Knoxville, Tennessee

Knoxville is a city in the U. S. state of Tennessee, the county seat of Knox County. As of the 2010 census, the city has a population of 178,874, is Tennessee's third largest city after Nashville and Memphis. Knoxville is the principal city of the Knoxville Metropolitan Statistical Area, 868,546 in 2015. First settled in 1786, Knoxville was the first capital of Tennessee; the city struggled with geographic isolation throughout the early 19th century. The arrival of the railroad in 1855 led to an economic boom. During the Civil War, the city was bitterly divided over the secession issue, was occupied alternately by both Confederate and Union armies. Following the war, Knoxville grew as a major wholesaling and manufacturing center; the city's economy stagnated after the 1920s as the manufacturing sector collapsed, the downtown area declined and city leaders became entrenched in partisan political fights. Hosting the 1982 World's Fair helped reinvigorate the city, revitalization initiatives by city leaders and private developers have had major successes in spurring growth in the city the downtown area.

Knoxville is the home of the flagship campus of the University of Tennessee, whose sports teams, the Tennessee Volunteers, are popular in the surrounding area. Knoxville is home to the headquarters of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for East Tennessee, the corporate headquarters of several national and regional companies; as one of the largest cities in the Appalachian region, Knoxville has positioned itself in recent years as a repository of Appalachian culture and is one of the gateways to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The first people to form substantial settlements in what is now Knoxville arrived during the Woodland period. One of the oldest artificial structures in Knoxville is a burial mound constructed during the early Mississippian culture period; the earthwork mound is now surrounded by the University of Tennessee campus. Other prehistoric sites include an Early Woodland habitation area at the confluence of the Tennessee River and Knob Creek, Dallas Phase Mississippian villages at Post Oak Island, at Bussell Island.

By the 18th century, the Cherokee had become the dominant tribe in the East Tennessee region, although they were at war with the Creek and Shawnee. The Cherokee people called the Knoxville area kuwanda'talun'yi, which means "Mulberry Place." Most Cherokee habitation in the area was concentrated in the Overhill settlements along the Little Tennessee River, southwest of Knoxville. The first white traders and explorers were recorded as arriving in the Tennessee Valley in the late 17th century, though there is significant evidence that Hernando de Soto visited Bussell Island in 1540; the first major recorded Euro-American presence in the Knoxville area was the Timberlake Expedition, which passed through the confluence of the Holston and French Broad into the Tennessee River in December 1761. Henry Timberlake, en route to the Over hill settlements along the Little Tennessee River, recalled being pleasantly surprised by the deep waters of the Tennessee after having struggled down the shallow Holston for several weeks.

The end of the French and Indian War and confusion brought about by the American Revolution led to a drastic increase in Euro-American settlement west of the Appalachians. By the 1780s, white settlers were established in the Holston and French Broad valleys; the U. S. Congress ordered all illegal settlers out with little success; as settlers continued to trickle into Cherokee lands, tensions between the settlers and the Cherokee rose steadily. In 1786, James White, a Revolutionary War officer, his friend James Connor built White's Fort near the mouth of First Creek, on land White had purchased three years earlier. In 1790, White's son-in-law, Charles McClung—who had arrived from Pennsylvania the previous year—surveyed White's holdings between First Creek and Second Creek for the establishment of a town. McClung drew up 64 0.5-acre lots. The waterfront was set aside for a town common. Two lots were set aside for a graveyard. Four lots were set aside for a school; that school was chartered as Blount College and it served as the starting point for the University of Tennessee, which uses Blount College's founding date of 1794, as its own.

In 1790, President George Washington appointed North Carolina surveyor William Blount governor of the newly created Territory South of the River Ohio. One of Blount's first tasks was to meet with the Cherokee and establish territorial boundaries and resolve the issue of illegal settlers; this he accomplished immediately with the Treaty of Holston, negotiated and signed at White's Fort in 1791. Blount wanted to place the territorial capital at the confluence of the Clinch River and Tennessee River, but when the Cherokee refused to cede this land, Blount chose White's Fort, which McClung had surveyed the previous year. Blount named the new capital Knoxville after Revolutionary War general and Secretary of War Henry Knox, who at the time was Blount's immediate superior. Problems arose from the Holston Treaty. Blount believed that he had "purchased" much of what is now East Tennessee when the treaty was signed in 1791. However, the terms of the treaty came under dispute, culminating in continued violence on both sides.

When the government invited the Cherokee's chief Hanging Maw for negotiations in 1793, Knoxville settlers a

Emil Korytko

Emil Antoni Korytko was a Polish political activist in the period of the Great Emigration, exiled to Ljubljana and became an important ethnographer and translator there. His legacy are vivid descriptions of Carniolan folk customs, he contributed to the mutual dialogue between Polish and Slovene authors and readers. Born in Zhezhava or Lviv in Austrian Galicia, since 1832 he studied philosophy and philology at the University of Lwow, he participated in the November Uprising. In 1834, he was arrested by the Austrian authorities in Lviv on accusations of having participated in underground subversive activities, in 1836 sent into confinement to Ljubljana, Duchy of Carniola, together with Bogusław Horodyński, where they arrived in late January 1837. In Ljubljana, Korytko became a close collaborator of the Slovene national Romantic circle, he became a personal friend of the Slovene poet France Prešeren, helped him translate several poems by Adam Mickiewicz into German. He translated some of Prešeren's poems into German.

He studied Slovene folk songs from Carniola, which he published in five volumes, Carniolan folk customs. He prompted the painter Franz Kurz zum Turn und Goldenstein to paint 70 portraits of people in different folk costumes. Korytko died in Ljubljana due to typhus, was buried at Navje in Bežigrad District, his funeral was one of the first public manifestations of Slovene patriotism. Among the young Slovene patriots who were chosen to carry Korytko's coffin was Karel Dežman. In November 2013, the celebration of 200th anniversary of Korytko's birth was held in Ljubljana, organised by the Polish Embassy and the University of Ljubljana. An exhibition has been held in the National and University Library of Slovenia since 7 November, a commemorative postage stamp was issued. Online version of Korytko's collection of Slovene folk songs Emil Korytko at Find a Grave

The Rhodes Colossus

The Rhodes Colossus is an iconic editorial cartoon of the Scramble for Africa period, part of the New Imperialism, depicting British colonialist Cecil Rhodes as a giant standing over the continent. The Rhodes Colossus was drawn by Edward Linley Sambourne, first appeared in Punch magazine in 1892, it was reprinted in its time, has since become a standard illustration in history texts. The cartoon was published in the 10 December 1892 edition of Punch, appearing beside a recent excerpt from The Times about a Rhodes plan to extend an electrical telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo, it was led by a piece of satirical verse on the character and ambitions of Rhodes: Rhodes is shown in a visual pun as the ancient Greek statue the Colossus of Rhodes, following the traditional depiction of the Colossus with wide-set legs across Rhodes harbour. Rhodes measures with the telegraphic line the distance from Cape Town in South Africa to Cairo in Egypt, illustrating his broader "Cape to Cairo" concept for British domination of Africa.

The cartoon is recognised today as a standard illustration in history texts of the Scramble for Africa, of colonialism as a whole. The original context of a proposed telegraph line is mentioned in such reproductions, which take the "Cape to Cairo" concept more generally. In 2009, the South African cartoonist Jonathan Shapiro parodied the famous cartoon by placing Chinese premier Wen Jiabao in place of Rhodes holding up Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, like a marionette, while the Dalai Lama looks on from Asia; the cartoon satirised Sino-African relations in general, recent China-South Africa relations in particular, after the Dalai Lama was denied a visa to attend an international peace conference in Johannesburg, a move, perceived to be the result of Chinese pressure. The Rhodes cartoon influenced political cartoonist Martin Rowson, who published on 1 February 2013 a drawing in The Guardian on British prime minister David Cameron's policy regarding Algeria and the French intervention in Mali.

Punch, 10 December 1892, from Project Gutenberg Richard Scully, ‘Constructing the Colossus: the Origins of Linley Sambourne’s Greatest Punch Cartoon’, International Journal of Comic Art, Volume 14, No.2, Fall 2012, pp. 120–142