Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Adair County, Missouri
Adair County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 25,607, its county seat is Kirksville. The county was organized January 29, 1841, named for Governor John Adair of Kentucky. Adair County comprises MO Micropolitan Statistical Area; the first permanent settlement in Adair County began in 1828. Many of the first settlers were from Kentucky, Adair County was named for John Adair, a respected Governor of Kentucky; this was 25 years after the Louisiana Purchase, seven years after Missouri was granted statehood, four years after the Sac and Fox Native American tribes surrendered their claims to the land. The original settlement was called "Cabins of White Folks," or "The Cabins," and was located six miles west of present-day Kirksville along the Chariton River; the Big Neck War: In July 1829, a large party of Iowa Native Americans, led by Chief Big Neck, returned to their former hunting grounds in violation of treaty. One of the Ioway's dogs killed a pig, some tribe members threatened the white women.
The settlers sent messengers south to Macon counties asking for help. Captain William Trammell responded with a party of some two dozen men to help. By the time of their arrival, the Ioways had left the area and moved up the Chariton into what is now Schuyler County. Trammell's force, augmented by several of the men from The Cabins and engaged the Ioway at a place called Battle Creek, killing several Native Americans including Big Neck's brother, sister-in-law, their child; the Trammell party lost three men in the skirmish, including Captain Trammell himself, one additional casualty died of his wounds shortly afterward. The surviving whites returned to the cabins, collected the women and children, headed south for the Randolph County settlement of Huntsville. A group of militia under General John B. Clark pursued and apprehended Big Neck and his braves, capturing them in March 1830. Several of them fled to the current state of Iowa; the jury found on March 31, 1830 that: "After examining all the witnesses, maturely considering the charges for which these Iowa Indians are now in confinement, we find them not guilty, they are at once discharged."
The acquittal of Big Neck seemed to have brought the war to a peaceful, if uneasy, conclusion. A few months white settlers returned to The Cabins in greater numbers than before, this time to stay permanently; the outbreak of the Blackhawk War in 1832 again caused consternation among the early settlers although all fighting was hundreds of miles away in present-day Illinois and Wisconsin. To ease fears in the area, militia units were dispatched and two small forts were constructed. One, Fort Clark, was located on high ground adjacent to The Cabins. Several miles to the northeast, another detachment of troops established Fort Matson. After months of no hostile Native American activity in the Adair County area, both forts were abandoned; the site of Fort Clark is now marked by a large boulder and plaque, while the Fort Matson site was the location for a church and its name corrupted to Fort Madison. The Fort Matson/Madison Cemetery still remains; the Adair County courthouse is a three-story Romanesque structure in the center of the Kirksville city square, completed in 1899.
The architect was Robert G. Kirsch who would also design the courthouses for Carroll, Polk and Cooper counties; the county had no dedicated courthouse from 1865 until 1899, operating out of temporary rented quarters on or near the square. The county voters approved a $50,000 bond issue in 1897 to build the current courthouse after four failed attempts between 1872 and 1896; the courthouse was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 569 square miles, of which 567 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. Putnam County Schuyler County Scotland County Knox County Macon County Linn County Sullivan County U. S. Route 63 Route 3 Route 6 Route 11 Route 149 As of the census of 2000, there were 24,977 people, 9,669 households, 5,346 families residing in the county; the population density was 44 people per square mile. There were 10,826 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.82% White, 1.20% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.39% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races.
1.26% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,669 households out of which 25.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.50% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.70% were non-families. 31.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.20% under the age of 18, 27.40% from 18 to 24, 22.80% from 25 to 44, 18.40% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,677, the median income for a family was $38,085. Males had a
Edina is a city in Knox County, United States, between the North and South Forks of the South Fabius River. The population was 1,176 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Knox County. Edina is located at 40°10′8″N 92°10′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.32 square miles, of which 1.31 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Edina was platted in 1839; the community was named after the Scottish city of Edinburgh. A post office called Edina has been in operation since 1850; the Edina Double Square Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,176 people, 535 households, 312 families residing in the city; the population density was 897.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 667 housing units at an average density of 509.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.6% White, 0.4% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.6% of the population. There were 535 households of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.9% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.7% were non-families. 38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 46 years. 22.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.0% male and 54.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,233 people, 571 households, 339 families residing in the city; the population density was 940.7 people per square mile. There were 678 housing units at an average density of 517.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 97.16% White, 0.08% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 2.35% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.65% of the population. There were 571 households out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.6% were non-families. 38.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 21.5% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 26.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,900, the median income for a family was $30,938. Males had a median income of $21,492 versus $16,458 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,863. About 15.1% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.7% of those under age 18 and 19.3% of those age 65 or over.
According weather data tallied between July 1, 1985 and June 30, 2015 for every location in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's official climate database, Missouri, is the snowiest place in the state of Missouri with an average of 22 inches of snow per year. Terry Joyce, College football All-American and professional football player Gloria McCloskey, All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player George Turner, United States Senator Historic maps of Edina in the Sanborn Maps of Missouri Collection at the University of Missouri
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Shelby County, Missouri
Shelby County is a county located in the northeastern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,373, its county seat is Shelbyville. The county was named for Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 502 square miles, of which 501 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. Knox County Lewis County Marion County Monroe County Randolph County Macon County Interstate 72 U. S. Route 36 Route 15 Route 151 Route 168 As of the census of 2000, there were 6,799 people, 2,745 households, 1,847 families residing in the county; the population density was 14 people per square mile. There were 3,245 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.87% White, 0.97% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 0.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 30.4% were of American, 26.9% German, 14.9% English and 8.5% Irish ancestry.
There were 2,745 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.90% were married couples living together, 7.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families. 30.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 24.40% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 19.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,448, the median income for a family was $35,944. Males had a median income of $25,759 versus $18,996 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,632. About 13.00% of families and 16.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 14.10% of those age 65 or over.
North Shelby School District – Shelbyville North Shelby Elementary School North Shelby High School Shelby County R-IV School District – Shelbina Shelbina Elementary School Clarence Elementary School South Shelby Middle School South Shelby High School Shiloh Christian School – Shelbina – Nondenominational Christian – Alternative School Heartland Christian Academy – Bethel – Nondenominational Christian Clarence Public Library Shelbina Carnegie Public Library The Democratic Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Shelby County. Democrats hold all but one of the elected positions in the county. Shelby County is a part of Missouri’s 5th District in the Missouri House of Representatives and is represented by Lindell F Shumake. Shelby County is a part of Missouri’s 18th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Brian Munzlinger. Shelby County is included in Missouri’s 6th Congressional District and is represented by Sam Graves in the U. S. House of Representatives. Former U.
S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 460, than any candidate from either party in Shelby County during the 2008 presidential primary. Bethel Leonard Norm Stewart, legendary University of Missouri basketball coach Randall Duke Cunningham, only U. S. Navy fighter ace of the Vietnam War, former Republican U. S. Representative from California Frank Hamilton Short and advocate for states' rights and private development of natural resources in the early 20th century Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart James Earl Ray, assassin of Martin Luther King Jr, lived in Shelbina for a brief time. National Register of Historic Places listings in Shelby County, Missouri General History Of Shelby County Missouri online Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Shelby County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books