Knossos, is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city. Settled as early as the Neolithic period, the name Knossos survives from ancient Greek references to the major city of Crete; the palace of Knossos became the ceremonial and political centre of the Minoan civilization and culture. The palace was abandoned at some unknown time at the end of the Late Bronze Age, c. 1,380–1,100 BC. The reason why is unknown, but one of the many disasters that befell the palace is put forward. In the First Palace Period, the urban area reached a size of as many as 18,000 people. In its peak, the palace and surrounding city boasted a population of 100,000 people shortly after 1,700 BC; the name Knossos was Latinized as Cnossus or Cnossos, Knossus, Gnossus, or Gnossos but is now always written Knossos. The site of Knossos has had a long history of human habitation, beginning with the founding of the first Neolithic settlement. Neolithic remains are prolific in Crete.
They are found in caves, rock shelters and settlements. Knossos has a thick Neolithic layer indicating the site was a sequence of settlements before the Palace Period; the earliest was placed on bedrock. Arthur Evans, who unearthed the palace of Knossos in modern times, estimated that c. 8,000 BC a Neolithic people arrived at the hill from overseas by boat, placed the first of a succession of wattle and daub villages. Large numbers of clay and stone incised whorls attest to local cloth-making. There are fine ground axe and mace heads of colored stone: greenstone, serpentine and jadeite, as well as obsidian knives and arrowheads along with the cores from which they were flaked. Most significant among the other small items were a large number of animal and human figurines, including nude sitting or standing females with exaggerated breasts and buttocks. Evans attributed them to the worship of the Neolithic mother goddess and figurines in general to religion. Among the items found in Knossos is a Minoan depiction of a goddess flanked by two lionesses that shows a goddess who appears in many other images.
John Davies Evans undertook further excavations in pits and trenches over the palace, focusing on the Neolithic. In the Aceramic Neolithic, 7,000–6,000 BC, a hamlet of 25–50 persons existed at the location of the Central Court, they lived in wattle and daub huts, kept animals, grew crops, and, in the event of tragedy, buried their children under the floor. In such circumstances as they are still seen today, a hamlet consisted of several families interrelated, practicing some form of exogamy, living in close quarters, with little or no privacy and a high degree of intimacy, spending most of their time in the outdoors, sheltering only for the night or in inclement weather, to a large degree nomadic or semi-nomadic. In the Early Neolithic, a village of 200–600 persons occupied most of the area of the palace and the slopes to the north and west, they lived in one- or two-room square houses of mud-brick walls set on socles of stone, either field stone or recycled stone artifacts. The inner walls were lined with mud-plaster.
The roofs were flat. The residents dug hearths at various locations in the center of the main room; this village had an unusual feature: one house under the West Court contained eight rooms and covered 50 m2. The walls were at right angles; the door was centered. Large stones were used for support under points of greater stress; the fact that distinct sleeping cubicles for individuals was not the custom suggests storage units of some sort. The settlement of the Middle Neolithic, housed 500–1000 people in more substantial and more family-private homes. Construction was the same, except the windows and doors were timbered, a fixed, raised hearth occupied the center of the main room, pilasters and other raised features occupied the perimeter. Under the palace was the Great House, a 100 m2 area stone house divided into five rooms with meter-thick walls suggesting a second story was present; the presence of the house, unlikely to have been a private residence like the others, suggests a communal or public use.
In the Late or Final Neolithic, the population increased dramatically. It is believed that the first Cretan palaces were built soon after c. 2,000 BC, in the early part of the Middle Minoan period, at Knossos and other sites including Mallia and Zakro. These palaces, which were to set the pattern of organisation in Crete and Greece through the second millennium, were a sharp break from the Neolithic village system that had prevailed thus far; the building of the palaces implies greater wealth and a concentration of authority, both political and religious. It is suggested that they followed eastern models such as those at Ugarit on the Syrian coast and Mari on the upper Euphrates; the early palaces were destroyed during Middle Minoan II, sometime before c. 1,700 certainly by earthquakes to which Crete is prone. By c. 1,650, they had been rebuilt on a grander scale and the period of the second palaces marks the height of Minoan prosperity. All the palaces had large central courtyards which may have been used for public ceremonies and spectacles.
Living quarters, storage rooms and administrative centres were positioned around the court and there were working quarters for sk
Frank Williams Jr. was a gridiron football player who played for the BC Lions and Los Angeles Rams. His parents were Frank Williams and Elya M. Glenn of Texarkana, TX, he was one of four children. The nurses wrote his name incorrectly on the certificate, which read, Frank'Jr.' Williams. He didn't have a middle name, he was a junior, named after his father, Frank Williams, he went by Frank J. Williams, he played college football at Pepperdine University. He was drafted to the Lions right out of Pepperdine, he had 6 children. He died July 13, 2006, is buried in Kent, King County, WA at Tahoma National Cemetery
"Virtual In-Stanity" is the fifth episode of the seventh season of the animated comedy series American Dad!. It aired on Fox in the United States on November 20, 2011; the episode plot revolves around Stan making a desperate attempt to bond with his son, Steve by creating an avatar in the form of a teenage girl. This episode was directed by Shawn Murray; this episode received positive reviews. While playing poker with the guys, Stan observes Dick trying out his avatar "Black Dick" to work out some frustration from losing. Dick does this by entering a virtual reality machine and, hooked up to sensors, dictates the movements of an android. Francine warns Stan that he is about to miss Steve's birthday yet again. Stan rushes home with a stuffed rabbit full of cocaine from evidence as a gift. Over home movies, Stan realizes he is not in any of them because he was always busy with other things. After Steve gives him the brush off from an invitation to a baseball game, Stan starts worrying that he may miss out on a chance to bond with Steve.
Stan makes a desperate attempt to bond with his son by creating a busty blonde bombshell avatar, whom he sends Steve’s way. But as Stan feels uncomfortable with making out to his son through Phyllis, Steve feels the relationship is going nowhere and decides to take a girl named Chelsea to the school dance instead. In desperation, Stan makes an offer through Phyllis to have sex with Steve if he goes to the school with her that the boy gladly accepts. On the night of the dance, upon learning what her husband is up to when she arrives to the CIA building, Francine attempts to intervene, but unable to get into the avatar chamber, Francine takes a power lift mecha to the school and uses it to pin Phyllis down while Steve is in the bathroom trying to ready himself. Convinced by Francine that he should just accept his life with Steve the way it is, Stan has Phyllis break up with Steve; when Steve attempts to hook up with Chelsea again, he finds she is no longer interested in him and runs home where he gets comforted by Stan.
Though Francine points that he caused the grief for his son, Stan is more focused on the fact that he was there for Steve. Meanwhile, Roger starts his own limo service with Klaus joining on the venture, but when a group of disrespectful fraternity boys "drive and dash", ignoring their antics in hope of being paid twenty dollars, Roger goes on a murderous manhunt to get his revenge starting with one of the boys immediately. Roger runs down two others at his first victim's funeral and the fourth while he is in a bathroom stall; the last survivor tries to flee on an airplane, only to look out the window in mid flight to see Roger's limo on the wing. Roger runs him down as well, causing the plane to explode and killing everyone on board; as he and Klaus pass a surviving flight attendant in a parachute, getting addicted to his murderous bloodlust, Roger kills her by undoing her chute before he and Klaus crash land in their own parachutes. This episode was directed by Shawn Murray. Seth MacFarlane, the creator and executive producer of American Dad!, as well as its sister shows Family Guy and The Cleveland Show, served as the executive producer for the episode, along with series veterans Mike Barker, Rick Wiener, Matt Weitzman, Kenny Schwartz.
In addition to the regular cast, Sarah Michelle Gellar guest starred in the episode appearing in this episode was Gellar's former co-star Alyson Hannigan. David Koechner, who appeared in The Office and Saturday Night Live, reprises his role of Dick Reynolds in this episode. Rowan Kaiser from The A. V. Club gave the episode an A-, saying: "American Dad resisted the impulse to pander, with the possible exception of Francine climbing into an exo-suit and saying "Stay away from him, you bitch!" This meant. It's a great episode for fans of Roger, Stan and Steve, which I'm pretty sure encompasses pretty much every American Dad fan."Dyanamaria Leifsson of TV Equals gave the episode a positive review, saying "Even though the reality of what was happening in both story lines was quite sick and twisted, I enjoyed this episode of American Dad. Putting aside the fact that Stan was trying to seduce his son in exchange for quality father-son time and the fact that Roger was murdering guys for what amounted to $4 per person, I thought the premise was clever and there were a ton of great laughs throughout."
The episode was watched by a total of 4.82 million people, this made it the third most watched show on Animation Domination that night, beating The Cleveland Show and Allen Gregory but losing to The Simpsons and Family Guy with 6.02 million. "Virtual In-Stanity" on IMDb "Virtual In-Stanity" at TV.com