baby". Langford weighed 185 lb in his prime, he fought from lightweight to heavyweight and defeated many world champions and legends of the time in each weight class. Considered a devastating puncher at heavyweight, Langford was rated No. 2 by The Ring on their list of "100 greatest punchers of all time". One boxing historian described Langford as "experienced as a heavyweight James Toney with the punching power of Mike Tyson", he was denied a shot at many World Championships, due to the color bar and by the refusal of Jack Johnson, the first African-American World Heavyweight Champion, to fight him.
Langford was the World Colored Heavyweight Champion, a title vacated, by Johnson, after he won the World Championship, a record five times. Many boxing aficionados consider Langford to be the greatest boxer not to win a world title. BoxRec ranks him as the 3rd greatest heavyweight boxer of all-time, 9th greatest pound-for-pound boxer of all-time and the greatest Canadian boxer of all-time. Langford was a boxer who fought greats from the lightweight division right up to the heavyweights, beating many champions in the process. However, he was never able to secure a world title for himself. Despite the fact Langford never received a chance to fight for Jack Johnson's heavyweight title, Ring magazine founder Nat Fleischer rated Langford as one of the ten best heavyweights of all time. Renowned champion Jack Dempsey claimed that as a young boxer in 1916 he refused a fight with Langford. According to Dempsey: "I think Sam Langford was the greatest fighter we had." Langford's most memorable fights were his numerous encounters against fellow black boxers Sam McVey, Battling Jim Johnson, Joe Jeanette and Harry Wills, who all experienced similar barriers in their fighting careers.
Langford defeated World Lightweight Champion Joe Gans on December 1903, via 15-round decision. Gans' title was not on the line, however; the two would become good friends. Langford considered Gans the pound for pound greatest fighter of all time, he fought trainer of the legendary Joe Louis, six times. The first three fights were draws, the fourth a decision win for Langford, the fifth another draw and the sixth a no contest. Although Langford is credited as the greatest fighter to never challenge for a world title, he fought World Welterweight Champion Barbados Joe Walcott on September 5, 1904, for his title; the fight resulted in a draw by decision, thus Walcott retained his title. However, reports of the fight say Langford outpointed the champion. Langford kept Walcott at a distance with his longer reach and used his footwork to evade all of Walcott's attacks. Langford landed lefts and rights to the jaw so Walcott was bleeding by round two and continued bleeding more after every round. Walcott was brought on one knee in the third round and the fight ended with hardly a scratch on Langford.
In 1912, Langford was one of the contenders for the World Colored Heavyweight Championship fought at various venues across Australia. Sam McVey his opponent, McVey ranked alongside Jack Johnson, Joe Jeanette, Sam Langford, Harry Wills as the top black heavyweights of their generation. Prior to his win, Langford stayed at the Nedlands Park Hotel where he: gave exhibitions of punching the ball, throwing the medicine bag sparring, etc, his work was a revelation. Langford allowed his sparring partners to hit him just where they pleased. After witnessing his exhibition of wonderful foot and head work one could understand how the big-little fellow came to lay low the best boxers in the world. Langford is as graceful as a ballet-dancer, he carries a punch like unto that of a kick of a mule, is impervious to punishment. Dick Cullen hit him some terrific punches on the chin last Wednesday - punches that would have put the ordinary boxer away for the full count, he is a remarkable fighter. Langford fought various contenders throughout his career.
He fought welterweight Young Peter Jackson six times, winning the first two by decision, the third was a draw via points, losing the fourth by technical knockout and winning the fifth and sixth bouts again by decision. Their bout on November 12, 1907, at the Pacific Athletic Club in Los Angeles was billed as being for the World Colored Middleweight Championship. Langford won the title by besting Jackson on points in the 20-round bout. Langford fought heavyweight Joe Jeanette fourteen times, losing the first by eighth round retirement, winning second by decision and fourth were a draw via points, winning the fifth through eighth by decision, ninth was a draw via points, winning the tenth on decision, eleventh was a draw via points, lost the twelfth by decision and winning the thirteenth by seventh round knock out and fourteenth by decision, his draw to future World Heavyweight Champion Jack Johnson on April 26, 1906, by a fifteenth-round decision. Johnson was 29 pounds heavier than Langford.
Langford had been knocked down in the sixth round. Many spectators felt. After winning their first match, Johnson refused rematches against Langford, wh
Proprioception, is the sense of self-movement and body position. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense". Proprioception is mediated by mechanically-sensitive proprioceptor neurons distributed throughout an animal's body. Most vertebrates possess three basic types of proprioceptors: muscle spindles, which are embedded in skeletal muscle fibers, Golgi tendon organs, which lie at the interface of muscles and tendons, joint receptors, which are low-threshold mechanoreceptors embedded in joint capsules. Many invertebrates, such as insects possess three basic proprioceptor types with analogous functional properties: chordotonal neurons, campaniform sensilla, hair plates; the central nervous system integrates information from proprioception and other sensory systems, such as vision and the vestibular system, to create an overall representation of body position and acceleration. The sense of proprioception is ubiquitous across mobile animals, is essential for the motor coordination of the body.
More proprioception has been described in flowering land plants. Proprioception is from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", capio, capere, to take or grasp, thus to grasp one's own position in space, including the position of the limbs in relation to each other and the body as a whole. The word kinesthesia or kinæsthesia refers to movement sense, but has been used inconsistently to refer either to proprioception alone or to the brain's integration of proprioceptive and vestibular inputs. Kinesthesia is a modern medical term composed of elements from Greek; the position-movement sensation was described in 1557 by Julius Caesar Scaliger as a "sense of locomotion". Much in 1826, Charles Bell expounded the idea of a "muscle sense", credited as one of the first descriptions of physiologic feedback mechanisms. Bell's idea was that commands are carried from the brain to the muscles, that reports on the muscle's condition would be sent in the reverse direction. In 1847 the London neurologist Robert Todd highlighted important differences in the anterolateral and posterior columns of the spinal cord, suggested that the latter were involved in the coordination of movement and balance.
At around the same time, Moritz Heinrich Romberg, a Berlin neurologist, was describing unsteadiness made worse by eye closure or darkness, now known as the eponymous Romberg's sign, once synonymous with tabes dorsalis, that became recognised as common to all proprioceptive disorders of the legs. In 1880, Henry Charlton Bastian suggested "kinaesthesia" instead of "muscle sense" on the basis that some of the afferent information comes from other structures, including tendons and skin. In 1889, Alfred Goldscheider suggested a classification of kinaesthesia into three types: muscle and articular sensitivity. In 1906, Charles Scott Sherrington published a landmark work that introduced the terms "proprioception", "interoception", "exteroception"; the "exteroceptors" are the organs that provide information originating outside the body, such as the eyes, ears and skin. The interoceptors provide information about the internal organs, the "proprioceptors" provide information about movement derived from muscular and articular sources.
Using Sherrington's system and anatomists search for specialised nerve endings that transmit mechanical data on joint capsule and muscle tension, which play a large role in proprioception. Primary endings of muscle spindles "respond to the size of a muscle length change and its speed" and "contribute both to the sense of limb position and movement". Secondary endings of muscle spindles detect changes in muscle length, thus supply information regarding only the sense of position. Muscle spindles are stretch receptors, it has been accepted that cutaneous receptors contribute directly to proprioception by providing "accurate perceptual information about joint position and movement", this knowledge is combined with information from the muscle spindles. A major component of proprioception is joint position sense, determined by measuring the accuracy of joint–angle replication. Clinical aspects of joint position sense are measured in joint position matching tests that measure a subject's ability to detect an externally imposed passive movement, or the ability to reposition a joint to a predetermined position.
These involve an individual's ability to perceive the position of a joint without the aid of vision. It is assumed that the ability of one of these aspects will be related to another; this suggests that while these components may well be related in a cognitive manner, they may in fact be physiologically separate. More recent work into the mechanism of ankle sprains suggests that the role of reflexes may be more limited due to their long latencies, as ankle sprain events occur in 100 ms or less. In accordance, a model has been proposed to include a'feedforward' component of proprioception, whereby the subject will have central information about the body's position before attaining it. Kinesthesia is a key component in muscle memory and hand-eye coordination, training can improve this sense; the ability to swing a golf club or to catch a ball requires a finely tuned sense of the position o
Jens Ingemar "Ingo" Johansson was a Swedish professional boxer who competed from 1952 to 1963. He held the world heavyweight title from 1959 to 1960, was the fifth heavyweight champion born outside the United States. Johansson won the title by defeating Floyd Patterson via third-round stoppage, after flooring him seven times in that round. For this achievement, Johansson was awarded the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year—the only non-American to do so in the belt's entire 27-year existence—and was named the Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year and Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year. Johansson held the European heavyweight title twice, from 1956 to 1958 and from 1962 to 1963; as an amateur he won a silver medal in the heavyweight division at the 1952 Summer Olympics. He affectionately named his right fist "toonder and lightning" for its concussive power, in 2003 he was ranked at No. 99 on The Ring magazine's list of the 100 greatest punchers of all time. He reputedly had recurring bone trouble in his right hand throughout his career as a result.
Johansson's introduction to the top rank of the sport was inauspicious. At age nineteen he was disqualified for passivity at the Helsinki 1952 Summer Olympics in the heavyweight competition in a fight against eventual Olympic gold medalist Ed Sanders. Johansson maintained. Johansson said he had been limited to a 10-day training camp, had only trained with newcomers, had been told by his coach to let Sanders be the aggressor, his silver medal was withheld for poor performance and only presented to him in 1982. Johansson had earned his spot in the Olympics by winning the Swedish National Championship earlier the same year, 1952, after he knocked out his opponent in the first round of the final. After the Olympics Johansson went into seclusion for six months and considered quitting boxing. However, he returned to the ring and turned professional under the guidance of the Swedish publisher and boxing promoter Edwin Ahlquist, subsequently winning his first 21 professional fights, he won the Scandinavian pro title by outscoring the Dane Erik Jensen.
A broken hand and a one-year military service kept him out of the ring until late 1954. In August 1955, in his twelfth professional fight, Johansson knocked out former European Heavyweight Champion Hein ten Hoff in the first round, he took the Scandinavian heavyweight title in 1953 and, on 30 September 1956, he won the European Heavyweight Championship by scoring a 13th-round KO over Italy's Franco Cavicchi in Milan for the European title. Johansson defended his European Crown against ranked heavyweights Henry Cooper and Joe Erskine, with a TKO in 13 on 21 February 1958. Johansson earned his shot at the world heavyweight crown when he knocked out top ranked contender Eddie Machen in the first round of their elimination match on 14 September 1958. In front of 53,615 fans in Ullevi football stadium, Johansson downed Machen three times finishing him with a barrage of punches at 2:16 of the first round. Johansson signed to fight champion Floyd Patterson. Johansson was a colourful figure in New York City.
Eschewing the monastic training regimen favored by Patterson and other fighters, Johansson trained at the Catskill resort of Grossingers. He did not seem to train hard, was seen at night spots with his attractive girlfriend, Elaine Sloane, whom he asked out while she was working for Sports Illustrated, he entered the ring in Yankee Stadium on 26 June 1959, as a 5–1 underdog. Johansson spent the first two rounds of the encounter retreating and flicking a light left jab at the champion. In the third round, Johansson threw a wide left hook; when he moved his right hand away from its protective peek-a-boo position before his chin, Johansson drilled him with a short powerful right hand. Patterson arose on unsteady legs and was out on his feet. Johansson followed up his advantage and sent Patterson down six more times in the round before the bout was stopped by referee Ruby Goldstein. Johansson celebrated with his girlfriend and future wife Birgit Lundgren and the next day a headline in a New York newspaper expressed the city's amazement.
It read: "Ingo – It's Bingo." When Johansson returned to Sweden, he flew in on a helicopter, landing in the main football stadium in Gothenburg, his home town, was cheered by 20,000 people. He appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated, as well as the cover of Life Magazine on 20 July 1959, alongside Birgit. Johansson was a flamboyant champion – a precursor to the "Swinging Sixties". One publication dubbed Johansson "boxing's Cary Grant" and in 1960 he appeared in the movie All the Young Men as a marine, alongside stars Alan Ladd and Sidney Poitier. Wherever he went, in the U. S. or in Sweden, he had a beautiful woman on his arm, with paparazzi snapping pictures. To train for the third fight with Patterson, Ingemar sparred with a young Muhammad Ali, in Miami Beach. After Cassius had "boxed his way around the ring, as if it was he, using'Ingo' as a sparring partner", somebody offered $100,000 to Ingemar to fight in a televised event with Ali, but Ingemar declined saying that the fight would not draw three ticket holders and that Ali did not have the ability to step in the ring with him at that time.
Johansson proposed to girlfriend Birgit in April 1960. He turned his attention to defending his title aga
Muhammad Ali was an American professional boxer and philanthropist. He is nicknamed "The Greatest" and is regarded as one of the most significant and celebrated sports figures of the 20th century and as one of the greatest boxers of all time. Ali was born and raised in Louisville and began training as an amateur boxer at age 12. At 18, he won a gold medal in the light heavyweight division at the 1960 Summer Olympics, turned professional that year, he converted to Islam after 1961, took the name Muhammad Ali. He won the world heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston in a major upset at age 22 in 1964. In 1966, Ali refused to be drafted into the military, citing his religious beliefs and opposition to the Vietnam War, he was arrested, found guilty of draft evasion, stripped of his boxing titles. He appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, which overturned his conviction in 1971, but he had not fought for nearly four years and lost a period of peak performance as an athlete, his actions as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the larger counterculture generation, he was a high-profile figure of racial pride for African Americans during the civil rights movement.
Ali was a leading heavyweight boxer of the 20th century, he remains the only three-time lineal champion of that division. His joint records of beating 21 boxers for the world heavyweight title and winning 14 unified title bouts stood for 35 years. Ali is the only boxer to be named The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year six times, he has been ranked the greatest heavyweight boxer of all time, as the greatest athlete of the 20th century by Sports Illustrated, the Sports Personality of the Century by the BBC, the third greatest athlete of the 20th century by ESPN SportsCentury. He was involved in several historic boxing feuds. Ali thrived in the spotlight at a time when many fighters let their managers do the talking, he was provocative and outlandish, he was known for trash-talking, free-styled with rhyme schemes and spoken word poetry, anticipating elements of rap and hip hop music. Outside the ring, Ali attained success as a musician, he featured as an actor and writer, releasing two autobiographies.
Ali focused on religion and charity. In 1984, he made public his diagnosis of Parkinson's syndrome, which some reports attribute to boxing-related injuries, though he and his specialist physicians disputed this, he remained an active public figure globally, but in his latter years made limited public appearances as his condition worsened, he was cared for by his family until his death on June 3, 2016. Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born on January 1942, in Louisville, Kentucky. He had four brothers, he was named for his father, Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr. who himself was named in honor of the 19th-century Republican politician and staunch abolitionist, Cassius Marcellus Clay from the state of Kentucky. Clay's father's paternal grandparents were Sallie Anne Clay, he was a descendant of slaves of the antebellum South, was predominantly of African descent, with smaller amounts of Irish and English heritage. DNA testing performed in 2018 showed that, through his paternal grandmother, Ali was a descendant of the heroic former slave Archer Alexander, chosen from the building crew as the model of a freed man for the Emancipation Memorial, was the subject of abolitionist William Greenleaf Eliot's book, The Story of Archer Alexander: From Slavery to Freedom.
Like Ali, Alexander fought for his freedom. His father was a sign and billboard painter, his mother, Odessa O'Grady Clay, was a domestic helper. Although Cassius Sr. was a Methodist, he allowed Odessa to bring up both Cassius Jr. and his younger brother, Rudolph "Rudy" Clay, as Baptists. Cassius Jr. attended Central High School in Louisville. He was dyslexic, which led to difficulties in reading and writing, at school and for much of his life. Ali grew up amid racial segregation, his mother recalled one occasion when he was denied a drink of water at a store—"They wouldn't give him one because of his color. That affected him." He was affected by the 1955 murder of Emmett Till, which led to young Clay and a friend taking out their frustration by vandalizing a local rail yard. Ali was first directed toward boxing by Louisville police officer and boxing coach Joe E. Martin, who encountered the 12-year-old fuming over a thief's having taken his bicycle, he told the officer. The officer told Clay. Clay did not take up Martin's offer, but after seeing amateur boxers on a local television boxing program called Tomorrow's Champions, Clay was interested in the prospect of fighting.
He began to work with trainer Fred Stoner, whom he credits with giving him the "real training" moulding "my style, my stamina and my system." For the last four years of Clay's amateur career he was trained by boxing cutman Chuck Bodak. Clay made his amateur boxing debut in 1954 against local amateur boxer Ronnie O'Keefe, he won by split decision. He went on to win six Kentucky Golden Gloves titles, two national Golden Gloves titles, an Amateur Athletic Union national title, the Light Heavyweight gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. Clay's amateur record was 100 wins with five losses. Ali said in his 1975 autobiography that shortly after his return from the Rome Olympics, he threw his gold medal into the Ohio River after he and a friend we
In hand-to-hand combat, grappling is a close fighting technique used to gain a physical advantage such as improving relative position, or causing injury to the opponent. Grappling covers techniques used in many disciplines and martial arts that are practiced both as combat sports and for self-defense. Grappling most does not include striking or the use of weapons. However, some fighting styles or martial arts known for their grappling techniques teach tactics that include strikes and weapons either alongside grappling or combined with it. Grappling techniques can be broadly subdivided into Clinch fighting. Clinching, or clinch work, takes place with both competitors on their feet using various clinch holds applied to the upper body of the opponent. Clinch work is used to set up or defend against throws or takedowns. Takedowns A takedown is used by one grappler to manipulate his opponent from a position where both are standing, to a position on the ground; the grappler completing the takedown aims to end on top of the opponent in a position of relative control.
Throws: A throw is a technique in which one grappler lifts or off-balances his opponent and maneuvers him forcefully through the air or to the ground. The purpose of throws varies among the different disciplines of grappling with some emphasizing throws with the potential to incapacitate the opponent, while leaving the thrower standing, or to gain a takedown or controlling position. Sprawling: A sprawl is a defensive technique done when the opponent attempts a takedown, it is spread out in one fast motion. If done one will land on their opponent's back and gain control. Submission holds: There are two types of submission holds: those that would strangle or suffocate an opponent, those that would cause injury to a joint or other body part. In sport grappling, a competitor is expected to submit, either verbally or by tapping the opponent, to admit defeat when he is caught in a submission hold that he cannot escape. Competitors who refuse to "tap out" risk serious injury. Securing or Controlling Techniques: A pin involves holding an opponent on his back in a position where he is unable to attack.
In some styles of competitive grappling a pin is an instant victory, in other styles it is considered a dominant position, rewarded with points. Other controlling techniques are used to hold an opponent face down on the ground or on all fours in order to prevent an escape or attack. Either of these types of technique may be used as a prelude to a submission hold. Escapes: In a general sense, an escape is accomplished by maneuvering out of danger or from an inferior position. Turnovers: used to maneuver an opponent, on all fours or flat on their stomach to their back, in order to score points, prepare for a pin or in order to gain a more dominant position. Reversals or Sweeps: These occur when a grappler, underneath his opponent on the ground is able to maneuver so that he gains a top position over his opponent; the degree to which grappling is utilized in different fighting systems varies. Some systems, such as amateur wrestling, Pehlwani submission wrestling, judo and Brazilian jiu-jitsu are grappling arts and do not allow striking.
Many combat sports, such as shooto and mixed martial arts competitions use grappling while retaining striking as part of the sport Grappling is not allowed in some martial arts and combat sports for the sake of focusing on other aspects of combat such as punching, kicking or mêlée weapons. Opponents in these types of matches, still grapple with each other when fatigued or in pain. Examples of these include boxing, taekwondo and fencing. While prolonged grappling in Muay Thai will result in a separation of the competitors, the art extensively uses the clinch hold known as a double collar tie. Grappling techniques and defenses to grappling techniques are considered important in self-defense applications and in law enforcement; the most common grappling techniques taught for self-defense are escapes from holds and application of pain compliance techniques. Grappling can be trained for self-defense and mixed martial arts competition. Stand-up grappling is arguably an integral part of all grappling and clinch fighting arts, considering that two combatants start fighting from a stand-up position.
The aim of stand-up grappling varies according to the martial arts or combat sports in question. Defensive stand-up grappling concerns itself with pain-compliance holds and escapes from possible grappling holds applied by an opponent, while offensive grappling techniques include submission holds, trapping and throws, all of which can be used to inflict serious damage, or to move the fight to the ground. Stand-up grappling can be used both offensively and defensively with striking, either to trap an opponents arms while striking, prevent the opponent from obtaining sufficient distance to strike or to bring the opponent close to apply, for instance, knee strikes. In combat sports, stand-up grappling revolves around successful takedowns and throws. G