Koenigsegg Regera

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Koenigsegg Regera
Regera (light gradient).png
Koenigsegg Regera "Ghost"
Overview
Manufacturer Koenigsegg Automotive AB
Production March 2016[1]–present
Assembly Ängelholm, Sweden
Designer
Body and chassis
Class Sports car (S)
Body style 2-door targa top
Layout Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Powertrain
Engine 5.0 L twin-turbo V8
Electric motor
Transmission 1-speed fixed gear (2.73:1 ratio)
Battery 4.5 kW·h liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery
Electric range 35 km (22 mi)[3]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,662 mm (104.8 in)[4]
Length 4,560 mm (179.5 in)[4]
Width 2,050 mm (80.7 in)[4]
Height 1,110 mm (43.7 in)[4]
Kerb weight 1,470 kg (3,240 lb) (dry)[5]
1,590 kg (3,510 lb) (curb)[5]

The Koenigsegg Regera is a limited production, plug-in hybrid sports car manufactured by Swedish automotive manufacturer Koenigsegg. It was unveiled at the March 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The name Regera is a Swedish verb, meaning "to reign" or "to rule." As of September 2018, 20 units have been built[6] of a total of 80, all of which have been sold, with a starting cost of approximately US$2.2 million each.[6][7][8]

The Regera was created and designed to be a more practical, luxurious, grand touring alternative to the rest of Koenigsegg's lightweight hypercar lineup, including the Agera RS and the One:1. As a result, it is less focused on track performance and spartan weight reduction and more focused on the smooth and instant delivery of power provided by its overhauled powertrain. Koenigsegg states that the Regera will be the most powerful and fastest accelerating production car ever. The introduction of the Regera resulted in Koenigsegg, for the first time ever, simultaneously having two models in production.[9]

Conception[edit]

Koenigsegg founder Christian von Koenigsegg purchased a Tesla Model S P85+ in 2013, and was taken by the car's ability to instantly deliver power without the need for a downshift or to wait for turbo lag.[10] He was especially impressed with the direct and intuitive experience provided by an electric car like the Tesla, remarking that the instantaneous response of the engine was something even a Formula One car could not attain with a traditional internal combustion engine.[11] Von Koenigsegg sought to combine this desireable aspect of electric powertrains with the traditional Koenigsegg experience of a lightweight, powerful supercar.

Realizing some form of compromise was necessesary, von Koenigsegg decided to look to a hybrid solution. By shedding the traditional 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and switching to a single-gear direct drive system, Koenigsegg mitigated the added weight of the three electric motors and 4.5 kW·h battery pack in the Regera compared to the previous Agera models.[11] The single-gear electrical solution also provided the instant response that von Koenigsegg was seeking, while the onboard internal combustion engine would then maintain the rapid acceleration and power at higher speeds where the electric motors are less effective.

Development[edit]

Regera in Nvidia Holodeck

The Regera was designed with a combination of the CATIA software suite and Autodesk Inventor, with AutoCAD Electrical being primarily used to redesign the vehicle's electrical systems from past Koenigsegg models.[12] According to Koenigsegg Technical Director Jon Gunner, the Regera makes use of several power nodes to connect wiring throughout the vehicle compared to the single power node of previous models, which saves weight.[12]

Koenigsegg uses 3D printing technologies to manufacture many parts of the Regera. This includes static components like details in the interior of the car under the upholstery and the large electrical exhaust port at the rear of the car, as well as dynamic components like the variable-geometry turbocharger in the engine.[12][13] This manufacturing technique allowed Koenigsegg to better tune air flow through the turbos and achieve a more complex inner housing shape than possible with conventional methods.

The Regera was used by NVIDIA to introduce Project Holodeck, a virtual reality environment capable of importing and manipulating high-detail 3D models. This technology was used by Koenigsegg engineers to collaborate on design ideas in real time, and could allow customers to experience their bespoke vehicle in VR before it is purchased or built.[14]

Specifications[edit]

The Regera is a two-door coupé with a detachable targa top that can be stowed in the boot.[15] It is the first hybrid car to be produced by Koenigsegg, as well as the first vehicle to use their Direct Drive System for power delivery. As the company's 'grand touring' oriented offer in their two-car lineup, the Regera focuses more on interior luxury and road performance instead of hardcore track performance like the Agera.[16]

Powertrain[edit]

Diagram of the Regera's powertrain

The Regera produces a reported total of 1,822 PS (1,340 kW; 1,797 hp) through a hybrid powertrain. As in general, the Regera's internal combustion engine (ICE) produces its greatest power only at high RPMs; however, due to the fixed gear, this corresponds to very high speeds. Power at low speeds is filled in by the electric motors, giving a maximum combined mechanical output of 1,500 PS (1,100 kW; 1,500 hp) and 2,000 N⋅m (1,475 lb⋅ft) of torque.[9][17][18]

Internal combustion engine[edit]

The Internal combustion engine and 'Triplex' suspension

The ICE is a mid-rear mounted, in-house developed, twin-turbocharged V8 engine with a 5.0-litre capacity. It has four valves per cylinder, each with a bore and stroke of 92 mm × 95.25 mm (3.62 by 3.75 inches) and a compression ratio of 9.3:1.[19] The engine utilizes dry sump lubrication and dual overhead camshafts, and has a bank angle of 90º.[20] It produces 820 kW (1,100 hp; 1,115 PS) at 7,800 rpm and 1,280 N⋅m (944 lb⋅ft) at 4,100 rpm. The ICE is rev limited at 8,250 rpm.[21]

Electric motors[edit]

The ICE works in conjunction with three YASA electric motors with a total capacity of 520 kW (707 PS; 697 hp) and 900 N⋅m (664 lb⋅ft) of torque. One 215 hp (160 kW; 218 PS) YASA 400 Motor Generator Unit mounted on the crankshaft acts as starter and generator and supplies torque fill; and two 241 hp (180 kW; 244 PS) YASA 750 wheel-shaft mounted electric motors drive each rear wheel and provide torque vectoring and manages traction.[22] The electric motors are powered by a 4.5 kWh, 800 volt, 75 kg liquid cooled battery pack developed by Rimac Automobili, making it the first 800-volt production car.[23][24] Koenigsegg claims that the battery pack is the most power-dense battery pack ever created for a production car.[8][9][18][25]

Under braking, the kinetic energy recovery system in the Regera can regenerate up to 150 kW of power to recharge the battery during operation.[26]

Transmission[edit]

Christian von Koenigsegg invented the Koenigsegg Direct Drive System (KDD), and it was developed for the Regera by the Koenigsegg Advanced Engineering Team.[27] The KDD system effectively eliminates the need for a transmission and allows for pure EV (electric vehicle) mode. The Regera doesn't have a traditional multi-gear transmission but instead features a single-speed fixed-gear transmission, often called a direct drive, with a 2.73:1 reduction ratio, meaning the crankshaft mounted on the ICE will rotate 2.73 times for every 1 time that the output shaft of the direct drive mechanism will rotate. At speeds below 30 mph, the wheel shaft electric motors mostly propel the car through the use of a hydraulic coupling that lets the ICE and the crankshaft mounted electric motor slip. In reverse, only the wheel shaft electric motors propel the car.[8][28] Above 30 mph, the RPM of the crankshaft mounted electric motor and internal combustion engine are proportional to wheel speed through locking of the hydraulic coupling.[8] However, in the first driving footage from the Regera, Christian von Koenigsegg described and demonstrated how the Regera features a steering wheel mounted paddle that simulates a traditional downshift by initiating slip of the hydraulic coupling connecting the crankshaft to the output shaft. This results in higher RPM of the ICE and the crankshaft mounted electric motor and therefore higher power at lower speeds than what would have been possible if the coupling would have been locked at all times.[29] Koenigsegg reported that the omission of a gearbox and addition of electric motors and battery only added 88 kg (194 lb) compared to what the Regera would have weighed with the same combustion engine but a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission (DCT) and no electric motors or batteries.[9][30]

Suspension[edit]

The Regera features a similar suspension layout to the preceding Agera models, with double wishbone suspension at the front and rear axles.[31] The wishbones are manufactured from chrome-molybdenum steel tubes, which was chosen over carbon-fibre due to the significant cost and complexity of the latter option.[32] The suspension incorporates special "Z" shaped anti-roll bars that connect to the body at only one point (as opposed to two for traditional "U" shaped bars). Also returning from the Agera models is Koenigsegg's 'Triplex' damper system, which consists of three custom Öhlins shock absorbers on the rear suspension subsystem.[32] While anti-dive forces under heavy braking are achieved by obliquely mounting the top wishbones in the front of the car, this mounting position could not be achieved in the rear. Therefore, the purpose of the third 'Triplex' rear damper is to provide anti-squat forces under hard acceleration.

Wheels[edit]

The Regera has carbon-fibre wheels with diameters of 19 inches at the front and 20 inches at the rear with center-lock wheel nuts. The tires are Michelin Pilot Sport 4S' with codes of 275/35 ZR 19 (100Y) for the front and 345/30 ZR 20 (106Y) for the rear.[33] Optional dedicated Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2 tires are also available. The brakes are ventilated carbon-ceramic discs, with a diameter of 397 mm and six-piston calipers at the front along with a diameter of 380 mm and four-piston calipers at the rear.[8]

Aerodynamics[edit]

A Regera equipped with the optional 'Ghost' aerodynamic package (contents of the package highlighted for illustrative purposes)

Like its other production counterparts, the Regera is equipped with active aerodynamics for optimized downforce. At the rear is a foldable hydraulic wing, and at the front are active flaps that can modify the flow of air under the car.[9] Before the 2018 Geneva Motor Show, Koenigsegg revealed the optional 'Ghost' aerodynamics package for the Regera. This package widens the front spoiler, adds canards to the front fenders, and adds fixed winglets to the rear quarter panels.[34] Koenigsegg claims that, with the Ghost package installed, the downforce of the Regera is "increased by more than 20 percent".[34]

Interior features[edit]

Interior

The Regera will include added insulation to help add to the luxury by reducing cabin noise caused by the wind and powertrain along with 8-way electrically adjustable memory foam seats included as an added luxury item over previous models. The Regera will also include many new technical features such as a Neonode 9-inch infrared information and entertainment system, a complete camera system with recording capabilities (front, inner, and rear), Apple CarPlay, a new sound system, ambient lighting, and 4G and Wi-Fi connectivity.[35] It will also feature front and rear parking sensors.[9][36]

The wireless connectivity capabilities of the Regera allow for Koenigsegg to send over-the-air firmware and software updates to each car as necessary.[37] This allows for the remote modification of parameters such as the power band of the electric motors or throttle response without the need for physical work on the car.[15]

The Regera will feature active engine mounts for the ICE and transmission to rest on. The engine mounts are designed to stay soft at lower speeds, significantly reducing vibrations and engine noise, adding to the luxury effect of the vehicle. While driving more aggressively or at higher speeds, the engine mounts will firm up, giving greater lateral response to the driver.[9]

Exterior features[edit]

The day-time running lamps on the Regera were designed to resemble a constellation, with the carbon-fibre background resembling the night sky. In addition, the headlamps can actively vent out condensation through two small fans installed in each lamp.[38] Koenigsegg claims that the Regera is the first "fully-robotized" car.[39] The vehicle features hydraulic pumps and accumulators to control the active front and rear wings, as well as active chassis control and lifting. Hydraulic lifters were added to the already existing pumps and accumulators to allow for all body panels on the vehicle to be remotely operated.[9]

The Regera uses a fishtail-style dual exhaust system designed by Akrapovič constructed of titanium, Inconel, and stainless steel.[40] The large central exhaust pipe under the charging port is not used to vent exhaust from the ICE, rather, it expels hot air from the cooling system for the batteries and electronics in the car.[41]

Performance[edit]

The Regera has a claimed, electronically limited top speed of 410 km/h (255 mph). It is capable of reaching 100 km/h (62 mph) in 2.7 seconds, 300 km/h (186 mph) in 10.9 seconds, and attaining a speed of 400 km/h (249 mph) in 20 seconds. Koenigsegg also claims that the acceleration from 150–250 km/h (93–155 mph) requires 3.9 seconds.[1]

The Regera has a power to weight ratio of 0.7 kW (0.94 hp) per kilogram, and the combined ICE and electric motors produce the highest combined peak torque output of any other production car, at 2,000 N⋅m (1,500 ft⋅lb).[42]

Comparison with other Koenigsegg models[edit]

Stat Time (seconds)[43][44][45] Max power

(kW)

Max torque

(N⋅m)

Power-to-weight

ratio (kW/kg)[46][47]

0–100 km/h 0–200 km/h 0–300 km/h 0–400 km/h
Regera 2.8 6.6 10.9 ~20 1110 2000 0.70
One:1 2.8 6.6 11.92 20 1000 1370 0.74
Agera RS 2.8 7.68 13.25 26.85 865 1280 0.62

Reception[edit]

Reviews of the Regera have been generally positive, with most descriptions of the driving experience being centered around the unique feel of the Direct Drive system. Automobile magazine writes that driving the Regera is "a new sensation, perhaps a combination of the feel you get from electric cars like the Model S, which also has no conventional gearbox, and a combustion-engine vehicle with a continuously variable transmission".[48] Top Gear writes that at low speeds, the noise and drive of the Regera feels like "a lazy American V8 muscle car", but that at higher speeds, the car is "instantly alert" and "corners flat and tenaciously".[15] Other minor criticisms of the driving experience include the electric motor activation delay and the "slight CVT feel" upon sudden acceleration. However, it is important to note that each car's transmission feel and power delivery can be tuned to the request of the customer.[15]

The Regera's design has received acclaim from reviewers, with Top Gear remarking "there's real beauty in its long tail and taut curves".[15] Global Car Brands praised the car for differing from the common trend of hyper-aggressive fronts, instead going for a "happy looking face".[49] In particular, reviewers commend the car for its remarkable exterior paint jobs, which are described in separate reviews as being "sensational",[15] "absolutely stunning",[50] and "gloriously wonderful".[51] On the inside, Automobile magazine compliments the "well-designed" and "wildly special" interior of the car, however remarks that it may be topped by the opulence of the Bugatti Chiron, a direct competitor to the Regera.[52]

Special editions[edit]

The Regera d'Elegance, sporting a custom Swedish blue paintwork

A number of special editions of the Regera have been built on customer request. These special editions usually entail bespoke paint jobs, special interior materials, and optional aerodynamics packages. Such special editions include:

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]