Knots Landing is an American prime time television soap opera that aired on CBS from December 27, 1979, to May 13, 1993. A spin-off of Dallas, it was set in a fictitious coastal suburb of Los Angeles and centered on the lives of four married couples living in a cul-de-sac, Seaview Circle. By the time of its conclusion, storylines had included rape, kidnapping, drug smuggling, corporate intrigue, criminal investigations. S. television after Gunsmoke and Bonanza. Knots Landing was created by David Jacobs in conjunction with producer Michael Filerman. Although a spin-off of Dallas, the concept predates that series, was rebuffed by CBS in 1977, as the network wanted something more "saga-like". Jacobs created Dallas, which the network accepted and premiered in 1978. After Dallas became a hit, Jacobs was able to adapt Knots Landing as a spin-off series by way of incorporating characters introduced in the parent series; the series was inspired by a 1957 movie No Down Payment but by the 1973 Ingmar Bergman television miniseries Scenes from a Marriage.
Though not as popular in the ratings as Dallas, Knots Landing outlasted it and garnered much critical acclaim. The series peaked during the 1983–84 season with a 20.8 rating and a 20.0 rating for the 1984–85 season. This can be attributed, in part, to more dramatic storylines as the series became more soap opera-like, the gradual inclusion of newer characters to interact with the original cast. By the 1988–89 season, Knots Landing was ahead of Dallas in the ratings, though audiences for both shows by this time were less than their earlier years. Knots Landing was cancelled in 1993. There were 344 episodes and 14 seasons of Knots Landing from 1979 to 1993. In 1997, much of the cast reunited for a two-part mini-series entitled Knots Landing: Back to the Cul-de-Sac. In 2005, they reunited again for the non-fiction special Knots Landing Reunion: Together Again in which the cast reminisced about their time on the show. Dallas itself was revived in 2012, with characters from Knots Landing appearing in its second season.
During nearly the entire run of the original series, Knots Landing occupied the same timeslot: Thursday nights at 10:00 p.m. Gary Ewing was the black sheep of the Ewing family from Dallas. Gary was an alcoholic, his father Jock and elder brother J. R. had never treated him as an equal. The insecure Gary met Valene Clements when they were aged 15 years old respectively, they were married and had a daughter, but Gary left Southfork Ranch and divorced Valene. With Gary gone from Southfork Ranch, J. R. had Valene followed and'run out of town' as he took her daughter and manipulated Gary away from her. Years Valene and Lucy reconnected, causing Valene and Gary to reunite, they remarried, Gary's mother, Miss Ellie, bought the couple a house in California. Knots Landing is spun off from Dallas in the third-season episode titled "Return Engagements". In the first episode, newly remarried Gary and Val move to Knots Landing, California in a cul-de-sac known as Seaview Circle, they meet their neighbors, Sid Fairgate, the owner of Knots Landing Motors, a used car dealership, his wife Karen, the parents of three children: Diana and Michael.
Living on the cul-de-sac is corporate lawyer Richard Avery and his real estate agent wife Laura, who have a young son, Jason. Other neighbors include the young couple Kenny Ward, a record producer, his wife Ginger, a kindergarten teacher. Early in the series, Gary becomes a salesman at Knots Landing Motors, deals with visits from his wealthy brothers from Dallas, Bobby and J. R. Ewing. Gary and Valene get a visit from their teenage daughter Lucy, although she decides to return to Dallas, from Valene's estranged mother, Lilimae. Sid and Karen deal with problems surrounding Sid's oldest daughter, Annie and Laura deal with the circumstances surrounding Laura's rape, Kenny and Ginger's marriage hits the rocks when Kenny starts an affair with a young singer named Sylvie. In the season finale, Gary relapses into alcoholism. At the beginning of the second season, Sid's manipulative younger sister, Abby Cunningham, a recent divorcée and the mother of two children and Brian, move to Knots Landing. Abby starts working for her brother at Knots Landing Motors and takes an interest in Richard, beginning a rather open affair with him, she makes sure that Valene discovers Gary having an affair with Judy Trent, the wife of a man he befriended while in Alcoholics Anonymous.
In the meantime, Laura starts an affair with her boss, Scooter Warren, Abby soon dumps Richard when her ex-husband, threatens to take her children from her. While separated from Kenny, Ginger starts a romance with the father of one of her students, although she and Kenny reconcile. Near the end of the season, Jeff succeeds in taking Brian from Abby, leaving her frantic; when Sid discovered some car parts that Gary and Abby had purchased were stolen, his brakes were
Bank of the Orient is an Asian American bank in the United States. Headquartered in San Francisco, with branch offices in California and Xiamen, this held bank is one of few Asian American banks in the United States that has expanded beyond their original communities; the bank was established on March 17, 1971. The first owned Asian American bank to be launched in California since World War II, Bank of the Orient was founded in 1971 by Ernest Go, a Chinese Filipino whose family was successful in international banking business; the bank served the local Chinese and Asian communities in San Francisco, where most of its branch offices still locate today, with its success, the bank expanded into Hawaii. Bank of the Orient is one of the first to venture into the growing Chinese market and its Xiamen branch office was in business since the mid-1990s. Bank of the Orient
Hermesianax of Colophon was an Ancient Greek elegiac poet of the Hellenistic period, said to be a pupil of Philitas of Cos. His chief work was a poem in three books, dedicated to his mistress Leontion. Of this poem a fragment of about one hundred lines has been preserved by Athenaeus. Plaintive in tone, it enumerates instances and semi-historical, of the irresistible power of love. Hermesianax, whose style is characterized by alternate force and tenderness, was exceedingly popular in his own times, was esteemed in the Augustan period. Many separate editions have been published of the fragment, the text of, in a unsatisfactory condition: by FW Schneidewin, J Bailey, others. Hopkinson, N. A Hellenistic Anthology, Cambridge, ISBN 978-0-521-31425-1. Hutchinson, G. O. Hellenistic Poetry, Oxford, ISBN 978-0-19-814748-0. Lightfoot, J. L. Hellenistic Collection: Philitas, Alexander of Aetolia, Euphorion, Loeb Classical Library, no. 508, Cambridge, MA, ISBN 978-0-674-99636-6. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, Buddhist Era 2540 was a constitution of Thailand enacted on 11 October 1997 to replace the 1991 Constitution, was hailed as a landmark in Thai democratic constitutional reform. The Constitution was repealed by the Council for Democratic Reform on 19 September 2006 following a successful military coup, was replaced by the 2006 Constitution on 1 October 2006; the 1997 Constitution was the first constitution to be drafted by a popularly elected Constitutional Drafting Assembly, hence was popularly called the "People's Constitution". The 1997 Constitution created a bicameral legislature. For the first time in Thai history, both houses were directly elected. Many human rights are explicitly acknowledged in the text, measures were established to increase the stability of elected governments; the "Black May" public uprising against a military-dominated government that gained power due to the 1991 Constitution provoked public calls for a more accountable system of government.
In June 1994, the Committee of Democracy Development of the House of Representatives was established during the government of Chuan Leekpai. Chuan was forced to establish the Committee following a hunger strike by prominent activist Chalard Vorachat; the Committee, headed by academic Prawase Wasi, amended the 1991 Constitution but was unable to push through further reform. However, it did identify many basic frameworks which would become influential for subsequent political change. After the collapse of the Chuan government, the 1995-1996 government of Banharn Silpa-archa established a Political Reform Committee which amended the Constitution again on 22 October 1996. Efforts to adopt a new constitution gained increasing public support. On 2 November 1995, noted royalist and social critic Dr. Prawase Wasi declared to a crowded Bangkok ballroom that Thailand urgently needed a new constitution, to help avert the potential calamity of political violence that might follow the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
None of the media outlets in the room dared report this sensitive speech. The 1996 amendment called for the creation of an new constitution by a special committee outside the National Assembly; the Constitution Drafting Assembly was formed with 99 members: seventy-six of them directly elected from each of the provinces and 23 qualified persons short-listed by the Parliament from academia and other sources. Anand Panyarachun, Premier in 1991 under the military regime, was selected as a member of the CDA and appointed Chairman of the Drafting Committee. Political scientists and jurists Chai-Anan Samudavanija, Amorn Chantarasomboon, Uthai Pimchaichon, Borwornsak Uwanno were key influencers of the draft. A process of public consultation took place on a nationwide basis; some clauses the requirement that all MP's hold bachelor's degrees, the party list system, the Constitutional Court, decentralisation provoked strong criticism from smaller parties. The Asian Economic Crisis of 1997 increased public awareness about the need for reform, has been cited as an impetus for the constitution's successful approval.
The draft was approved by the National Assembly with 518 votes for, 16 against, 17 abstentions. A referendum, called for if the draft was rejected by the National Assembly, was not necessary; the 1997 Constitution had 12 Chapters and a section of Transitory Provisions, containing a total of 317 Sections. Chapter 1: General provisions, the source and exercise sovereign power, the fundamental rights of the Thai people, the status of the Constitution. Chapter 2: The status, rights of the King, the Privy Council, as well as matters of succession to the throne. Chapter 3: The rights and liberties of the Thai people. Chapter 4: The duties of the Thai people. Chapter 5: The fundamental responsibilities of the state. Chapter 6: The structure and responsibilities of the National Assembly, including the House of Representatives, the Senate and the Election Commission, the Ombudsmen, the National Human Rights Commission. Chapter 7: The Council of Ministers and the workings of the executive branch. Chapter 8: The workings of the Courts of Justice, the Constitutional Court, the Administrative Courts, the Military Courts.
Chapter 9: The workings of local governments Chapter 10: Inspection and proceedings against members of the government, including the declaration of accounts and assets, the National Counter Corruption Commission, impeachment of and criminal proceedings against government and political officials. Chapter 11: The roles and responsibilities of the State Audit Commission and the Auditor-General. Chapter 12: Regulations concerning amendment of the Constitution. Transitory Provisions: Regulations concerning the transfer of power from the last government of the 1991 Constitution. Compared to previous Thai constitutions, The 1997 Constitution had contained several innovations in key areas, including: Election reform. Voting was made compulsory in order to ensure a high turnout and make vote buying so expensive as to be unfeasible. An Additional Member System, based on that used in Germany, was adopted for the House of Representatives. 100 members of the House are elected by proportional rule from party lists using the d'Hondt method, the remaining 400 are elected by first-past-the-post from single-member constituencies.
The proportional representat
FORCE11 is an international coalition of researchers, librarians and research funders working to reform or enhance the research publishing and communication system. Initiated in 2011 as a community of interest on scholarly communication, FORCE11 is now a registered 501 organization based in the United States but with members and partners around the world. Key activities include an annual conference, the Scholarly Communications Institute and a range of working groups. FORCE11 grew out of the FORC Workshop held in Dagstuhl, Germany in August 2011; this meeting resulted in the collaborative creation of a white paper which summarized the problems of scholarly communication and proposed a vision to address them. Through various working groups FORCE11 has undertaken a range of activities to improve the standards and functionality of digital research communications and developed various statements on principles and policies for best practice; these include: FAIR Data Principles: The development of a set of principles based on making data Findable, Accessible and Reusable Research Resource Identification Initiative: supporting new guidelines and identifiers in biomedical publications Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles: intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data Australian Open Access Strategy Group Coalition for Networked Information Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition
In category theory, a monoidal monad is a monad on a monoidal category such that the functor T: → is a lax monoidal functor and the natural transformations η and μ are monoidal natural transformations. In other words, T is equipped with coherence maps T A, B: T A ⊗ T B → T and T 0: I → T I satisfying certain properties, the unit η: i d ⇒ T and multiplication μ: T 2 ⇒ T are monoidal natural transformations. By monoidality of η, the morphisms T 0 and η I are equal. All of the above can be compressed into the statement that a monoidal monad is a monad in the 2-category M o n C a t of monoidal categories, lax monoidal functors, monoidal natural transformations. Opmonoidal monads have been studied under various names. Ieke Moerdijk introduced them as "Hopf monads", while in works of Bruguières and Virelizier they are called "bimonads", by analogy to "bialgebra", reserving the term "Hopf monad" for opmonoidal monads with an antipode, in analogy to "Hopf algebras". An opmonoidal monad is a monad in the 2-category of O p M o n C a t monoidal categories, oplax monoidal functors and monoidal natural transformations.
That means a monad on a monoidal category together with coherence maps T A, B: T → T A ⊗ T B and T 0: T I → I satisfying three axioms that make an opmonoidal functor, four more axioms that make the unit η and the multiplication μ into opmonoidal natural transformations. Alternatively, an opmonoidal monad is a monad on a monoidal category such that the category of Eilenberg-Moore algebras has a monoidal structure for which the forgetful functor is strong monoidal. An easy example for the monoidal category Vect of vector spaces is the monad − ⊗ A, where A is a bialgebra; the multiplication and unit of A define the multiplication and unit of the monad, while the comultiplication and counit of A give rise to the opmonoidal structure. The algebras of this monad are right A -modules, which one may tensor in the same way as their underlying vector spaces; the Kleisli category of a monoidal monad has a canonical monoidal structure, induced by the monoidal structure of the monad, such that the free functor is strong monoidal.
The canonical adjunction between C and the Kleisli category is a monoidal adjunction with respect to this monoidal structure, this means that the 2-category M o n C a t has Kleisli objects for monads. The 2-category of monads in M o n C a t is the 2-category of monoidal monads M n d and it is isomorphic to the 2-category M o n of monoidales in the category of monads M n