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Košice

Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia. It is situated on the river Hornád at the eastern reaches of the Slovak Ore Mountains, near the border with Hungary. With a population of 240,000, Košice is the second largest city in Slovakia, after the capital Bratislava. Being the economic and cultural centre of eastern Slovakia, Košice is the seat of the Košice Region and Košice Self-governing Region, the Slovak Constitutional Court, three universities, various dioceses, many museums and theatres. In 2013 Košice was the European Capital of Culture, together with France. Košice is an important industrial centre of Slovakia, the U. S. Steel Košice steel mill is the largest employer in the city; the town has an international airport. The city has a well-preserved historical centre, the largest among Slovak towns. There are many heritage protected buildings in Gothic, Renaissance and Art Nouveau styles with Slovakia's largest church: the St. Elisabeth Cathedral; the long main street, rimmed with aristocratic palaces, Catholic churches, townsfolk's houses, is a thriving pedestrian zone with many boutiques, cafés, restaurants.

The city is well known as the first settlement in Europe to be granted its own coat-of-arms. The first written mention of the city was in 1230 as "Villa Cassa"; the name comes from the Slavic personal name Koš, Koša → Košici → Košice with the patronymic Slavic suffix "-ice" through a natural development in Slovak language. In Hungarian Koša → Kasa, Kassa with a vowel mutation typical for borrowing of old Slavic names in the region; the Latinized form Cassovia became common in the 15th century. Another theory is a derivation from Old Slovak kosa, "clearing", related to modern Slovak kosiť, "to reap". Though according to other sources the city name may derive from an old Hungarian first name which begins with "Ko"; the city has been known as Kaschau in German, Kassa in Hungarian, Kaşa in Turkish, Cassovia in Latin, Cassovie in French, Cașovia in Romanian, Кошице in Russian, Koszyce in Polish and קאשוי Kashoy in Yiddish. Below is a chronology of the various names: The first evidence of inhabitance can be traced back to the end of the Paleolithic era.

The first written reference to the Hungarian town of Kassa comes from 1230. After the Mongol invasion in 1241, King Béla IV of Hungary invited German colonists to fill the gaps in population; the city was in the historic Abauj County of the Kingdom of Hungary. The city was made of two independent settlements: Lower Kassa and Upper Kassa, amalgamated in the 13th century around the long lens-formed ring, of today's Main Street; the first known town privileges come from 1290. The city grew because of its strategic location on an international trade route from agriculturally rich central Hungary to central Poland, itself along a greater route connecting the Balkans and the Adriatic and Aegean seas to the Baltic Sea; the privileges given by the king were helpful in developing crafts, increasing importance, for building its strong fortifications. In 1307, the first guild regulations were the oldest in Kingdom of Hungary; as a Hungarian free royal town, Kassa reinforced the king's troops in the crucial moment of the bloody Battle of Rozgony in 1312 against the strong aristocratic Palatine Amadé Aba.

In 1347, it became the second place city in the hierarchy of the Hungarian free royal towns with the same rights as the capital Buda. In 1369, it received its own coat of arms from Louis I of Hungary; the Diet convened by Louis I in Kassa decided. The significance and wealth of the city in the end of the 14th century was mirrored by the decision to build a new church on the grounds of the destroyed smaller St. Elisabeth Church; the construction of the biggest cathedral in the Kingdom of Hungary – St. Elisabeth Cathedral – was supported by the Emperor Sigismund, by the apostolic see itself. Since the beginning of the 15th century, the city played a leading role in the Pentapolitana – the league of towns of five most important cities in Upper Hungary. During the reign of King Hunyadi Mátyás the city reached its medieval population peak. With an estimated 10,000 inhabitants, it was among the largest medieval cities in Europe; the history of Kassa was influenced by the dynastic disputes over the Hungarian throne, which together with the decline of the continental trade brought the city into stagnation.

Vladislaus III of Varna failed to capture the city in 1441. John Jiskra's mercenaries from Bohemia defeated Tamás Székely's Hungarian army in 1449. John I Albert, Prince of Poland, could not capture the city during a six-month-long siege in 1491. In 1526, the city homaged for Holy Roman Emperor. John Zápolya captured the city in 1536 but Ferdinand I reconquered the city in 1551. In 1554, the settlement became the seat of the Captaincy of Upper Hungary. In 1604, Catholics seized the Lutheran church in Kassa; the Calvinist Stephen Bocskay occupied Kassa during his Protestant, Ottoman-backed insurrection against the Habsburg dynasty. The future George I Rákóczi joined him as a military commander there. Giorgio Basta, commander of the Habsburg forces, failed in his attempt to capture the city. At the Treaty of Vienna, in return for giving territory including Kassa back, the rebels

Eka Tjipta Widjaja

Eka Tjipta Widjaja (Indonesian pronunciation:. 1921–2019, born in Quanzhou, China as Oei Ėk-Tjhong, was a Chinese-Indonesian business magnate who founded the Sinar Mas Group, one of the largest conglomerates in Indonesia. Immigrated to Indonesia with his family when he was a child, he traded copra in mid 1950s, moved into palm oil industry soon after, started a paper factory in the 1970s, entered financial services in the 1980s. At the time of his death, Sinar Mas has interests in paper, real estate, financial services and telecom with holdings in Indonesia, Singapore and China, while Widjaja was listed by Forbes as the third richest person in Indonesia with a net worth of US$8.6 Billion. Widjaja was born Oei Ek Tjhong in Quanzhou, Republic of China, he was the son of a Sulawesi -based trader. In around 1930, he and his mother moved to Indonesia to join his father who had settled in Makassar, he started helping his father to run a small shop, he left at the age of fifteen to work as a hawker.

As a teenager, he sold biscuits and candy from his bicycle. In his early career, Widjaja did various business, including trading cooking oil and agricultural products, coffee shop, pig rearing and grave construction. During Japanese occupation, price controls devastated his cooking oil business; when Indonesia's war for independence against the Dutch crushed his commodity-trading business in 1949, he sold family jewelry to repay creditors and traded in his car for a bicycle. In 1950s, when Indonesian military sent troops to Makassar to fight Andi Aziz and Abdul Kahar Muzakkar, Widjaja sold food and other supplies to the troops, forging ties between him and the military, he used the military ship to trade copra—the raw material to make coconut oil—from Manado to Makassar. And thus, his copra business started reaching Jakarta and Surabaya. However, the Permesta rebellion happened in Sulawesi and Widjaja decided to move to Surabaya. In 1962, CV Sinar Mas was first registered in Surabaya, soon it opened a branch office in Jakarta.

This company exported imported textiles. In 1968, Widjaja opened a cooking oil factory PT Bitung Manado Oil in Manado, followed by PT Kunci Mas in Surabaya; the Manado-based factory produced cooking oil under the brand Bimoli, which catered to up to 50 percent of the demand in the Indonesian cooking oil market. In 1990, Widjaja lost this brand to Salim Group after their joint ventures in cooking oil business split. In 1972, together with Taiwanese investors, Widjaja acquired caustic soda producer Tjiwi Kimia, which he transformed into the Sinar Mas Group's first pulp and paper manufacturer. In the same year, he started a property developer and real estate business. In the 1970s, he acquired logging concessions. In 1980, Sinar Mas changed all its cooking oil refinery machines to be able to produce palm oil. In the same year, Widjaja possessed extensive oil palm fields in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. In 1982, he acquired a 10.000 hectare field in North Sumatra. In 1982, Widjaja acquired Bank Internasional Indonesia and founded PT Internas Artha Leasing Company.

BII became the second largest private bank in Indonesia, but due to the 1997 Asian financial crisis, it failed in April 1998 with a debt of US$4.6 billion and was nationalized in April 1999. Widjaja moved back into banking by acquiring PT Bank Shinta Indonesia in 2005 and renamed it as PT Bank Sinarmas. In 1990, Widjaja received an honorary doctorate in economics by Pittsburg State University in Pittsburg, United States, citing him as the "ultimate entrepreneur". By the mid-1990s, Widjaja's best-known asset was a controlling stake in Asia Pulp & Paper, a Singapore-based company listed on the New York Stock Exchange and the 10th-largest paper company in the world. After the 1997 Asian financial crisis and a dip in the international wood pulp price in 2000, it was revealed that the company had a global US$13.9 billion debt. In March 2001, two months after being threatened with delisting from the NYSE, APP stopped paying its debt, considered to be the largest debt default in the world's emerging markets.

APP has been convicted of being involved in illegal logging in Cambodia, Yunnan Province, destroying ancient rainforest and the illegal felling of over 50 thousand acres of forest in Bukit Tigapuluh national park. As of 2003, Widjaja lived in Singapore and had turned over day-to-day control of his businesses to his extensive family. Unlike many other Chinese-Indonesian tycoons, Widjaja was known to flaunt his wealth, he rode in fancy cars and wore a belt buckle encrusted with diamonds spelling out his name, "EKA". Widjaja had at least 40 children, his first wife was Trinidewi Lasuki, who died in 2017. Eka treated the children of his first wife as his heirs while providing financial support to his other children to help start businesses. Most of Eka's children by Trinidewi—six males and two females—are involved in the family businesses; the eldest daughter, Sukmawati Widjaja, serves as Sinar Mas vice chairperson since 1988. Sukmawati was married to her cousin, Rudy Maeloa, Eka's right hand who died in 1988.

Eka's eldest son, Teguh Ganda Widjaja, heads the pulp and paper division of the group as the chairman of Asia Pulp & Paper. Teguh's brothers were in charge of other divisions.

Sebastian Ugarte

Sebastian Ugarte was a Filipino international footballer and sports executive. From 1924-1925, Ugarte was part of track and field teams. Ugarte was part of the Philippine national team that participated at the Far Eastern Championship Games, he became a household name among other players for his stints. Ugarte joined the San Miguel Corporation and was involved in the now-defunct Philippine Football Association league, he led the team of San Miguel, was the Executive Vice-President at A. Soriano & Co. In the early 1960s, Ugarte through the Soriano group, hired British coaches Alan Rogers, Brian Birch, Danny McClelan and Graham Adams to train coaches and referees as well as the national youth and senior teams. In 1961, San Miguel through the Philippine Football Association hired four medical students from Spain who were proficient in football to aid the national team. After his attendance in De La Salle University, he joined the Manila Daily Bulletin as a sports reporter and covered the sports of basketball, football and track and field.

At the start of the Commonwealth era, he served as legal adviser to Resident Commissioner Joaquín Miguel Elizalde he became legal adviser to the Resident Commissioner Mike Elizalde and joined President Sergio Osmeña upon his return to the Philippines. Ugarte worked under President Manuel Roxas in Malacañang, he was a major at the Philippine Army. He was inducted to the DLSAA Sports Hall of Fame in 1993. March 1974, a football venue, named after him, the Sebastian Ugarte Football Field was inaugurated; the Ugarte Field is located inside the Ayala Triangle Gardens but there is no football field in the area since the early 1980s. The footballer's descendant, Antonio Ugarte became involved in football playing for Kaya F. C. of the United Football League