A knot is an intentional complication in cordage which may be useful or decorative. Practical knots may be classified as hitches, splices, or knots. A hitch fastens a rope to another object. A knot in the strictest sense serves as a stopper or knob at the end of a rope to keep that end from slipping through a grommet or eye. Knots have excited interest since ancient times for their practical uses, as well as their topological intricacy, studied in the area of mathematics known as knot theory. There is a large variety of each with properties that make it suitable for a range of tasks; some knots are used to attach the rope to other objects such as another rope, ring, or stake. Some knots are used to constrict objects. Decorative knots bind to themselves to produce attractive patterns. While some people can look at diagrams or photos and tie the illustrated knots, others learn best by watching how a knot is tied. Knot tying skills are transmitted by sailors, climbers, cavers, rescue professionals, fishermen and surgeons.
The International Guild of Knot Tyers is an organization dedicated to the promotion of knot tying. Truckers in need of securing a load may use a trucker's hitch, gaining mechanical advantage. Knots can save spelunkers from being buried under rock. Many knots can be used as makeshift tools, for example, the bowline can be used as a rescue loop, the munter hitch can be used for belaying; the diamond hitch was used to tie packages on to donkeys and mules. In hazardous environments such as mountains, knots are important. In the event of someone falling into a ravine or a similar terrain feature, with the correct equipment and knowledge of knots a rappel system can be set up to lower a rescuer down to a casualty and set up a hauling system to allow a third individual to pull both the rescuer and the casualty out of the ravine. Further application of knots includes developing a high line, similar to a zip line, which can be used to move supplies, injured people, or the untrained across rivers, crevices, or ravines.
Note the systems mentioned require carabiners and the use of multiple appropriate knots. These knots include the bowline, double figure eight, munter hitch, munter mule, prusik and clove hitch, thus any individual who goes into a mountainous environment should have basic knowledge of knots and knot systems to increase safety and the ability to undertake activities such as rappelling. Knots can be applied in combination to produce complex objects such as netting. In ropework, the frayed end of a rope is held together by a type of knot called a whipping knot. Many types of textiles use knots to repair damage. Macramé, one kind of textile, is generated through the use of knotting, instead of knits, weaves or felting. Macramé can produce self-supporting three-dimensional textile structures, as well as flat work, is used ornamentally or decoratively. Knots weaken the rope; when knotted rope is strained to its breaking point, it always fails at the knot or close to it, unless it is defective or damaged elsewhere.
The bending and chafing forces that hold a knot in place unevenly stress rope fibers and lead to a reduction in strength. The exact mechanisms that cause the weakening and failure are complex and are the subject of continued study. Special fibers that show differences in color in response to strain are being developed and used to study stress as it relates to types of knots. Relative knot strength called knot efficiency, is the breaking strength of a knotted rope in proportion to the breaking strength of the rope without the knot. Determining a precise value for a particular knot is difficult because many factors can affect a knot efficiency test: the type of fiber, the style of rope, the size of rope, whether it is wet or dry, how the knot is dressed before loading, how it is loaded, whether the knot is loaded, so on; the efficiency of common knots ranges between 40—80% of the rope's original strength. In most situations forming loops and bends with conventional knots is far more practical than using rope splices though the latter can maintain nearly the rope's full strength.
Prudent users allow for a large safety margin in the strength of rope chosen for a task due to the weakening effects of knots, damage, shock loading, etc. The working load limit of a rope is specified with a significant safety factor, up to 15:1 for critical applications. For life-threatening applications, other factors come into play. If the rope does not break, a knot may still fail to hold. Knots that hold firm under a variety of adverse conditions are said to be more secure than those that do not. Repeated, dynamic loads will cause every knot to fail; the main ways knots fail to hold are: The load creates tension that pulls the rope back through the knot in the direction of the load. If this continues far enough, the working end fails; this behavior can worsen when the knot is strained and let slack, dragged over rough terrain, or struck against hard objects such as masts and flagpoles. With secure knots, slippage may occur when the knot is first put under real tension; this can be mitigated by leaving plenty of rope at the working end outside of the knot, by dressing the knot cleanly and tightening it as much as possible before loading.
Sometimes, the use of a stopper knot or better, a backup knot can prevent the working end from passing through the knot.
Christopher Henry Smith is an American politician serving in his 20th term as the U. S. Representative for New Jersey's 4th congressional district, having served since 1981; the district includes portions of Mercer and Ocean counties. He is a member of the Republican Party. Smith has been nominated and confirmed twice to serve as a member of the United States delegation to the United Nations General Assembly, he was nominated by President Barack Obama in 2015 for the 70th session and nominated again by President Donald Trump in 2017 for the 72nd session. Smith is the Dean of New Jersey's Congressional Delegation, was the delegation's sole Republican elected to the 116th Congress. Smith has built his political career as a champion of human rights, sponsoring numerous pieces of human rights and anti-human trafficking legislation and leading human rights missions to other countries. Smith was born in Rahway, New Jersey on March 4, 1953, he attended St. Mary's High School in Perth Amboy, where he competed athletically as a runner and wrestler.
Smith earned the Eagle Scout award. After graduating with a B. A. from Trenton State College in 1975, he became executive director of the New Jersey Right to Life Committee in 1976. A Democrat, he switched parties and became a Republican in 1978. While working at his family's sporting goods store, 25-year-old Smith ran for Congress as a Republican in 1978, he lost to longtime Democratic incumbent U. S. Congressman Frank Thompson 61%–37%. In 1980 he ran again in a rematch. Smith was thought to have a slim chance of winning, but Thompson was indicted as part of the FBI's Abscam probe. Helped by Ronald Reagan's strong performance in the district, Smith defeated Thompson 57%–41%. In 1982, Smith's Democratic opponent was former New Jersey Senate President Joseph P. Merlino. At the end of one of their debates, Smith approached Merlino to exchange pleasantries. Merlino was quoted as saying "Beat it, kid." It was assumed that Smith's 1980 victory over the scandal-plagued Thompson was a fluke, that he would lose reelection after one term.
Nonetheless, Smith defeated Merlino with 53% of the vote. Subsequently, court-ordered mid-decade redistricting in 1984 made the district friendlier to Smith, he has not faced another contest nearly that close since. In the 2006 elections, Smith was re-elected with 66% of the vote, the highest percentage for any Republican in the New Jersey delegation. In 2008, Smith ran against Democrat Joshua M. Zeitz. Smith won re-election 66%–32%. In 2010, Smith received 69.4% of the vote, coming in ahead of Democratic candidate Howard Kleinhendler, Libertarian candidate Joe Siano, Green Party candidate Steven Welzer, American Renaissance Movement candidate David Meiswinkle. The 2012 elections saw Smith win 64% of the vote, with Brian Froelich, the Democratic candidate, receiving 35%. In 2014, Smith defeated Democratic candidate Ruben Scolanio, 68%–31%. Smith defeated Democratic candidate Lorna Phillipson in 2016, 63%–33%. In 2018, Smith defeated Democratic candidate Joshua Welle, receiving 55% of the vote to Welle's 43%.
Smith was the only Republican to win a Congressional race in New Jersey that year, reducing the GOP to its smallest presence in New Jersey's House delegation since 1918. Smith was ranked as the 17th most bipartisan member of the U. S. House of Representatives during the 114th United States Congress in the Bipartisan Index by The Lugar Center, it was revealed in October 2015 that intern applicants for Smith's office were required to rate "27 different personalities and political issues to indicate whether they tend to agree with them, disagree with them or have no opinion or knowledge of them." Personalities and organizations included Rachel Maddow, the Pope, Planned Parenthood, The National Right to Life Committee. Veterans In January 2001, Smith became chairman of the Veterans' Affairs Committee and there pushed for policies opposed by the Republican leadership, including voting against the Republican and for the Democratic budget resolution because the latter included more spending on veterans programs, which resulted in his losing the chairmanship in January 2005, two years short of the normal six-year term.
Smith passed 22 laws addressing veterans issues. In 2004, Smith refused to endorse the Republican budget proposal unless it included more money for veterans. In a congressional hearing, Smith publicly articulated his belief that the Bush Administration's budget request was $1.2 billion less than the Department of Veterans Affairs required, embarrassing the administration and Republican congressional leadership. Smith did not expect a challenge for the chair when Congress convened in 2005. However, Steve Buyer, the fourth ranking Republican on the committee, asked for an interview with the Republican Steering Committee, on January 5, 2005 it voted to make him chairman; that decision was ratified by the Republican Conference on January 6, Smith was removed from the committee altogether. Smith stated. I see the power of the gavel as a strategic opportunity to do good, to use it in every way to help veterans", he said in his speech to the Conference. New Jersey Republicans expressed dismay, New Jersey Democrats and the leaders of just about every veterans group expressed outrage.
Richard B. Fuller, the national legislative director for the Paralyzed Veterans of America, said, "The Republicans needed a chairman who would say no to veterans' groups and say yes to the Republican leadership; that meant get rid of Chris Smith
General Gérard Charles Édouard Thériault, CMM, CD was Chief of the Defence Staff between 1983 and 1986. Thériault graduated from Sir George Williams University in Montreal, he joined the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1951. His first solo flight, where he earned his wings, took place on June 1952 in a Harvard aircraft, he was a proponent of the unification of the military of Canada. In 1967 he was promoted to wing commander and moved to the Collège Militaire Royal, St-Jean, Qué, now Royal Military College Saint-Jean where he served as Vice-Commandant until 1970. Promoted to Colonel, he became commandant of the CMR in 1970. In 1971, he was assigned command of Canadian Forces Base Bagotville in Northern Québec. In 1973, he took over command of 1 CAG in Germany. In 1975, he was assumed command of Air Command in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In 1977, he was transferred to Ottawa as the CADO. In 1979, he was installed as the Deputy Chief of Defence Staff. In 1980, he became Vice Chief of the Defence Staff and Chief of the Defence Staff in 1983 before retiring in 1986.
He was President of AEG Canada Inc. until 1995