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Kofun period

The Kofun period is an era in the history of Japan from about 300 to 538 AD, following the Yayoi period. The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes collectively called the Yamato period; this period is the earliest era of recorded history in Japan, but studies depend on archaeology since the chronology of historical sources tends to be distorted. It was a period of cultural import. Continuing from the Yayoi period, the Kofun period is characterized by a strong influence from the Korean Peninsula; the word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mound dating from this era, archaeology indicates that the mound tombs and material culture of the elite were similar throughout the region. From China and the Chinese writing system were introduced near the end of the period; the Kofun period recorded Japan's earliest political centralization, when the Yamato clan rose to power in southwestern Japan, established the Imperial House, helped control trade routes across the region. Kofun are burial mounds built for members of the ruling class from the 3rd to the 7th centuries in Japan, the Kofun period takes its name from the distinctive earthen mounds.

The mounds contained large stone burial chambers, some are surrounded by moats. Kofun have four basic shapes: round and square are the most common, followed by'scallop-shell' and'keyhole.' The keyhole tomb is a distinct style found only with a square front and round back. Kofun range in size from several meters to over 400 meters long, unglazed pottery figures were buried under a kofun's circumference; the oldest Japanese kofun is Hokenoyama Kofun in Sakurai, which dates to the late 3rd century. In the Makimuku district of Sakurai keyhole kofuns were built during the early 4th century; the keyhole kofun spread from Yamato to Kawachi—with giant kofun, such as Daisenryō Kofun—and throughout the country during the 5th century. Keyhole kofun disappeared in the 6th century because of the drastic reformation of the Yamato court; the last two great kofun are the 190-metre-long Imashirozuka kofun in Osaka and the 135-metre long Iwatoyama kofun in Fukuoka, recorded in Fudoki of Chikugo as the tomb of Iwai.

Kofun burial mounds on the island of Tanegashima and two old Shinto shrines on the island of Yakushima suggest that these islands were the southern boundary of the Yamato state. Yamato rule is believed to have begun about 250 AD, it is agreed that Yamato rulers had keyhole-kofun culture and hegemony in Yamato until the 4th century. Autonomy of local powers remained throughout the period in Kibi, Koshi, Chikushi, Hi. During the 6th century, the Yamato clans began to dominate the southern half of Japan. According to the Book of Song, Yamato relationships with China began in the late 4th century; the Yamato polity, which emerged by the late 5th century, was distinguished by powerful clans. Each clan was headed by a patriarch, who performed sacred rituals to the clan's kami to ensure its long-term welfare. Clan members were the aristocracy, the royal line which controlled the Yamato court was at its zenith. Clan leaders were awarded kabane, inherited titles denoting rank and political standing which replaced family names.

The Kofun period is called the Yamato period by some Western scholars, since this local chieftainship became the imperial dynasty at the end of the period. However, the Yamato clan ruled just one polity among others during the Kofun era. Japanese archaeologists emphasise that other regional chieftainships were in close contention for dominance in the first half of the Kofun period; the Yamato court exercised power over clans in Kyūshū and Honshū, bestowing titles on clan chieftains. The Yamato name became synonymous with Japan as Yamato rulers suppressed other clans and acquired agricultural land. Based on Chinese models, they began to develop a central administration and an imperial court attended by subordinate clan chieftains with no permanent capital. Powerful clans were the Soga, Katsuragi and Koze clans in the Yamato and Bizen Provinces and the Kibi clans in the Izumo Province; the Ōtomo and Mononobe clans were military leaders, the Nakatomi and Inbe clans handled rituals. The Soga clan provided the government's chief minister, the Ōtomo and Mononobe clans provided secondary ministers, provincial leaders were called kuni no miyatsuko.

Craftsmen were organized into guilds. In addition to archaeological findings indicating a local monarchy in Kibi Province as an important rival, the legend of the 4th-century Prince Yamato Takeru alludes to the borders of the Yamato and battlegrounds in the region. Another frontier, in Kyūshū, was north of present-day Kumamoto Prefecture. According to the legend, there was an eastern land in Hons

Marty Hendin

Marty Hendin was a baseball executive who worked in various marketing, public relations, community relations posts for the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball. Inducted into the University of Missouri-St. Louis Sports Hall of Fame in 2003, Hendin began his career with the Cardinals in 1973. Hendin was born to his parents Pearl and Sholom on March 16, 1948. After graduating from University City High School in 1966, Hendin moved on to attend the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Hendin was the first sportswriter on staff of the UMSL student newspaper The Current rising to become the Sports Editor, he made his mark at UMSL by founding the University's first spirit club, known as "The Steamers". Known for an innovative focus on capturing the attention of younger baseball fans, Hendin is credited with helping spur the popularity of team mascot Fredbird. Commenting on the creation of Fredbird, Hendin said, Hendin gained notarity for a unique collection of Cardinal and baseball memorabilia in his office at Busch Memorial Stadium, dubbed "Trinket City."

A portion of Hendin's extensive 33 year memorabilia collection is on display in the UMSL Student Center. The other portion is on display inside of the new Busch Stadium and can be seen during a stadium tour, he died from cancer, aged 59, in 2008. Hendin was inducted into the University of Missouri-St. Louis Sports Hall of Fame in 2003 under the category of distinguished service for his, "work and dedication to the UMSL Athletic Department." Hendin was inducted into the St. Louis Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 2010

Sankt Paul im Lavanttal

Sankt Paul im Lavanttal is a municipality of the Wolfsberg district in the Austrian state of Carinthia. Sankt Paul lies in the Lavant River valley. A large part of the municipality lies in the Granitz River valley and in the foothills of the Saualp; the village has always been under the influence of the monastery, still a significant economic factor today. It was only in 1874; the opening of a k.k. State telegraph station with "limited daily services" took place at the same time as in other smaller places of the monarchy. St. Paul's Abbey in the Lavanttal Ruins of Rabenstein Castle http://www.sanktpaul.at List of cities and towns in Austria