Kadavanthra is a downtown region in the heart of Kochi City, in the state of Kerala, South India. It is known for its pilgrim centre of St Joseph. Kadavanthra Junction is the name of a major intersection in the CBD of Kochi,which is one of the busiest and most important in the city, it facilitates Kadavanthra Metro Station,catering passengers for Panampilly Nagar/Kadavanthra area; the said junction is an intersection of the Sahodaran Ayyappan Road with the Kaloor-Kadavanthra Road and the K. P. Vallon Road. Importance of this Junction enhances with the Metro rail connectivity from M. G Road to Vytilla Mobility Hub making the area expensive and busy with land prices sky rocketing to crores of rupees in S. A. Road facing areas with exorbitant commercial rents. Kadavanthra being part of CBD Kochi, is notable as home for the headquarters of the Greater Cochin Development Authority, the statutory body overseeing the development of the city of Kochi; the Kochi Metro Kadavanthra station is situated just in front of GCDA lawns.
Kendriya Vidyalaya, Bhavans Vidya Mandir and St Josephs Upper Primary School are located in this area. The region is an emerging commercial high street with several leading/branded retail stores and many 3- and 5-star classified hotels operating like Olive Downtown, Radisson Blu Kochi,Avenue Centre Hotel, Star Paradise,Park Residency hotel, Cochin Palace hotel etc. Affluent housing colonies like Panampilly Nagar, Giri Nagar, Gandhi Nagar, Jawahar Nagar etc are located here. Prominent banks like "Central Bank of India" in Kallelil building,HDFC bank at MKS towers,South Indian Bank, SBI,Axis Bank branches are available, it is an expanding area and is close to the South Railway Station, with easy access to Kaloor and Cochin International Airport. Kaloor-Kadavanthra Road links southern parts of Kochi. Kadavanthra has become a major hub after the completion of Kaloor-Kadavanthra Road; the oldest and the major landmark of the place is the Greater Cochin Development Authority building beside the Sahodaran Ayyapan Road.
The close vicinity of the Ernakulam Junction Railway Station and residential colonies make this place high valued in real estate business. The place is an important junction to go towards the Cochin Shipyard and the Naval base, it provides an alternate way to go to Atlantis via Railway gate or directly to the Thevara Junction, thus avoiding the busy M. G Road. Major centres in and around Kadavanthra are:- The Regional Sports Centre Rajiv Gandhi International Indoor Stadium The Greater Cochin Development Authority Statue of Sahodaran Ayyappan in the S. A Road Office of Kerala State Electricity Board Office of the Housing Development Authority in Panampilly Nagar The Kadavanthra Post Office on Cheruparambath Road The Passport office in Panampilly Nagar Panampilly Nagar has a separate post office Supplyco of the Civil Supplies Department, Government of Kerala in Gandhinagar Kadavanthra Janamytri Police Station Fire Engine Station BSNL office Kendriya Vidyalaya Office of Health Inspector Elamkulam village office The Indira Gandhi Co-operative Hospital The Vijaya Hospital The State Bank of India, Ernakulam South Branch is in S.
A Road The Bank of Baroda The Federal Bank Offices of Airtel, Tata Indicom, Vodafone in S. A Road Maannullil Builders Enterprises in S. A. Road "Kallelil Building" in S. A. Road, accommodates Central Bank of India. Indian Overseas Bank ATM is in "Kallelil Building" Kadavanthra. Asset Luminaire Olive Downtown Hotel- 5 star luxury hotel Olive Builder Luxury Apartments in Cochin http://www.olivebuilder.com/projects/olive-heights situated at the heart of kadavanthara. Radisson Blu Kochi-5 star luxury hotel Newsport.in ABAD Builders Knightsbridge Apartments ABAD Builders Silver Crest Flats DD Vyapar Bhavan DD Milestone & Cornerstone. Trinity Citadel Apartments Dreamflower Casa Gardenza Traum Academy for Foreign languages Kalyan Marvella by Kalyan Developers
Kochi known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea. It is part of the district of Ernakulam in the state of Kerala and is referred to as Ernakulam. Kochi is the most densely populated city in Kerala; as of 2011, it has a corporation limit population of 677,381 within an area of 94.88 km² and a total urban population of more than of 2.1 million within an area of 440 km², making it the largest and the most populous metropolitan area in Kerala. Kochi city is part of the Greater Cochin region and is classified as a Tier-II city by the Government of India; the civic body that governs the city is the Kochi Municipal Corporation, constituted in the year 1967, the statutory bodies that oversee its development are the Greater Cochin Development Authority and the Goshree Islands Development Authority. Called the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India from the 14th century onward, maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era.
Occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the main seat of Portuguese India until 1530; the city was occupied by the Dutch and the British, with the Kingdom of Cochin becoming a princely state. Kochi ranks first in the total number of domestic tourist arrivals in Kerala; the city was ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveller magazine. Kochi was one of the 28 Indian cities among the emerging 440 global cities that will contribute 50% of the world GDP by the year 2025, in a 2011 study done by the McKinsey Global Institute. In July 2018, Kochi was ranked the topmost emerging future megacity in India by global professional services firm JLL. Kochi is known as the financial and industrial capital of Kerala, it has the highest GDP as well as the highest GDP per capita in the state. The city is home to the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy and is the state headquarters of the Indian Coast Guard with an attached air squadron, named Air Squadron 747.
Commercial maritime facilities of the city include the Port of Kochi, an International Container Transshipment Terminal, the Cochin Shipyard, offshore SPM of the BPCL Kochi Refinery and the Kochi Marina. Kochi is home for the Cochin Stock Exchange, International Pepper Exchange, Marine Products Export Development Authority, Coconut Development Board, companies like HMT, Apollo Tyres and Synthite, petrochemical companies like the FACT, TCC, IREL, Petronet LNG, Merchem, HOCL and Kochi Refineries, electrical companies like TELK, V-Guard and industrial parks like the Cochin Special Economic Zone, Smart City and Kinfra Hi-Tech Park. Kochi is home for the High Court of Kerala and Lakshadweep, Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Indian Maritime University, Sree Sankaracharya Sanskrit University and the Cochin University of Science and Technology. Kochi is home to Kerala's National Law School, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies. Kochi has been hosting India's first art biennale, the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, since 2012, which attracts international artists and tourists.
Ancient travellers and tradesmen referred to Kochi, variously alluding to it as Cocym, Cochym and Kochi. The Cochin Jewish community called Cochin "Kogin", seen in the seal of the synagogue owned by the community; the origin of the name "Kochi" is thought to be from the Malayalam word kochu azhi, meaning'small lagoon'. Yet another theory is that Kochi is derived from the word Kaci, meaning "harbour". Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti, Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, named after the river connecting the backwaters to the sea. After the arrival of the Portuguese, the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation; the city reverted to a closer transliteration of its original Malayalam name, Kochi, in 1996. This change in name was challenged by the city municipal corporation but court dismissed the plea. Kochi was the centre of Indian spice trade for many centuries, was known to the Yavanas as well as Jews, Syrians and Chinese since ancient times.
It rose to significance as a trading centre after the port Muziris around Kodungallur was destroyed by massive flooding of Periyar in 1341. The earliest documented references to Kochi occur in books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan during his visit to Kochi in the 15th century as part of Admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet. There are references to Kochi in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Kochi in 1440. On the Malabar coast during the early 15th century and Kochi were in an intense rivalry, so the Ming dynasty of China decided to intervene by granting special status to Kochi and its ruler known as Keyili to the Chinese. Calicut had been the dominant port-city in the region. For the fifth Ming treasure voyage, Admiral Zheng He was instructed to confer a seal upon Keyili of Kochi and enfeoff a mountain in his kingdom as the Zhenguo Zhi Shan. Zheng He delivered a stone tablet, inscribed with a proclamation composed by the Yongle Emperor himself, to Kochi; as long as Kochi remained under the protection of Ming China, the Zamorin of Calicut was unable to invade Kochi and a military conflict was averted.
The cessation of the Ming treasure voyages had negative results for Kochi, as the Zamorin of Calicut would launch
Engineering is the application of knowledge in the form of science and empirical evidence, to the innovation, construction and maintenance of structures, materials, devices, systems and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, types of application. See glossary of engineering; the term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise". The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever and pulley; the term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engine'er referred to "a constructor of military engines."
In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e. a mechanical contraption used in war. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g. the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the word "engine" itself is of older origin deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning "innate quality mental power, hence a clever invention."Later, as the design of civilian structures, such as bridges and buildings, matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the discipline of military engineering. The pyramids in Egypt, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacán, the Brihadeeswarar Temple of Thanjavur, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of ancient civil and military engineers.
Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria were important engineering achievements of their time and were considered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep; as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both military domains; the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial Revolution, are still used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering. Ancient Chinese, Greek and Hungarian armies employed military machines and inventions such as artillery, developed by the Greeks around the 4th century BC, the trireme, the ballista and the catapult.
In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed. Before the development of modern engineering, mathematics was used by artisans and craftsmen, such as millwrights, clock makers, instrument makers and surveyors. Aside from these professions, universities were not believed to have had much practical significance to technology. A standard reference for the state of mechanical arts during the Renaissance is given in the mining engineering treatise De re metallica, which contains sections on geology and chemistry. De re metallica was the standard chemistry reference for the next 180 years; the science of classical mechanics, sometimes called Newtonian mechanics, formed the scientific basis of much of modern engineering. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. In addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.
Canal building was an important engineering work during the early phases of the Industrial Revolution. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the "father" of civil engineering, he was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Using a model water wheel, Smeaton conducted experiments for seven years, determining ways to increase efficiency. Smeaton introduced iron gears to water wheels. Smeaton made mechanical improvements to the Newcomen steam engine. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse, he is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, because he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime.
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Fort Kochi is a region in the city of Kochi in the state of Kerala, India. This is part of a handful of water-bound regions toward the south-west of the mainland Kochi, collectively known as Old Kochi or West Kochi. Adjacent to this is Mattancherry. In 1967, these three municipalities, along with a few adjoining areas, were amalgamated to form the Corporation of Cochin. In the BC period, the region, today known as Kerala was covered by mangrove woods. Turf and sand banks were created with the rise in sea-level which formed the shape of the coastal area as we see it today; the name Cochin implies "co-chin", meaning "like-China". It looked like China when the Chinese came to the region during the 14th century and installed Chinese nets. Mattancherry is the nerve town of old historic Cochin. In old Malayalam it is Maadan-cheri, from cheri meaning town. Maad or cow was the stamp of Old Royal Fort of Rajah of Cochin, who built his palace after the fall of Kodungallur or Mussaris port due to a gigantic tsunami in 1341 AD.
The Perumpadappu Swaroopam or the Fort of Rajah had its palace on the banks of the Calvathy River. Due to frequent wars between King Zamorin of Kozhikode and the western colonial forces, the Rajah left the place for Tripunithura; the king had his vaishnav leanings and the cow or maadu was his symbol. Fort Kochi can be accessed from Ernakulam city through roadways and water ways. Private buses and government transport buses travel from different parts of the city to Fort Kochi. Due to the high volume of tourists visiting the place dedicated low floor Volvo buses were introduced to this route by the government; such buses are in use on the popular routes such as Cochin International Airport, Vytila Mobility Hub and Kakanad Info Park. Kochi was a fishing village in the Kingdom of Kochi in the pre-colonial Kerala; the territory that would be known as Fort Kochi was granted to the Portuguese in 1503 by the Rajah of Kochi, after the forces of Afonso de Albuquerque helped him fighting the forces of Saamoothiri of Kozhikode.
The Rajah gave them permission to build Fort Emmanuel near the waterfront to protect their commercial interests. The first part of the name Fort Kochi comes from this fort, which the Dutch destroyed; the Portuguese built their settlement behind the fort, including a wooden church, rebuilt in 1516 as a permanent structure, today known as the St Francis Church. Fort Kochi remained in Portuguese possession for 160 years. In 1683 the Dutch captured the territory from the Portuguese, destroyed many Portuguese institutions Catholic including convents; the Dutch held Fort Kochi in their possession for 112 years until 1795, when the British took control by defeating the Dutch. Foreign control of Fort Kochi ended in 1947 with the Indian independence. A mix of old houses built by the Portuguese and British in these colonial periods line the streets of Fort Kochi. St Francis Church was built in 1503 by the Portuguese as a Catholic church. Vasco da Gama was once buried in this church which now falls under the Church of South India and is one of the national monuments.
Santa Cruz Basilica built by the Portuguese in the 16th century, was destroyed by the British and rebuilt near the end of 19th century. The landmark that causes more public and visitor interest is a series of precolonial Chinese fishing nets on the waterfront, believed to have been introduced by Chinese traders in the early 14th century. Since the beginning of the Common Era and Chinese traders sourced spices pepper, cardamom, sandal wood, etc. from the Kochi region. Cultivation and trade of these valuable goods shaped the history of the region. Today, Kochi is an important centre of spice export; the Arabian traders were the first to know about these spices, they carried the wanted merchandise to Europe. Centuries they were followed by the Portuguese the Dutch, afterwards the British. Written documents about the Malabar Coast show that this region had Hindus, a Jewish minority; the natural harbour of Kochi was created by a flood that destroyed the harbour of the town Kodungallur. Thereafter, the town developed into one of the most important harbours on the West Coast of India.
It concentrated on the spice trade with the Middle East. During this period, Calicut was ruled by king Kochi was ruled by the Maharaja of Cochin; this was the time when the first Portuguese ships berthed at the Malabar Coast: Vasco da Gama in Calicut and Pedro Álvares Cabral in Kochi. The Maharaja of Kochi felt threatened by the Zamorin of Calicut, he hoped that the Portuguese would help him in his defense from the neighbouring king of Calicut; the Maharaja welcomed the Portuguese, they founded their first trading center in Kochi. However, the Maharaja of Cochin was deprived of his power, Kochi became the first European colony in India; the Portuguese put pressure upon the small Jewish community, the Syrian Christians as they were practising Nestorianism. The Portuguese tried to merge the Syrian Christian Church with the Latin Church; this created conflict as most of the Syrian Christians were associated with various churches of the East and rejected the authority of the Pope and the Latin Church.
Most of the Christians of pre-Portuguese period were from upper castes. Nambudhiris and Nairs did not become Latin Christians because they did not want to lose their caste privileges guaranteed in Hinduism. Like the low caste Muslim converts of Malabar who lost their original caste and became Moplahs, lower caste Christian converts lost their caste and like Moplahs those Christians formed a separate caste with Latin as their liturgy; the Portuguese called the local Christians w
History of Kerala
The history of Kerala, dates back many millennia. Stone Age carvings in the Edakkal Caves feature pictorial writings believed to date to at least the Neolithic era around 5,000 BC, indicating the presence of a prehistoric civilisation or settlement in this region. From as early as 3000 BC, Chera nadu known as Kerala had established itself as a major spice trade centre. Keralam, the Chera nadu had direct contact across the Arabian Sea with all the major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of the Far East; the spice trade between Kerala and much of the world was one of the main drivers of the world economy. For much of history, ports in Kerala were the busiest among all trade and travel routes in the history of the world; the word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BC rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka. The Land of Keralaputra was one of the five independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya and Satiyaputra. A 3rd century CE, Brahmi inscription, found on Edakal cave, Ambukuthi hill, contained the word ‘Chera', the earliest inscriptional evidence of the dynasty Chera.
The Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Chola Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire. In the 8th century, Adi Shankara was born at Kalady in central Kerala, he travelled extensively across the Indian subcontinent establishing institutions of Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Contact with Europeans after the arrival of Vasco Da Gama in 1498 gave rise to armed conflicts between colonial and natives due to disputes on trade; the state of Keralam was created in 1956 from the former state of Travancore-Cochin, the Malabar district of Madras State, the Kasaragod taluk of Dakshina Kannada. According to Bibilical legends, many historians locate port cities Ophir and Tarshish mentioned in old testament in ancient Kerala. Poovar near Thiruvananthapuram is believed to be Ophir mentioned in old testament bible. Kollam, another ancient port city, is believed to be Tarshish; some of the legends of the native people in Kerala are common with the rest of India coming from the Puranas. However, new scholarship claims that the connections between Kerala's own legends and Aryan history are added at a stage as part of cultural and religious assimilation.
The most famous festival of Kerala, Onam, is rooted in Kerala traditions. Onam is associated with the legendary king Mahabali, who according to tradition and the Hindu Puranas, ruled the Earth and several other planetary systems from Kerala, his entire kingdom was a land of immense prosperity and happiness. However, Mahabali was tricked into giving up his rule, was thus overthrown by Vamana, the fifth Avatar of Lord Vishnu, he was banished from the Earth to rule over one of the netherworld planets called Sutala by Vamana. Legend says that Mahabali comes back to visit Keralam every year, that festival is known as Onam. Onam is celebrated in Kerala with respect to Maveli Thampuran of Thrikkakkarayappan; the oldest of all the Puranas, the Matsya Purana, sets the story of the Matsya Avatar of Lord Vishnu, in the Western ghat Mountains of old Tamil Nadu, which lie in between Chera Nadu and chola and pandiyanadu. The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala by name is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda.
It is mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata There are legends dealing with the origins of Kerala geographically and culturally. One such legend is the retrieval of Kerala from the sea, by a warrior sage, it proclaims that an Avatar of Mahavishnu, threw his battle axe into the sea. As a result, the land of Kerala arose, thus was reclaimed from the waters, he was the sixth of the ten avatars of Vishnu. The word Parasu means'axe' in Sanskrit and therefore the name Parasurama means'Ram with Axe. In Treta yuga, Parasurama retrieved the land submerged under the ocean from Varuna - the God of the Oceans and Bhumidevi - Goddess of Earth. From Gokarnam he threw his axe northward across the ocean; the place where the axe landed was Kerala. It was 160 katam of land lying between Kanyakumari. Puranas say that it was Parasurama who planted the Brahmins and Nayakas in 64 regions of Kerala from Chera and Pandya regions. According to the puranas, Kerala is known as Parasurama Kshetram, i.e.'The Land of Parasurama', as the land was reclaimed from sea by him.
Archaeological studies have identified many Mesolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala. These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves, Hood stones, Hat stones, Dolmenoid cists, Urn burials and Menhirs; the studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, its continuity through Mesolithic and Megalithic ages. However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation; the studies suggest possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area, they are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni and ara. Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves in Wayanad are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 5000 BCE. Historian M. R. Raghava Varier of the Kerala state archaeology department identified a sign of “a man with jar cup” in the engravings, the most distinct motif of the Indus valley civilisation.
Kerala was a major spice exporter as ea
Kakkanad is a major industrial and residential region in the city of Kochi in Kerala, India. It is situated in the eastern part of the city and houses the Cochin Special Economic Zone, Smart City and KINFRA Export Promotion Industrial Park, it is the administrative headquarters of the District of Ernakulam. In the democratic local government, Kakkanad is part of Thrikkakara Municipality; the district Panchayat office is located in Kakkanad. Kakkanad is located near the capital of the mythical King Mahabali. In verse 273 of Naṉṉūl, a 13th-century book on Tamil grammar, Sankara Namasivayar recites a venpa that describes the twelve districts of Tamil Nadu where Koduntamil is spoken, as Thenpandi Nadu, Kutta Nadu, Kuda Nadu, Karka Nadu, Poozhi Nadu, Pandri Nadu, Aruva Nadu, Aruva Vadathalai, Seetha Nadu, Malai Nadu and Punal Nadu. Karka Nadu is believed to be a reference to Kakkanad; the old name of kakanad is karkanad-thrikakara. Being the administrative hub of Ernakulam district, Kakkanad is home for several state as well as central government offices namely, the Civil Station, the District Panchayat office, the Airman Selection Board, Siksha Bhavan, Kendriya Shram Sadan etc.
Rajagiri College of Management and Applied science Traum Academy for German and French Languages Bhavan's Varuna Vidyalaya Bhavan's Adarsha Vidyalaya Mar Athanasius HS Rajagiri Christu Jayanthi Public School Mar Thoma Public School Bharata Mata College Rajagiri School of Engineering & Technology Rajagiri College St Mary's Higher Secondary School, Morakkala The Indian Public School, Edichira St. Francis Assisi Church, Kakkanad St. Michael's Church, kakkanad. St. John Bosco Church, Kakkanad. St. Joseph's Vazhakala. Christos Marthoma Church St Thomas Bethlehem Jacobite Syrian Church CSI Ascension Church AG Church St Kuriakose Knanya Catholic Church St Maximillian Kolbe Church, Padamugal-Palachuvadu Rd, Padamughal. Thuthiyoor Sri Krishna Swamy Temple Mariyamman Kovil Pattupurakkal Bhagavathi Temple Sree Ayappa Temple Ghanda Karna Temple Sree Dharma Sastha Temple Vettikkave Bhagavati Temple St. John The Baptist Orthodox Syrian Church Muhiyidheen Juma Majid,Kuzhikkattumoola. Masjidul Hudha,Near Civil Station,Kakkanad.
Valliyath Khandakarna Temple, Edachira. Skyline Ivy League Trinity World Prestige Hillside Gateway DLF New Town Heights Asset Petals Asset E-scape Oxoniya Infocity ClaySys Lifestyle Kakkanad is home for a portion of the industrial base of Kochi, it is home for the Cochin Special Economic Zone. Carborundum Universal Ltd has a unit near the technopolis. Industrial projects like Fashion City are proposed in Kakkanad; this has led to several builders setting up projects here. Being the IT Capital of Kerala, Kakkanad is home for the largest IT Township in India, the Smart City, the second largest IT industrial park in Kerala, the Kochi InfoPark. Kakkanad is home for a Software Export Promotion Zone; the international submarine cable systems landing in Kochi has their nodes installed in Kakkanad. The CSEZ houses the Cognizant Technology Solutions, Williamslea, WRENCH Solutions, the Sutherland Global Solutions. Kakkanad houses the following IT Parks: Smart City Infopark Muthoot Technopolis Kinfra HiTech Park Parsvanath IT Park Trans-Asia Tech Tower HDIL Cyber City Electronics City, Kochi WTC - World Trade Centre, Kochi− All these together accounts for 55% of IT exports from Kerala, thus gaining the nickname "IT Capital of Kerala" for Kakkanad.
The Kerala Books and Publications Society has its press at Kakkanad. The press is the biggest multicolor offset printing unit in Kerala Government Sector. Kakkanad is the broadcasting hub of Kochi, it is home for the terrestrial relay station of the national television broadcaster, the Doordarshan. Prasar Bharati, the corporation controlling the public broadcast, has a marketing division at Kakkanad. Kakkanad hosts the state-owned Kochi FM Radio. Red FM Regional office is at Kakkanad on Seaport - Airport Road, near Infopark express way. Sunrise Hospital Thrikkakara Municipal Co-operative Hospital Milestones Clinic Red Cross Bhavan Geriatric Medical centre Kusumagiri Mental Health Centre Hridya Multi Speciality Clinic Wonderla, the largest theme park in the state, is located near Kakkanad. EMS Co-operative Library, housing over 70,000 titles is located at Kakkanad. Trinity World Tower is one of the biggest apartment project in Kakkanad. There are 4 towers in Trinity World. Prestige Forum Mall is proposed opposite Kusumagiri Hospital as part of the township project developed by Bangalore-based Prestige Group.
Regional Chemical Examiner’s Laboratory, Ernakulam—one of the three laboratories belonging to Chemical Examiner's Laboratory Department under the Government of Kerala—is situated at Kakkanad. It has jurisdiction over central four districts namely Ernakulam, Idukki and Palakkad districts. ABAD Bluechip is a residential apartment project by ABAD Builders in Kakkanad near to Inforpark and Smartcity Kochi. Yasoram Builders have constructed the Abode project in Thammanam, Ernakulam