Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet.
Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparent
The maneki-neko is a common Japanese figurine which is often believed to bring good luck to the owner. In modern times, they are made of ceramic or plastic. The figurine depicts a cat beckoning with a paw, and is usually displayed in—often at the entrance of—shops, pachinko parlors. Some of the sculptures are electric or battery-powered and have a slow-moving paw beckoning, the maneki-neko is sometimes called the welcoming cat, lucky cat, money cat, happy cat, raging cat, beckoning cat, or fortune cat in English. Maneki-neko comes in different colors and degrees of ornateness, common colors are white, black and sometimes red. In addition to figurines, maneki-neko can be found as keychains, piggy banks, air fresheners, house-plant pots. It is called the Chinese lucky cat due to its popularity among Chinese merchants. To some Westerners it may seem as if the maneki-neko is waving rather than beckoning and this is due to the difference in gestures and body language recognized by some Westerners and the Japanese.
The Japanese beckoning gesture is made by holding up the hand, palm down, some maneki-neko made specifically for some Western markets will have the cats paw facing upwards, in a beckoning gesture that is more familiar to most Westerners. Maneki-neko can be found with either the right or left paw raised, the significance of the right and left raised paw differs with time and place. Another interpretation says that a left paw attracts money, while a raised right paw protects it. Still others say that a left paw raised is best for drinking establishments, yet another interpretation is that right is for home and left for business. It is commonly believed the higher the paw, the greater the luck. Consequently, over the years maneki-nekos paw has tended to appear ever higher, some use the paw height as a crude method of gauging the relative age of a figure. Another common belief is that the higher the paw, the greater the distance good fortune will come from, some maneki-neko feature battery- or solar-powered moving arms endlessly engaged in the beckoning gesture.
The most common color is white, followed by black and gold, red is used as well. White cats are seen to bring about the happiness of its owner, along with purity, the luckiest of all the colors is considered to be the calico colored cat, black is meant to lure away evil spirits, and gold for monetary good fortune. Other popular colours include green and blue, which are supposed to bring academic success, and pink, bringer of love
10,000 yen note
The front side of the 10,000 yen note includes a portrait of Yukichi Fukuzawa, a Meiji era philosopher and the founder of Keio University. The back of the shows a drawing of the Hōō in the Hall of the Phoenix. Extensive anti-counterfeiting measures are present in the banknote and they include intaglio printing, microprinting, fluorescent ink, latent images and angle-sensitive ink
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
Matthew C. Perry
Matthew Calbraith Perry was a Commodore of the United States Navy and commanded a number of ships. He served in wars, most notably in the Mexican–American War. He played a role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Perry was very concerned with the education of officers and helped develop an apprentice system that helped establish the curriculum at the United States Naval Academy. With the advent of the engine, he became a leading advocate of modernizing the US Navy. Matthew Perry was the son of Sarah Wallace and Navy Captain Christopher R. Perry, Matthew Perry received a midshipmans warrent in the Navy in 1809, and was initially assigned to the USS Revenge, under the command of his elder brother. He continued in this capacity during the War of 1812, Perry transferred to the USS United States, commanded by the legendary Stephen Decatur, and saw little fighting in the war afterwards, since the ship was trapped in port at New London, Connecticut. Following the signing of the Treaty of Ghent which ended the war, Perry served under Commodore William Bainbridge during the Second Barbary War.
He served in African waters aboard USS Cyane during its patrol off Liberia from 1819–1820, after that cruise, Perry was sent to suppress piracy and the slave trade in the West Indies. Later during this period, while in port in Russia, Perry was offered a commission in the Imperial Russian Navy, Perry commanded the USS Shark, a schooner with 12 guns, in 1821–1825. In 1763, when Britain possessed Florida, the Spanish contended that the Florida Keys were part of Cuba, in 1815 the Spanish governor in Havana deeded the island of Key West to Juan Pablo Salas of Saint Augustine. After Florida was transferred to the United States, Salas sold Key West to American businessman John W. Simonton for $2,000 in 1821. Simonton lobbied the U. S. Government to establish a base on Key West both to take advantage of its strategic location and to bring law and order to the area. On March 25,1822, Perry sailed Shark to Key West and planted the U. S. flag, Perry renamed Cayo Hueso Thompsons Island for the Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson and the harbor Port Rodgers for the president of the Board of Navy Commissioners.
From 1826 to 1827 Perry acted as captain for Commodore Rodgers. Perry returned to Charleston, South Carolina for shore duty in 1828, and in 1830 took command of a sloop-of-war and he spent the years 1833–1837 as second officer of the New York Navy Yard, gaining promotion to captain at the end of this tour. He was a member of the Masons, Perry had an ardent interest and saw the need for the naval education, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, and helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy. He was a proponent of modernizing the Navy
Japanese invasion money
In February 1942 in Japan, laws were passed establishing the Wartime Finance Bank and the Southern Development Bank. Both institutions issued bonds to raise funds, the former loaned money primarily to military industries, but to a wide range of other ventures, including hydroelectric generators, electric power companies and petroleum. The latter provided financial services in occupied by the Japanese military. In December 1942, the balance of Southern Development Bank notes stood at more than 470 million, in March 1945. In August 1940, the Japanese initiated to join World War II, all notes bear the name of the issuer, “The Japanese Government” while some notes proclaim the “promises to pay the bearer on demand”. Called “Mickey Mouse Money” by local Filipinos, it was valueless after the overthrow of the Japanese, Japanese troops were ordered to destroy bank records and any remaining currency prior to capitulation. By the end of World War II, the war ended, Money that was issued included the Philippines, Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak, Brunei, the Dutch East Indies and some areas of Oceania. were deemed useless.
On 10 December 1941 Japanese troops landed on Luzon, the Japanese invaded Manila on 2 January 1942, and in the process captured more than $20.5 Million in U. S. and local cash and an unknown amount of foreign currency and bullion. The Japanese used this hard currency abroad to purchase raw materials and weapons to fuel, in its place, the Japanese issued several series of fiat currency. The first issue in 1942 consisted of denominations of 1,5,10 and 50 centavos and 1,5, and 10 Pesos. The next year brought “replacement notes” of the 1,5 and 10 Pesos while 1944 ushered in a 100 Peso note, near the end of the war in 1945 the Japanese issued a 1,000 Pesos note. The Japanese were on the defensive and short of supplies, they diluted printer’s ink with duplicator fluid to stretch stores, the Japanese began their attack on British Malaya the same day as Pearl Harbor. The Japanese entered Malaya overland from the north and the base of Singapore fell on 15 February 1942 and was held with the rest of Malaya by the Japanese until August 1945.
Malaysian scrip is in dollars and therefore is often, mistakenly, in 1942 the Japanese issued paper scrip currency of 1,5,10 and 50 cents and 1,5 and 10 dollars. The 1,5 and 10 dollar notes initially had serial numbers, in 1944, inflation lead to the issuing of a 100 dollar note. In 1945, a replacement note 100 dollar bill was issued as well as a hyper-inflation 1,000 note. The 1942 series of notes, including the 50c and 1,5,10, the 1944100 dollar replacement note no longer contained this message. With metals being a needed war-material the Japanese did not issue coinage during their occupations, occupation currency, including denominations of less than one dollar, was printed on paper
Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
1000 yen note
The 1000 yen note is currently the lowest value yen banknote and has been used since 1945, excluding a brief period between 1946 and 1950 during the American occupation of Japan. The fifth series notes are currently in circulation having been introduced on 11 November 2004 and are the smallest of the three common bank notes measuring 150 x 76 mm. The front side shows a portrait of Hideyo Noguchi, who in 1911 discovered the agent of syphilis as the cause of paralytic disease. The reverse depicts Mount Fuji and cherry blossoms, adapted from a photograph by Koyo Okada and it was first issued on 1 November 2004. Extensive anti-counterfeiting measures are present in the banknote and they include intaglio printing, microprinting, fluorescent ink, latent images and angle-sensitive ink. The first ¥1000 note was released on 17 August 1945, at the time each series of bank note was labelled series 甲, 乙, 丙, 丁 or い, ろ as opposed to series A, B, C, D, E. It measured 172 x 100 mm and featured images of the legendary prince Yamato Takeru and it was removed from circulation in 1954.
A series A bank note was never released in 1946 along with other bank notes, the series B note measured 164 x 76 mm and entered circulation on 1 July 1950. The obverse displayed an image of the regent and politician under Empress Suiko. The reverse side contained an image of the Yumedono in the grounds of Hōryū-ji, only one version of the bank note existed and was removed from circulation on 4 January 1965. Like its predecessor, the series C note measured 164 x 76 mm, the obverse side contained a portrait of Itō Hirobumi, under Emperor Meiji, was the first Prime Minister of Japan assuming office in 1885. The reverse side displayed an image of the Bank of Japan, the series C note was released with the bank number in two different colours and blue. It was removed from circulation on 4 January 1986, the series D note, like the series E note currently in circulation, measured 150 x 76 mm and entered circulation on 1 November 1984. The obverse side contained a portrait of the Meiji period novelist Natsume Sōseki whose famous works include I Am a Cat, the reverse side featured two red-crowned cranes.
The series D note was released with the number in four different colours, blue, brown. With series E being brought into circulation in 2004, the series D notes were removed from circulation on 2 April 2007
Scrip of Edo period Japan
During the Edo period, feudal domains of Japan issued scrip called hansatsu for use within the domain. This paper currency supplemented the coinage of the Tokugawa shogunate, most scrip carried a face value in silver coinage, but gold and copper scrip circulated. In addition, some scrip was marked for exchange in kind for a commodity such as rice, in addition to those issued by the domains, forms of paper money were issued by rice brokers in Osaka and Edo. Originally used only as a representation of amounts of rice owned by the scrip-holder and held in the Osaka or Edo merchants storehouse, japans first banknotes, called Yamada Hagaki, were issued around 1600 by Shinto priests working as merchants in the Ise-Yamada, in exchange for silver. This was earlier than the first goldsmith notes issued in England around 1640, an early issue of domain scrip took place in the Fukui domain in 1661. As early as 1610, private notes had been printed for purposes such as payment of workers on construction projects, domains issued scrip to supplement coins in times of shortage and to adjust the amount in circulation.
They exchanged scrip for coins to improve the situation of the domain. By the end of the period, eight out of ten domains issued paper, as did a few daikan-sho, accepting scrip always carried the risk of forfeiture. During the Edo period, the shogunate seized some domains, and transferred others, on such occasions, the new daimyo might not honor the old scrip. Following the condemnation and death of the daimyo Asano Naganori, for example, Ōishi Yoshio, in addition, in times of financial difficulty, the domain might simply declare scrip void. Early in the period, domains printed their own scrip, they operated through prominent merchants, the shogunate prohibited the use of scrip in 1707. In 1730, Tokugawa Yoshimune authorized domains to issue paper with time limits for redemption, large domains could issue currency valid for 25 years, and small domains for 15 years. His son Ieshige prohibited new issue of scrip, and restricted the circulation of scrip other than that exchangeable for silver, despite the prohibitions, domains in severe financial straits occasionally issued paper money.
Each domain formulated its own rules about its scrip, while there were some that forbade the shogunates coinage, many allowed both coins and scrip to circulate. As a rule, scrip circulated only within the domain that issued it, for example, paper issued by the Kishū domain in 1866 was used in Yamato, Kawachi and Harima Provinces. In 1871, the Government of Meiji Japan ordered the abolition of the han system, in the interim, some scrip carried markings from the central government indicating the value in yen and the smaller sen and rin. This article incorporates information from the Japanese Wikipedia, bank of Japan 新井政義（編集者）『日本史事典』。東京：旺文社1987 竹内理三（編）『日本史小辞典』。東京：角川書店1985 Hansatsu for 1 momme of silver at the British Museum with photo and explanation
5 yen coin
The 5 yen coin is one denomination of Japanese yen. The current design was first minted in 1959 using Japanese characters known as the new script, the modern-day coin was first produced in 1948 with a different styled inscription. This was changed in 1959 and the design has remained unchanged since, the three graphic elements of the coin represent agriculture and fisheries, the key elements of the Japanese first-sector economy. Around a hole, there is a gear that represents industry and it is the only Japanese coin in circulation to lack Arabic numerals on either face. The Japanese for five yen, go en is a homophone with go-en, en being a word for causal connection or relationship, and go being a respectful prefix. They write, The Japanese 5-yen coin is about 22 millimeters in diameter and 1.5 mm thick, to obtain a record of the dosage of neutrons released as a result of the accident, we collected exposed coins from peoples houses at distances 100–550 m from the facility. The following are circulation dates which cover Emperor Hirohitos reign, the dates below correspond with the 23rd to the 64th year of his reign.
All five yen coins that were made before 1959 use Shinjitai, in 1949 only, two different styles of writing were used before a more modern one was established in 1950. This second style of writing was used until 1958 when the current script of Japanese took its place in the following year, coins for this period will all begin with the Japanese symbol 昭和. Japanese coins are read with a left to right format, Emperors name -> Number representing year of reign -> Year, * = First style ** = Second style ^ = Third style The following are circulation dates in the reign of the current Emperor. Akihito was crowned in 1989, which is marked with a 元 symbol on the coin as a one year type, coins for this period all begin with the Japanese symbol 平成. Japanese coins are read with a left to right format, Emperors name -> Number representing year of reign -> Year, the front sides of two five yen coins