Little Moreton Hall
Little Moreton Hall known as Old Moreton Hall, is a moated half-timbered manor house 4.5 miles southwest of Congleton in Cheshire, England. The earliest parts of the house were built for the prosperous Cheshire landowner William Moreton in about 1504–08, the remainder was constructed in stages by successive generations of the family until about 1610; the building is irregular, with three asymmetrical ranges forming a small, rectangular cobbled courtyard. A National Trust guidebook describes Little Moreton Hall as being "lifted straight from a fairy story, a gingerbread house"; the house's top-heavy appearance, "like a stranded Noah's Ark", is due to the Long Gallery that runs the length of the south range's upper floor. The house remained in the possession of the Moreton family for 450 years, until ownership was transferred to the National Trust in 1938. Little Moreton Hall and its sandstone bridge across the moat are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, the ground on which Little Moreton Hall stands is protected as a Scheduled Monument.
The house has been restored and is open to the public from April to December each year. At its greatest extent, in the mid-16th century, the Little Moreton Hall estate occupied an area of 1,360 acres and contained a cornmill, gardens, an iron bloomery with water-powered hammers; the gardens lay abandoned until their 20th-century re-creation. As there were no surviving records of the layout of the original knot garden it was replanted according to a pattern published in the 17th century; the name Moreton derives from the Old English mor meaning "marshland" and tune, meaning "farm", thus "a farm at a marsh". The area where Little Moreton Hall stands today was named Little Moreton to distinguish it from the nearby township of Moreton-cum-Alcumlow, or Greater Moreton; the Moreton family's roots in Little Moreton can be traced to the marriage in 1216 of Lettice de Moreton to Sir Gralam de Lostock, who inherited land there. Gralam de Lostock's grandson, Gralam de Moreton, acquired valuable land from his marriages to Alice de Lymme and Margery de Kingsley.
Another grandson, John de Moreton, married heiress Margaret de Macclesfield in 1329, adding further to the estate. The family purchased land cheaply after the Black Death epidemic of 1348. Four generations after John de Moreton, the family owned sixteen messuages, a mill and 700 acres of land, comprising 560 acres of ploughland, 80 acres of pasture, 20 acres of meadow, 20 acres of wood and 20 acres of moss; the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the mid-16th century provided further opportunities for the Moretons to add to their estate, by the early years of Elizabeth I's reign, William Moreton II owned two water mills and 1,360 acres of land valued at £24 7s 4d, including 500 acres of ploughland, 500 acres of pasture and 100 acres of turbary. Little Moreton Hall first appears in the historical record in 1271, but the present building dates from the early 16th century; the north range is the earliest part of the house. Built between 1504 and 1508 for William Moreton, it comprises the Great Hall and the northern part of the east wing.
A service wing to the west, built at the same time but subsequently replaced, gave the early house an H-shaped floor plan. The east range was extended to the south in about 1508 to provide additional living quarters, as well as housing the Chapel and the Withdrawing Room. In 1546 William Moreton's son called William, replaced the original west wing with a new range housing service rooms on the ground floor as well as a porch and three interconnected rooms on the first floor, one of which had access to a garderobe. In 1559 William had a new floor inserted at gallery level in the Great Hall, added the two large bay windows looking onto the courtyard, built so close to each other that their roofs abut one another; the south wing was added in about 1560–62 by William Moreton II's son John. It includes the Gatehouse and a third storey containing a 68-foot Long Gallery, which appears to have been an afterthought added on after construction work had begun. A small kitchen and Brew-house block was added to the south wing in about 1610, the last major extension to the house.
The fortunes of the Moreton family declined during the English Civil War. As supporters of the Royalist cause, they found themselves isolated in a community of Parliamentarians. Little Moreton Hall was requisitioned by the Parliamentarians in 1643 and used to billet Parliamentary soldiers; the family petitioned for its restitution, survived the Civil War with their ownership of Little Moreton Hall intact, but financially they were crippled. They could only dispose of several parcels of land. William Moreton died in 1654 leaving debts of £3,000–£4,000, which forced his heirs to remortgage what remained of the estate; the family's fortunes never recovered, by the late 1670s they no longer lived in Little Moreton Hall, renting it out instead to a series of tenant farmers. The Dale family took over the tenancy in 1841, were still in residence more than 100 years later. By 1847 most of the house was unoccupied, the deconsecrated Chapel was being used as a coal cellar and storeroom. Little Moreton Hall was in a ruinous condition.
During the 19th century Little Moreton Hall became "an object of romantic interest" among artists. Elizabeth Moreton, an Anglican nun, inherited the
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; the urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean. Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland with the formation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans; the province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngai Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour, which became a whaling station in the 1830s. In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland.
Between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin became wealthy beginning in the 1860s. In the mid-1860s, between 1878 and 1881, it was New Zealand's largest urban area; the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic and geographic reasons. Dunedin has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing and technology-based industries as well as education and tourism; the city's most important activity centres around tertiary education—Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature. Archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast.
A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied in the 14th century; the population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were Maori settlements at Whareakeake, Purakaunui and Huriawa to the north, at Taieri Mouth and Otokia to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical; the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid-17th century. These migration waves have been represented as'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that.
They were migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the'Kaika Otargo' were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill, he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin; the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the ch
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters and the Roman Catholic Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels. In 1558 upon Mary's death, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel, she depended on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley.
One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England, it was expected that Elizabeth would produce an heir. She was succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland, she had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment and execution of James's mother, Queen of Scots. In government, Elizabeth was more moderate. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo". In religion, she was tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. After the pope declared her illegitimate in 1570 and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of Spain, she only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands and Ireland.
By the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history; as she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult grew around her, celebrated in the portraits and literature of the day. Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era; the period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.
After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard, she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England, her older half-sister, had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir and ensure the Tudor succession. She was baptised on 10 September 1533. A canopy was carried at the ceremony over the three-day old child by her uncle Viscount Rochford, Lord Hussey, Lord Thomas Howard, Lord Howard of Effingham. Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragon's death from natural causes.
Elizabeth was deprived of her place in the royal succession. Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Edward, in 1537. From his birth, Edward was undisputed heir apparent to the throne. Elizabeth was placed in his household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening. Elizabeth's first governess, Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as I knew any in my life". Catherine Champernowne, better known by her married name of Catherine "Kat" Ashley, was appointed as Elizabeth's governess in 1537, she remained Elizabeth's friend until her death in 1565. Champernowne taught Elizabeth four languages: French, Flemish and Spanish. By the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she progressed in French and Greek. After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be engaging.
By the time her formal education ended in 1550, Elizabeth was one of the best educated women of her generation. At the end of her life, Elizabeth was believed to speak Welsh, Cornish and Irish in addition to the languages men
St Fagans is a village and community in the west of the city of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It is home to the St Fagans National History Museum; the name of the area invokes Saint Fagan, according to William of Malmesbury a 2nd-century missionary to Wales but for whom there is no reliable historical evidence. In 1648, the Battle of St Fagans took place close by. To the south lies the village of Michaelston-super-Ely, to the east the suburb of Fairwater; the community includes Rhydlafar to the north. St Fagans lies on the River Ely, had a railway station on the South Wales Main Line, there is a level crossing; the village is home to St Fagans National History Museum which includes St Fagans Castle and gardens. St Mary's Church in the village dates with an 18th century tower. St Fagans Old Rectory is another important Grade II* listed building nearby. St Fagans is home to St Fagans Cricket Club. In 2017 construction started on a new Cardiff suburb of 7,000 houses, named Plasdwr, on countryside between St Fagans and Radyr.
St Fagans elects a community council of up to nine community councillors. Map sources for St Fagans Official St Fagans Community Council Website ILP
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 459,300. The wider district has the 10th-largest population in England; the urban area population of 724,000 is the 8th-largest in the UK. The city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. South Wales lies across the Severn estuary. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, around the beginning of the 11th century the settlement was known as Brycgstow. Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts. Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Birmingham and Liverpool in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a starting place for early voyages of exploration to the New World.
On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, became the first European since the Vikings to land on mainland North America. In 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America. At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slave ships carried an estimated 500,000 people from Africa to slavery in the Americas; the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristol's modern economy is built on the creative media and aerospace industries, the city-centre docks have been redeveloped as centres of heritage and culture; the city has the largest circulating community currency in the UK—the Bristol pound, pegged to the Pound sterling. The city has two universities, the University of Bristol and the University of the West of England, a variety of artistic and sporting organisations and venues including the Royal West of England Academy, the Arnolfini, Spike Island, Ashton Gate and the Memorial Stadium.
It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road and rail, to the world by sea and air: road, by the M5 and M4. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, Bristol was selected in 2009 as one of the world's top ten cities by international travel publishers Dorling Kindersley in their Eyewitness series of travel guides; the Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, Bristol won the EU's European Green Capital Award in 2015. The most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge, it is most stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a simple calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor, the common Saxon suffix Stow replacing Caer. Alternative etymologies are supported by numerous orthographic variations in medieval documents, with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms; the Old English form Brycgstow is used to derive the meaning place at the bridge.
Utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile; the poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric, a leading landholder in the area. It appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, the Bristolian'L' is what changed the name to Bristol. Archaeological finds, including flint tools believed to be between 300,000 and 126,000 years old made with the Levallois technique, indicate the presence of Neanderthals in the Shirehampton and St Annes areas of Bristol during the Middle Palaeolithic. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, on Kings Weston Hill near Henbury. A Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000. By 1067 Brycgstow was a well-fortified burh, that year the townsmen beat off a raiding party from Ireland led by three of Harold Godwinson's sons.
Under Norman rule, the town had one of the strongest castles in southern England. Bristol was the place of exile for Diarmait Mac Murchada, the Irish king of Leinster, after being overthrown; the Bristol merchants subsequently played a prominent role in funding Richard Strongbow de Clare and the Norman invasion of Ireland. The port developed in the 11th century around the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon, adjacent to Bristol Bridge just outside the town walls. By the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland, including slaves. There was an important Jewish community in Bristol from the late 12th century through to the late 13th century when all Jews were expelled from England; the stone bridge built in 1247 was replaced by the current bridge during the 1760s. The town incorporated neighbouring suburbs and became a county in 1373, the first town in England to be given this status. During this period, Bristol became manufacturing centre. By the 14th centur
Gardens of the French Renaissance
The Gardens of the French Renaissance is a garden style inspired by the Italian Renaissance garden, which evolved into the grander and more formal Garden à la française during the reign of Louis XIV, by the middle of the 17th century. In 1495, King Charles VIII and his nobles brought the Renaissance style back to France after their war campaign in Italy, they reached their peak in the gardens of the royal Château de Fontainebleau, the Château-Gaillard of Amboise, the Château de Blois, the Château de Chenonceau. French Renaissance gardens were characterized by symmetrical and geometric planting beds or parterres, they became an extension of the châteaux that they surrounded, were designed to illustrate the Renaissance ideals of measure and proportion, to remind viewers of the virtues of Ancient Rome. In the 13th century, the Italian landscape architect Pietro de' Crescenzi wrote a treatise called Opus Ruralium Commodium, which laid out a formal plan for gardens, ornamented with topiary sculptures and bushes trimmed into architectural shapes, following a tradition begun by the Romans.
King Charles V of France ordered a French translation in 1373, the new Italian style began to appear in France. Another influential writer was Leon Battista Alberti, who in 1450 wrote a tract, De re aedificatoria for Lorenzo de' Medici, he used the geometric principles of Vitruvius to design building façades and gardens, he suggested that the house should look over the garden, that the garden should have "porticos for giving shade, cradles where vines grow on columns of marble, there should be vases and amusing statues, provided that they are not obscene." In his design of the gardens of the Belvedere in Rome, the architect Bramante introduced the idea of perspective, using a long axis perpendicular to the palace, along which he placed parterres and fountains. This became a central feature of Renaissance gardens. A popular novel by the monk Francesco Colonna, published in Venice in 1499, called The Dream of Poliphile, an allegorical journey by a traveler, Poliphile, to fantastic lands in search of his love, had an enormous influence upon gardens of the time.
The ideas of a "garden-island" in a lake, such as the one in the Boboli Gardens in Florence, of statues of giants coming out of earth in the Park of the villa de Pratolino, the theme of labyrinth were all taken from the imaginary voyages of Poliphile. All these elements were to appear in French Renaissance gardens. In 1495, Charles VIII invaded the kingdom of Naples, he and his court saw the luxury of the palaces and gardens in Italy; when he returned to France in 1496, he convinced and brought back with him 22 Italian artists, including a monk and Master Gardener from Naples named Pacello da Mercogliano. They decided to reproduce in Amboise the marvels of Tuscany and elected a 15 hectares amphitheater-shaped land in the heart of the city to realize the King's dream of Poggioreale. Charles VIII ordered the construction of Château-Gaillard Amboise and Dom Pacello chose this royal domain to introduce and acclimatize the first orange trees in France, he creates lawns, floral beds and settings for his "Arte del Verde" and introduces Italian style gardens for the first time in France.
He used Château-Gaillard Amboise as an experimental laboratory for his innovations: he created a new variety of plum called Queen Claude and used specific technics such as half barrels as tree planter boxes. The gardens of Château-Gaillard Amboise stand as the "missing link" between medieval monastic gardens and future formal French gardens. Dom Pacello adapts Italian style "parquets" -sort of small square-shaped pieces of garden invents and sculpts vegetation using holly instead of boxwood as natural fences. At the beginning of the 16th century, King Francis I, who had visited Italy and had met Leonardo da Vinci, built gardens in the new style on three terraces of different levels bordered by the old walls of his Château de Blois. Besides the parterres of flowers, the gardens produced a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, including orange and lemon trees in boxes, which were taken indoors in winter; the building that sheltered them, still standing, was the first orangerie in France. The gardens were on the site of the present-day Place Victor-Hugo and the site of the railways station.
The last vestiges of the garden were destroyed in 1890 by the construction of the Avenue Victor-Hugo. At about the same time, Mercogliano designed gardens for the Château de Gaillon, owned by Cardinal Georges d'Amboise, a Minister of King Henry IV, who had spent time in Italy; the gardens, built on different levels below the old medieval château, were planted in parterres of flowers and fruit trees. The parterre at the entrance of the garden featured the coat of arms of France in flowers. Bushes were trimmed into the shapes of men on horseback and birds, it was decorated with imposing fountains of marble. The gardens of the Château de Bury were built between 1511 and 1524 by Florimont Robertet, a Secretary of State for both Louis XII and Francis I. Robertet had visited the villa Medici in at Fiesole, wanted to reproduce the terraced gardens he saw there; the château, departing from the traditional design of castles, was integrated with its gardens. Visitors passed through a square garden inside the castle and out into two geometric gardens behind the château, decorated with fountains and surrounded by a wooden gallery.
The axis went from the entrance at the far end of the garden. Like