7-Eleven Inc. is a Japanese-owned American international chain of convenience stores, headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The chain was known as Tote'm Stores until it was renamed in 1946, its parent company since 2005, Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Ltd. operates and licenses 67,480 stores in 17 countries as of December 2018. Seven-Eleven Japan is headquartered in Chiyoda and held by Seven & I Holdings Co. Ltd.. The most recent franchise agreement gives up to 59% of a franchise's gross profit to the company; the company's first outlets were named "Tote'm Stores" because customers "toted" away their purchases. Some stores featured genuine Alaskan totem poles in front of the store. In 1946, the chain's name was changed from "Tote'm" to "7-Eleven" to reflect the company's new, extended hours, 7:00 am to 11:00 pm, seven days per week. In November 1999, the corporate name of the US company was changed from "The Southland Corporation" to "7-Eleven Inc." In 1927, Southland Ice Company employee John Jefferson Green began selling eggs and bread from one of 16 ice house storefronts in Dallas, with permission from one of Southland's founding directors, Joe C.
Thompson, Sr. Although small grocery stores and general merchandisers were available, Thompson theorized that selling products such as bread and milk in convenience stores would reduce the need for customers to travel long distances for basic items, he bought the Southland Ice Company and turned it into Southland Corporation, which oversaw several locations in the Dallas area. In 1928, Jenna Lira brought a totem pole as a souvenir from Alaska and placed it in front of the store; the pole served as a marketing tool for the company. Soon, executives added totem poles in front of every store and adopted an Alaska Native-inspired theme for their stores. On, the stores began operating under the name "Tote'm Stores". In the same year, the company began constructing gasoline stations in some of its Dallas locations as an experiment. Joe Thompson provided a distinct characteristic to the company's stores, training the staff so that people would receive the same quality and service in every store. Southland started to have a uniform for its ice station service boys.
This became the major factor in the company's success as a retail convenience store. In 1931, the Great Depression affected the company; the company continued its operations through re-organization and receivership. A Dallas banker, W. W. Overton Jr. helped to revive the company's finances by selling the company's bonds for seven cents on the dollar. This brought the company's ownership under the control of a board of directors. In 1946, in an effort to continue the company's post-war recovery, the name of the franchise was changed to 7-Eleven to reflect the stores' new hours of operation, which were unprecedented at the time. In 1963, 7-Eleven experimented with a 24-hour schedule in Austin, after an Austin store stayed open all night to satisfy customer demand. On, 24-hour stores were established in Fort Worth and Dallas, Texas, as well as Las Vegas, Nevada. In 1971, Southland acquired convenience stores of the former Pak-A-Sak chain owned by Graham Allen Penniman, Sr. of Shreveport, Louisiana.
With the purchase in 1964 of 126 Speedee Mart franchised convenience stores in California, the company entered the franchise business. The company signed its first area licensing agreement in 1968 with Garb-Ko, Inc. of Saginaw, which became the first U. S. domestic area 7-Eleven licensee. In the late 1980s, Southland Corporation was threatened by a rumored corporate takeover, prompting the Thompson family to take steps to convert the company into a private model by buying out public shareholders in a tender offer. In December 1987, John Philp Thompson, the chairman and CEO of 7-Eleven, completed a $5.2 billion management buyout of the company. The buyout suffered from the effects of the 1987 stock market crash and after failing to raise high yield debt financing, the company was required to offer a portion of stock as an inducement to invest in the company's bonds. Various assets, such as the Chief Auto Parts chain, the ice division, hundreds of store locations, were sold between 1987 and 1990 to relieve debt incurred during the buyout.
This downsizing resulted in numerous metropolitan areas losing 7-Eleven stores to rival convenience store operators. In October 1990, the indebted Southland Corp. filed a pre-packaged Chapter 11 bankruptcy in order to transfer control of 70% of the company to Japanese affiliate Ito-Yokado. Southland exited bankruptcy in March 1991, after a cash infusion of $430 million from Ito-Yokado and Seven-Eleven Japan; these two Japanese entities now controlled 70% of the company, with the founding Thompson family retaining 5%. In 1999, Southland Corp. changed its name to 7-Eleven, Inc. citing the divestment of operations other than 7-Eleven. Ito-Yokado formed Seven & I Holdings Co. and 7-Eleven became its subsidiary in 2005. In 2007, Seven & I Holdings announced that it would be expanding its American operations, with an additional 1,000 7-Eleven stores in the United States. For the 2010 rankings, 7-Eleven climbed to the No. 3 spot in Entrepreneur Magazine's 31st Annual Franchise 500, "the first and most comprehensive ranking in the world".
This was the 17th year 7-Eleven was named in the top 10. In 2010, the first "green" 7-Eleven store opened in DeLand, Florida; the store features U. S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Environmental Design elements; the environmentally-friendly design brings the store savings in energy costs. That same year, 7-Eleven went mobile with the launch of the Slurpee drink's iPhone and An
Romanization of Japanese
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in Japanese as rōmaji (. There are several different romanization systems; the three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization, Nihon-shiki romanization. Variants of the Hepburn system are the most used. Japanese is written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese and syllabic scripts that ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language, it is used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English on topics related to Japan, such as linguistics, literature and culture. Rōmaji is the most common way to input Japanese into word processors and computers, may be used to display Japanese on devices that do not support the display of Japanese characters.
All Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese. Therefore all Japanese are able to read and write Japanese using rōmaji, although it is rare in Japan to use this method to write Japanese, most Japanese are more comfortable reading kanji and kana; the earliest Japanese romanization system was based on Portuguese orthography. It was developed around 1548 by a Japanese Catholic named Yajiro. Jesuit priests used the system in a series of printed Catholic books so that missionaries could preach and teach their converts without learning to read Japanese orthography; the most useful of these books for the study of early modern Japanese pronunciation and early attempts at romanization was the Nippo jisho, a Japanese–Portuguese dictionary written in 1603. In general, the early Portuguese system was similar to Nihon-shiki in its treatment of vowels; some consonants were transliterated differently: for instance, the /k/ consonant was rendered, depending on context, as either c or q, the /ɸ/ consonant as f.
The Jesuits printed some secular books in romanized Japanese, including the first printed edition of the Japanese classic The Tale of the Heike, romanized as Feiqe no monogatari, a collection of Aesop's Fables. The latter continued to be read after the suppression of Christianity in Japan. Following the expulsion of Christians from Japan in the late 1590s and early 17th century, rōmaji fell out of use and was used sporadically in foreign texts until the mid-19th century, when Japan opened up again. From the mid-19th century onward, several systems were developed, culminating in the Hepburn system, named after James Curtis Hepburn who used it in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published in 1887; the Hepburn system included representation of some sounds. For example, Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan shows the older kw- pronunciation. In the Meiji era, some Japanese scholars advocated abolishing the Japanese writing system and using rōmaji instead; the Nihon-shiki romanization was an outgrowth of that movement.
Several Japanese texts were published in rōmaji during this period, but it failed to catch on. In the early 20th century, some scholars devised syllabary systems with characters derived from Latin that were less popular since they were not based on any historical use of the Latin script. Today, the use of Nihon-shiki for writing Japanese is advocated by the Oomoto sect and some independent organizations. During the Allied occupation of Japan, the government of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers made it official policy to romanize Japanese. However, that policy failed and a more moderate attempt at Japanese script reform followed. Hepburn romanization follows English phonology with Romance vowels, it is an intuitive method of showing Anglophones the pronunciation of a word in Japanese. It was standardized in the United states as American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese, but that status was abolished on October 6, 1994. Hepburn is the most common romanization system in use today in the English-speaking world.
The Revised Hepburn system of romanization uses a macron to indicate some long vowels and an apostrophe to note the separation of confused phonemes. For example, the name じゅんいちろう is written with the kana characters ju-n-i-chi-ro-u, romanized as Jun'ichirō in Revised Hepburn. Without the apostrophe, it would not be possible to distinguish this correct reading from the incorrect ju-ni-chi-ro-u; this system is used in Japan and among foreign students and academics. Nihon-shiki romanization, which predates the Hepburn system, was invented as a method for Japanese to write their own language in Latin characters, rather than to transcribe it for Westerners as Hepburn was, it follows the Japanese syllabary strictly, with no adjustments for changes in pronunciation. It is therefore the only major system of romanization that allows near-lossless mapping to and from kana, it has been st
The koala is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia. It is the only extant representative of the family Phascolarctidae and its closest living relatives are the wombats, which comprise the family Vombatidae.. The koala is found in coastal areas of the mainland's eastern and southern regions, inhabiting Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia, it is recognisable by its stout, tailless body and large head with round, fluffy ears and large, spoon-shaped nose. The koala weighs 4 -- 15 kg. Pelage colour ranges from silver grey to chocolate brown. Koalas from the northern populations are smaller and lighter in colour than their counterparts further south; these populations are separate subspecies, but this is disputed. Koalas inhabit open eucalypt woodlands, the leaves of these trees make up most of their diet; because this eucalypt diet has limited nutritional and caloric content, koalas are sedentary and sleep up to 20 hours a day. They are asocial animals, bonding exists only between mothers and dependent offspring.
Adult males attract mates. Males mark their presence with secretions from scent glands located on their chests. Being marsupials, koalas give birth to underdeveloped young that crawl into their mothers' pouches, where they stay for the first six to seven months of their lives; these young koalas, known as joeys, are weaned around a year old. Koalas have few natural predators and parasites, but are threatened by various pathogens, such as Chlamydiaceae bacteria and the koala retrovirus, as well as by bushfires and droughts. Koalas were depicted in myths and cave art for millennia; the first recorded encounter between a European and a koala was in 1798, an image of the animal was published in 1810 by naturalist George Perry. Botanist Robert Brown wrote the first detailed scientific description of the koala in 1814, although his work remained unpublished for 180 years. Popular artist John Gould illustrated and described the koala, introducing the species to the general British public. Further details about the animal's biology were revealed in the 19th century by several English scientists.
Because of its distinctive appearance, the koala is recognised worldwide as a symbol of Australia. Koalas are listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature; the Australian government lists specific populations in Queensland and New South Wales as Vulnerable. The animal was hunted in the early 20th century for its fur, large-scale cullings in Queensland resulted in a public outcry that initiated a movement to protect the species. Sanctuaries were established, translocation efforts moved to new regions koalas whose habitat had become fragmented or reduced; the biggest threat to their existence is habitat destruction caused by urbanisation. The word koala comes from the Dharug gula. Although the vowel'u' was written in the English orthography as "oo", it was changed to "oa" in error; because of the koala's supposed resemblance to a bear, it was miscalled the koala bear by early settlers. The generic name, Phascolarctos, is derived from the Greek words phaskolos "pouch" and arktos "bear".
The specific name, cinereus, is Latin for "ash coloured". The koala was given its generic name Phascolarctos in 1816 by French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, who would not give it a specific name until further review. In 1819, German zoologist Georg August Goldfuss gave it the binomial Lipurus cinereus; because Phascolarctos was published first, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, it has priority as the official name of the genus. French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest proposed the name Phascolartos fuscus in 1820, suggesting that the brown-coloured versions were a different species than the grey ones. Other names suggested by European authors included Marodactylus cinereus by Goldfuss in 1820, P. flindersii by René Primevère Lesson in 1827, P. koala by John Edward Gray in 1827. The koala is classified with wombats and several extinct families in the suborder Vombatiformes within the order Diprotodontia; the Vombatiformes are a sister group to a clade that includes possums.
The ancestors of vombatiforms were arboreal, the koala's lineage was the first to branch off around 40 million years ago during the Eocene. The modern koala is the only extant member of Phascolarctidae, a family that once included several genera and species. During the Oligocene and Miocene, koalas had less specialised diets; some species, such as the Riversleigh rainforest koala and some species of Perikoala, were around the same size as the modern koala, while others, such as species of Litokoala, were one-half to two-thirds its size. Like the modern species, prehistoric koalas had well developed ear structures which suggests that long-distance vocalising and sedentism developed early. During the Miocene, the Australian continent began drying out, leading to the decline of rainforests and the spread of open Eucalyptus woodlands; the genus Phascolarctos split from Litokoala in the late Miocene and had several adaptations that allowed it to live on a specialised eucalyptus diet: a shifting of the palate towards the front of the skull.
During the Pliocene an
Lotte Chilsung is one of the largest beverage manufacturers in South Korea and is part of the Lotte Corporation. The name "Chilsung" means "Big Dipper"; the Chilsung's logo is an eponymous seven stars in a row. Since the establishment and successful launch of Chilsung Cider, a lemon-lime soft drink, in 1950, Lotte Chilsung Beverage has been continuously developing and launching products in carbonated drinks, coffee and water. In 1966, Lotte Chilsung began exporting its Chilsung Cider to Vietnam. In mid-1970s, the company began to achieve an international presence, entering into contracts with American companies such as Pepsi. In 1989, Lotte Chilsung acquired a JAS mark. In the late 1990s, Lotte Chilsung grew to be Asia's largest beverage company, holding 35% of the domestic market share. Since its launch in 1950, Chilsung Cider has been the representative drink of Korea, selling more than a million bottles. Other high-profile drinks include milk-soda Milkis, through the partnership with US-based PepsiCo, Mountain Dew and Tropicana Sparkling.
Lotte Chilsung Beverage offers a range of natural fruit juices in orange, apple, tangerine and mango flavors. In 1982, the company established a partnership with US-based Del Monte and now manufactures the well-loved Premium Orange and Del Monte Cold products. In 2009, the license for Tropicana was acquired and Tropicana Homemade style blends and other popular choices were produced; the lineup in coffee include Let’s Be, Korea’s No. 1 canned coffee, Cantata, a coffee blend made with Arabica beans from plantations worldwide, black tea drinks Ceylon Tea and Lipton. The 2% brands opened up near water products in 1999, while diverse assortments range from soy milks to traditional beverage and health drinks. Other varieties in the catalog include. Lotte Chilsung Beverage has been marketing Scotch Blue, Korea’s local whiskey brand, along with fruit liquor, traditional Mirin, other alcoholic beverages. Other liquors include Cheoeumcheoreom, the world’s first soju made of alkaline-reduced water, Baekhwasubok, brewed with rice, plum wine Seoljungmae Plus, Majuang, Korean wine.
Economy of South Korea Hankook Pepsi-Cola List of South Korean corporations Lotte Chilsung website Lotte Chilsung website
Lotte Department Store
Lotte Department Store is a Korean retail company established in 1979, headquartered in Sogong-dong, Jung-gu, South Korea. Lotte Department Store offers retail consumer goods and services and is one out of 8 business units of Lotte Shopping. Other Lotte retail companies include supermarket Lotte Super. Seoul National Capital Area Main Store, Young Plaza Myeondong & Avenuel Main Store in Jung-gu, Seoul Jamsil Store & Avenuel World Tower in Songpa-gu, Seoul Yeongdeungpo Store in Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul Cheongnyangni Store & Lotte Cheongnyangni Plaza in Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul Gwanak Store in Gwanak-gu, Seoul Gangnam Store in Gangnam-gu, Seoul Nowon Store in Nowon-gu, Seoul Mia Store in Gangbuk-gu, Seoul Star City Store in Gwangjin-gu, Seoul Gimpo Airport Store in Gangseo-gu, Seoul Incheon Store in Namdong-gu, Incheon Bupyeong Store in Bupyeong-gu, Incheon Bundang Store in Bundang-gu, Gyeonggi-do Ilsan Store in Ilsandong-gu, Gyeonggi-do Anyang Store in Manan-gu, Gyeonggi-do Pyeongchon Store in Dong-an-gu, Gyeonggi-do Jungdong Store in Wonmi-gu, Gyeonggi-do Guri Store in Guri, Gyeonggi-do Ansan Store in Danwon-gu, Gyeonggi-do Suwon Store in Gwonseon-gu, Gyeonggi-doHoseo Region Daejeon Store in Seo-gu, Daejeon Young Plaza Cheongju in Sangdang-gu, Chungcheongbuk-doHonam Region Gwangju Store in Dong-gu, Gwangju Jeonju Store in Wansan-gu, Jeollabuk-doYeongnam Region Busan Main Store in Busanjin-gu, Busan Gwangbok Store - Main Building & Aqua Mall in Jung-gu, Busan Dongnae Store in Dongnae-gu, Busan Centum City Store in Hae-undae-gu, Busan Ulsan Store in Nam-gu, Ulsan Changwon Store - Main Building & Young Plaza in Seongsan-gu, Gyeongsangnam-do Masan Store in Masanhappo-gu, Gyeongsangnam-do Daegu Store in Buk-gu, Daegu Sangin Store in Dalseo-gu, Daegu Young Plaza Daegu in Jung-gu, Daegu Pohang Store in Buk-gu, Gyeongsangbuk-do Lotte Mall Gimpo Airport in Gangseo-gu, Seoul Lotte World Mall in Songpa-gu, Seoul Lotte Outlets Seoul Station Store in Yongsan-gu, Seoul Lotte Outlets Cheongju Store in Heungdeok-gu, Chungcheonbuk-do Lotte Outlets Buyeo Store in Buyeo-eup, Chungcheongnam-do Lotte Outlets Gwangju World Cup Store in Seo-gu, Gwangju Lotte Outlets Gwangju Suwan Store in Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju Lotte Outlets Yulha Store in Dong-gu, Daegu Lotte Outlets Esiapolis Store in Dong-gu, Daegu Lotte Premium Outlets Paju Store in Gyoha-eup, Gyeonggi-do Lotte Premium Outlets Icheon Store in Hobeop-myeon, Gyeonggi-do Lotte Premium Outlets Gimhae Store in Jang-yu-myeon, Gyeongsangnam-do Lotte Fitin Dongdaemun Store in Jung-gu, Seoul Chengdu Huanqiu Zhongxin Store in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China Jakarta Store in Jakarta, Indonesia Hanoi Store in Hanoi, Vietnam.
This is the tallest Lotte location. Moscow Store "Lotte Plaza" in Central Administrative Okrug, Russia Tianjin Dongmalu Store in Tianjin, People's Republic of China Tianjin Wenhua Zhongxin Store in Tianjin, People's Republic of China Weihai Store in Weihai, Shandong Province, People Republic of China Songdo Store in Yeonsu-gu, Incheon Pan-gyo Store in Bundang-gu, Gyeonggi-do Lotte Outlets Goyang Bus Terminal Store in Ilsandong-gu, Gyeonggi-do Lotte Outlets Jeju Store in Jeju, Jeju-do Shenyang Store in Shenyang, People's Republic of China Ho Chi Minh City Store, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Beijing Store "Intime-Lotte Department Store" in Dongcheng District, People's Republic of China Saenara Super Department Store (a GMS, or general merchandising store, opened in 1988 in Songpa-gu, Seoul; this branch changed its name into World Store in 1992 and was converted into Lotte Mart Jamsil Store in 1998. Magnet Department Store; this department store is a GMS, have a wide range of branches inside South Korea.
In 2002, the last Magnet Department Store changed into Lotte Mart. Official website Lotte Department Store English Homepage
Matcha is finely ground powder of specially grown and processed green tea leaves. It is special in two aspects of farming and processing: the green tea plants for matcha are shade-grown for three to four weeks before harvest, with the stems and veins removed during processing. During shaded growth, the plant Camellia sinensis produces more caffeine; the powdered form of matcha is consumed differently from tea leaves or tea bags, is suspended in a liquid water or milk. The traditional Japanese tea ceremony centers on the preparation and drinking of matcha as hot tea and embodies a meditative spiritual style. In modern times, matcha has come to be used to flavor and dye foods such as mochi and soba noodles, green tea ice cream, matcha lattes, a variety of Japanese wagashi confectionery. Matcha used in ceremonies is referred to as ceremonial-grade matcha, meaning that the matcha powder is of a high enough quality to be used in the tea ceremony. Lower quality matcha is referred to as culinary-grade matcha, but there is no standard industry definition or requirements for either.
Blends of matcha are given poetic names known as chamei either by the producing plantation, shop, or creator of the blend, or by the grand master of a particular tea tradition. When a blend is named by the grand master of a tea ceremony lineage, it becomes known as the master's konomi. In China during the Tang dynasty, tea leaves were steamed and formed into tea bricks for storage and trade; the tea was prepared by roasting and pulverizing the tea, decocting the resulting tea powder in hot water adding salt. During the Song dynasty, the method of making powdered tea from steam-prepared dried tea leaves, preparing the beverage by whipping the tea powder and hot water together in a bowl became popular. Preparation and consumption of powdered tea was formed into a ritual by Zen Buddhists; the earliest extant Chan monastic code, entitled Chanyuan Qinggui, describes in detail the etiquette for tea ceremonies. Zen Buddhism and the Chinese methods of preparing powdered tea were brought to Japan in 1191 by the monk Eisai.
In Japan it became an important item at Zen monasteries and from the fourteenth through to the sixteenth centuries was appreciated by members of the upper echelons of society. Although powdered tea has not been popular in China for some time, there is now a global resurgence in the consumption of Matcha tea, including in China. Matcha is made from shade-grown tea leaves that are used to make gyokuro; the preparation of matcha starts several weeks before harvest and may last up to 20 days, when the tea bushes are covered to prevent direct sunlight. This slows down growth, stimulates an increase in chlorophyll levels, turns the leaves a darker shade of green, causes the production of amino acids, in particular theanine. Only the finest tea buds are hand-picked. After harvesting, if the leaves are rolled up before drying as in the production of sencha, the result will be gyokuro tea. If the leaves are laid out flat to dry, they will crumble somewhat and become known as tencha. Tencha may be de-veined, de-stemmed, stone-ground to the fine, bright green, talc-like powder known as matcha.
Grinding the leaves is a slow process, because the mill stones must not get too warm, lest the aroma of the leaves is altered. It may take up to one hour to grind 30 grams of matcha The flavour of matcha is dominated by its amino acids; the highest grades of matcha have more intense sweetness and deeper flavour than the standard or coarser grades of tea harvested in the year. Matcha can be categorised into three grades: Ceremonial grade: This is the highest quality used in tea ceremonies and Buddhist temples; this is stone-ground into a powder by granite stone mills. It is expensive; the unschooled drinker is unlikely to notice a large difference between Ceremonial and Premium grade. Ceremonial is characterized by subtle tones of "umami". Premium grade: High-quality matcha green tea that contains the full nutritional content and uses tea leaves from the top of the tea plant. Price point. Best for daily consumption and contains the full range of antioxidants and minerals. Is characterized by a fresh, subtle flavour.
Perfect for both new and everyday matcha drinkers alike. Cooking/culinary grade: Cheapest of all. Suitable for cooking purposes. Bitter due to using leaves lower down on the green tea plant. In general, matcha is expensive compared to other forms of tea, although its price depends on its quality. Grades of matcha are defined by many factors. Where leaves destined for tencha are picked on the tea bush is vital; the top should have developing leaves that are soft and supple. This gives a finer texture to higher grades of matcha. More-developed leaves are harder; the better flavour is a result of the plant sending the majority of its nutrients to the growing leaves. Traditionally, sencha leaves are dried outside in the shade and never are exposed to direct sunlight. Quality matcha is vibrantly green as a result of this treatment. Without the correct equipment and technique, matcha can suffer degraded quality. In Japan, matcha is stone-ground to a fine powder through the use of specially designed granite stone mills.
Oxidation is a factor in determining grade. Matcha exposed to oxygen may become compromised. Oxidized matcha has a dull brownish-green colour. There are two main way
Hanaro Card is contactless smart card used in the public transportation system in Busan, South Korea. First used in 1997, the Hanaro Card is now used for paying at parking lots and toll booths. Official homepage