Knute Rockne

Knute Kenneth Rockne was a Norwegian-American football player and coach at the University of Notre Dame. Rockne is regarded as one of the greatest coaches in college football history, his biography at the College Football Hall of Fame identifies him as "without question, American football's most-renowned coach". Rockne helped to popularize the forward pass and made the Notre Dame Fighting Irish a major factor in college football. Knute Rockne was born Knut Larsen Rokne, in Voss, Norway, to smith and wagonmaker Lars Knutson Rokne and his wife, Martha Pedersdatter Gjermo, he immigrated to Chicago with his parents. He grew up on the northwest side of the city. Rockne learned to play football in his neighborhood and played end in a local group called the Logan Square Tigers, he attended Lorenz Brentano elementary school, North West Division High School in Chicago where he played football and ran track. After Rockne graduated from high school, he took a job as a mail dispatcher with the post office in Chicago for four years.

When he was 22, he had saved enough money to continue his education. He headed to Notre Dame in Indiana to finish his schooling. Rockne excelled as a football end there, winning All-American honors in 1913. Rockne worked as a lifeguard at Cedar Point in the summer of 1913. Rockne helped to transform the college game in a single contest. On November 1, 1913, the Notre Dame squad stunned the regarded Army team 35–13 in a game played at West Point. Led by quarterback Charlie "Gus" Dorais and Rockne, the Notre Dame team attacked the Cadets with an offense that featured both the expected powerful running game but long and accurate downfield forward passes from Dorais to Rockne; this game was not the "invention" of the forward pass, but it was the first major contest in which a team used the forward pass throughout the game. At Notre Dame, Rockne was educated as a chemist and he graduated in 1914 with a degree in pharmacy. After graduating, he was the laboratory assistant to noted polymer chemist Julius Arthur Nieuwland at Notre Dame and helped out with the football team, but rejected further work in chemistry after receiving an offer to coach football.

In 1914, he was recruited by Peggy Parratt to play for the Akron Indians. There Parratt had Rockne playing both end and halfback and teamed with him on several successful forward pass plays during their title drive. Knute wound up in Massillon, Ohio, in 1915 along with former Notre Dame teammate Dorais to play with the professional Massillon Tigers. Rockne and Dorais brought the forward pass to professional football from 1915 to 1917 when they led the Tigers to the championship in 1915. Pro Football in the Days of Rockne by Emil Klosinski maintains the worst loss suffered by Rockne was in 1917, he coached the "South Bend Jolly Fellows Club" -- 0 to the Toledo Maroons. During 13 years as head coach, Rockne led Notre Dame to 105 victories, 12 losses, five ties and three national championships, which included five undefeated and untied seasons. Rockne posted the highest all-time winning percentage for a major college football coach, his schemes utilized the 7 -- 2 -- 2 defense. Rockne's box included a shift.

The backfield lined up in a T-formation quickly shifted into a box to the left or right just as the ball was snapped. Rockne was shrewd enough to recognize that intercollegiate sports had a show-business aspect, thus he worked hard promoting Notre Dame football to make it financially successful. He used his considerable charm to court favor from the media, which consisted of newspapers, wire services and radio stations and networks, to obtain free advertising for Notre Dame football, he was successful as an advertising pitchman for South Bend-based Studebaker and other products. He received an annual income of $75,000 from Notre Dame. During the war-torn season of 1918, Rockne took over from his predecessor Jesse Harper and posted a 3–1–2 record, losing only to the Michigan Aggies, he made his coaching debut on September 28, 1918, against Case Tech in Cleveland, earning a 26–6 victory. In the backfield were Leonard Bahan, George Gipp, Curly Lambeau. In Gipp, Rockne had an ideal handler of the forward pass.

Rockne handled Gus Dorais handled the backfield of the 1919 team. The team went undefeated and was a national champion, though the championship is not recognized by Notre Dame. Gipp died on December 14, 1920, just two weeks after being elected Notre Dame's first All-American by Walter Camp, he contracted strep throat and pneumonia while giving punting lessons after his final game, on November 20 against Northwestern University. Since antibiotics were not available in the 1920s, treatment options for such infections were limited and they could be fatal to the young and healthy, it was while on his hospital bed and speaking to Rockne that he is purported to have delivered the line "win just one for the Gipper". John Mohardt led the 1921 Notre Dame team to a 10-1 record with 781 rushing yards, 995 passing yards, 12 rushing touchdowns, nine passing touchdowns. Grantland Rice wrote, "Mohardt could throw the ball to within a foot or two of any given space" and noted that the 1921 Notre Dame team "was the first team we know of to build its attack around a forward passing game, rather than use a forward passing game as a mere aid to the running game".

Mohardt had both Eddie Roger Kiley at end to receive his passes. The national champion 1924 team included the "Four Horsemen" backfield of Harry Stuhldreher, Don Miller, Jim Crowley, Elmer Layden; the line was known as the "Seven Mules". The Irish capped an undefeated 10–0 season with a

Data recovery

In computing, data recovery is a process of salvaging inaccessible, corrupted, damaged or formatted data from secondary storage, removable media or files, when the data stored in them cannot be accessed in a normal way. The data is most salvaged from storage media such as internal or external hard disk drives, solid-state drives, USB flash drives, magnetic tapes, CDs, DVDs, RAID subsystems, other electronic devices. Recovery may be required due to physical damage to the storage devices or logical damage to the file system that prevents it from being mounted by the host operating system; the most common data recovery scenario involves an operating system failure, malfunction of a storage device, logical failure of storage devices, accidental damage or deletion, etc. in which case the ultimate goal is to copy all important files from the damaged media to another new drive. This can be accomplished using a Live CD or DVD by booting directly from a ROM instead of the corrupted drive in question.

Many Live CDs or DVDs provide a means to mount the system drive and backup drives or removable media, to move the files from the system drive to the backup media with a file manager or optical disc authoring software. Such cases can be mitigated by disk partitioning and storing valuable data files on a different partition from the replaceable OS system files. Another scenario involves a drive-level failure, such as a compromised file system or drive partition, or a hard disk drive failure. In any of these cases, the data is not read from the media devices. Depending on the situation, solutions involve repairing the logical file system, partition table or master boot record, or updating the firmware or drive recovery techniques ranging from software-based recovery of corrupted data, hardware- and software-based recovery of damaged service areas, to hardware replacement on a physically damaged drive which allows for extraction of data to a new drive. If a drive recovery is necessary, the drive itself has failed permanently, the focus is rather on a one-time recovery, salvaging whatever data can be read.

In a third scenario, files have been accidentally "deleted" from a storage medium by the users. The contents of deleted files are not removed from the physical drive. In the mind of end users, deleted files cannot be discoverable through a standard file manager, but the deleted data still technically exists on the physical drive. In the meantime, the original file contents remain in a number of disconnected fragments, may be recoverable if not overwritten by other data files; the term "data recovery" is used in the context of forensic applications or espionage, where data which have been encrypted or hidden, rather than damaged, are recovered. Sometimes data present in the computer gets encrypted or hidden due to reasons like virus attack which can only be recovered by some computer forensic experts. A wide variety of failures can cause physical damage to storage media, which may result from human errors and natural disasters. CD-ROMs can dye layer scratched off. Physical damage to a hard drive in cases where a head crash has occurred, does not mean there will be permanent loss of data.

The techniques employed by many professional data recovery companies can salvage most, if not all, of the data, lost when the failure occurred. Of course there are exceptions to this, such as cases where severe damage to the hard drive platters may have occurred. However, if the hard drive can be repaired and a full image or clone created the logical file structure can be rebuilt in most instances. Most physical damage cannot be repaired by end users. For example, opening a hard disk drive in a normal environment can allow airborne dust to settle on the platter and become caught between the platter and the read/write head. During normal operation, read/write heads float 3 to 6 nanometers above the platter surface, the average dust particles found in a normal environment are around 30,000 nanometers in diameter; when these dust particles get caught between the read/write heads and the platter, they can cause new head crashes that further damage the platter and thus compromise the recovery process.

Furthermore, end users do not have the hardware or technical expertise required to make these repairs. Data recovery companies are employed to salvage important data with the more reputable ones using class 100 dust- and static-free cleanrooms. Recovering data from physically damaged hardware can involve multiple techniques; some damage can be repaired by replacing parts in the hard disk. This alone may make the disk usable. A specialized disk-imaging procedure is used to recover every readable bit from the surface. Once this image is acquired and saved on a reliable medium, the image can be safely analyzed for logical damage and will allow much of the original file system to be reconstructed. A common misconception is that a damaged printed circuit board may be replaced during recovery procedures by an identical PCB from a healthy drive. While this may work in rare circumstances on hard disk drives manufactured before 2003, it will not work on newer drives. Electronics boards

Khanileh, Kermanshah

Khanileh is a village in Dowlatabad Rural District, in the Central District of Ravansar County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted. Khanileh is located 6 km to SW of Ravansar and ca. 56 km in Western Iran. It lies at southern slopes of the hilly range of Salakan and it has a commanding view on the Gomeshter plain. Salakan is a part of radiolarian belt and has numerous springs outlets on its northern and southern slopes; the presence of these springs and commanding view of Khanileh over the plain attracted prehistoric people to the area since the Chalcolithic period and the early occupations continued to the Bronze and Iron Ages. The remains of these early occupations are visible on an ancient mound at west of the village and an ancient cemetery of Iron Age period in the village itself. TL dating of a number of sherds from western mound has revealed two groups of dates: fourth mill bc. and first mill. Bc. There is a low mound with Parthian occupation remains at south of the village called Tapa Bawa.

These sites were surveyed in 1986 and 2006 that led to discovery a number of sherds and lithic artifacts. Presence of Islamic age potsherds indicates that the village was an occupation site during this period. A old mours tree that according to local people is older than 150 years was cut in 2011 by the owner of the nearby garden. A photo of the tree taken in 2009 Hassanzadeh, Y. M. Karami, F. Bahrol’oloomi, K. Taheri, A. Tahmasbi, A. Moradi Bisetouni and F. Biglari Khanileh: New evidence of Chalcolithic and Early Historic occupations from northwest of the Kermanshah Plain, Central Zagros, Philip G. and Stefan Sperl The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview, London: Routledge, 1992. Levine, L. D. and Mary M. A. McDonald The Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods in the Mahidasht", Iran 15: 39-50. Levine D. L. and T. Cuyler Young A Summary of the Ceramic Assemblages of the Central Western Zagros from the Middle Neolithic to the Late Third Millennium B. C.", Colloques Internationaux CNRS, Prehistore De La Mesopotamie, Paris: editions du CNRS Paris 198b), pp. 15–53.

Parpola, S. & M. Porter The Helsinki Atlas of the Near East in the Neo-Assyrian Period, Edited by: Simo Parpola & Michael Porter, The Casco Bay Assyriological Institute The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Finland