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Koiné language

In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or koiné is a standard or common language or dialect that has arisen to prestige or dominance as a result of the contact and simplifying of two or more mutually intelligible varieties of the same language. As speakers understood one another from before the advent of the koiné, the koineization process is not as drastic as pidginization and creolization. Unlike pidginization and creolization, there is no "target" within Koine formation, it involves continuity. Normal influence between neighbouring dialects is not regarded as koineization. A koiné variety emerges as a new spoken variety in addition to the originating dialects; that separates koineization from normal evolution of dialects. The term koine was first used to refer to the form of Greek used as a lingua franca during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, it arose as a mixed vernacular among ordinary people in the Peiraieus, the seaport of Athens, inhabited by Greeks from different parts of the Mediterranean.

Through koineization, new dialect varieties are brought about as a result of contact between speakers of mutually intelligible varieties of that language. Koineization is a particular case of dialect contact and how it occurs in new settlements to which people have migrated from different parts of a single language area. Koineization takes two or three generations to complete, though it can be achievable within the first generation. Language variation is systematic, in that it can be related to social divisions within a community, such as class and gender. Change can be shown to originate with particular social groups based on these divisions. However, a number of linguists have argued that language change lies with the individual. Linguist Paul Kerswill identifies two types of koinés: regional and immigrant: A regional koiné is formed when a strong regional dialect comes into contact with dialects of speakers who move into the region; the use of the koiné spreads beyond the region where it was formed.

The original koiné was of the regional variety. It was based on the Attic Greek dialect that underwent a koineization process when it came into contact with other Greek dialects spoken in the Athenian seaport Piraeus and became the lingua franca of the Hellenistic world. An immigrant koiné is a new dialect that forms in a community settled by immigrants speaking two or more mutually intelligible dialects of the same language. In the late 19th and early 20th century, speakers of a variety of Hindi dialects were conscripted to serve as indentured laborers throughout the colonial world. Speakers of these dialects came together in varying proportions under different conditions and developed distinctive Hindi koinés; these Hindi/Bhojpuri dialects are found in Fiji, Mauritius, South Africa and Trinidad and Tobago. Kerswill examines the Norwegian dialects that emerged in two towns which were located around smelters built at the head of the Sørfjord branch of the Hardangerfjord in the mid-twentieth century.

The towns and Tyssedal, both drew migrants from different parts of Norway. The workers in Odda came predominantly from western Norway. In Tyssedal only about one-third came from western Norway; the dialects that evolved in these two towns were thus different from each other. Peter Trudgill sees three processes in operation during what Mesthrie calls the accommodation period: mixing and simplification; the processes of leveling and simplification are both dependent on a wide range of factors, including the differential prestige related of the contributing dialects, socio-political contexts in which the new dialect develops, individual networks of adults involved in the accommodation process. Additionally, both Trudgill and Mesthrie comment on the process of reallocation, in which features that have been retained from contributing dialects take on new meanings or functions within the new dialect. Trudgill posits a multi-generational model of the development of a koiné. During the first generation, the speakers of the contributing dialects mix, there is some leveling.

The first native-born generation of speakers continues the leveling process. However, in the instances Trudgill was able to document, the speech of this generation still reflected considerable variability in use of marked forms, both between speakers and in the repertoire of individual speakers, it is the third generation that stabilizes the dialect. Trudgill admits that there are cases where the focusing can take place in the first generation of native-born speakers and instances where it might be in the fourth or later generations; the dialect in its emerging state, a state marked by heterogeneity of forms, Trudgill calls interdialect called an interlanguage in other dialect studies. Dialects: Australian English, a dialect which emerged as a mixture of eighteenth century Cockney English and Irish English, was subsequently influenced to some degree by Received Pronunciation in the nineteenth century. Central Asian Korean, based on Yukjin dialect and multiple other varieties of Northeastern Korean.

Iraqi Koiné, a variety of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic based on the various mountain dialects in Turkey and Northern Iraq under the influence of the standard Urmežnaya variety. In layman's terms, this dialect is a compromise between

1998 NCAA Division II football season

The 1998 NCAA Division II football season, part of college football in the United States organized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the Division II level, began on September 5, 1998, concluded with the NCAA Division II Football Championship on December 12, 1998, at Braly Municipal Stadium in Florence, hosted by the University of North Alabama. The Northwest Missouri State Bearcats defeated the Carson–Newman, 24–6, to win their first Division II national title; the Harlon Hill Trophy was awarded to Brian Shay. Mankato State University changed its name to Minnesota State University, Mankato in 1998, the Mankato State Mavericks became the Minnesota State Mavericks during the 1998 season; the 1998 NCAA Division II Football Championship playoffs were the 25th single-elimination tournament to determine the national champion of men's NCAA Division II college football. The championship game was held at Braly Municipal Stadium in Florence, for the 12th time

End of the Night

"End of the Night" is a song by the American psychedelic rock band the Doors. It was featured on the band's debut album and released as the B-side to the album's first single, "Break On Through"; the song was written in the band's early days. In 1965, the band recorded a demo in an attempt to land a deal with Aura Records. In 1966, when they landed a deal with Elektra Records, the song was recorded for their self-titled debut album; the song is notated in the key of E minor with Jim Morrison's vocal range spanning from D4 to G5. Its title is derived from the 1932 French novel Journey To The End Of The Night by Louis-Ferdinand Celine. Three lines of the William Blake poem Auguries of Innocence, written in 1803 and published in 1863 were included in the lyrics; the song was chosen as the B-side to the album's first single, "Break On Through" and was released in January 1967. The single, failed to become a success and only peaked at number 126 in the U. S. After the band's rise to fame the song was played live in concert.

Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory is a model in particle physics in which, at high energies, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model that define the electromagnetic and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into a single force. Although this unified force has not been directly observed, the many GUT models theorize its existence. If unification of these three interactions is possible, it raises the possibility that there was a grand unification epoch in the early universe in which these three fundamental interactions were not yet distinct. Experiments have confirmed that at high energy, the electromagnetic interaction and weak interaction unify into a single electroweak interaction. GUT models predict that at higher energy, the strong interaction and the electroweak interaction will unify into a single electronuclear interaction; this interaction is characterized by one larger gauge symmetry and thus several force carriers, but one unified coupling constant. Unifying gravity with the electronuclear interaction would provide a theory of everything rather than a GUT.

GUTs are seen as an intermediate step towards a TOE. The novel particles predicted by GUT models are expected to have high masses of around the GUT scale of 10 16 GeV —just a few orders of magnitude below the Planck scale of 10 19 GeV—and so are well beyond the reach of any foreseen particle collider experiments. Therefore, the particles predicted by GUT models will be unable to be observed directly and instead the effects of grand unification might be detected through indirect observations such as proton decay, electric dipole moments of elementary particles, or the properties of neutrinos; some GUTs, such as the Pati-Salam model, predict the existence of magnetic monopoles. GUT models which aim to be realistic are quite complicated compared to the Standard Model, because they need to introduce additional fields and interactions, or additional dimensions of space; the main reason for this complexity lies in the difficulty of reproducing the observed fermion masses and mixing angles which may be related to an existence of some additional family symmetries beyond the conventional GUT models.

Due to this difficulty, due to the lack of any observed effect of grand unification so far, there is no accepted GUT model. Models that do not unify the three interactions using one simple group as the gauge symmetry, but do so using semisimple groups, can exhibit similar properties and are sometimes referred to as Grand Unified Theories as well; the first true GUT, based on the simple Lie group SU, was proposed by Howard Georgi and Sheldon Glashow in 1974. The Georgi–Glashow model was preceded by the semisimple Lie algebra Pati–Salam model by Abdus Salam and Jogesh Pati, who pioneered the idea to unify gauge interactions; the acronym GUT was first coined in 1978 by CERN researchers John Ellis, Andrzej Buras, Mary K. Gaillard, Dimitri Nanopoulos, however in the final version of their paper they opted for the less anatomical GUM. Nanopoulos that year was the first to use the acronym in a paper; the supposition that the electric charges of electrons and protons seem to cancel each other to extreme precision is essential for the existence of the macroscopic world as we know it, but this important property of elementary particles is not explained in the Standard Model of particle physics.

While the description of strong and weak interactions within the Standard Model is based on gauge symmetries governed by the simple symmetry groups SU and SU which allow only discrete charges, the remaining component, the weak hypercharge interaction is described by an abelian symmetry U which in principle allows for arbitrary charge assignments. The observed charge quantization, namely the postulation that all known elementary particles carry electric charges which are exact multiples of ⅓ of the "elementary" charge, has led to the idea that hypercharge interactions and the strong and weak interactions might be embedded in one Grand Unified interaction described by a single, larger simple symmetry group containing the Standard Model; this would automatically predict values of all elementary particle charges. Since this results in a prediction for the relative strengths of the fundamental interactions which we observe, in particular the weak mixing angle, Grand Unification ideally reduces the number of independent input parameters, but is constrained by observations.

Grand Unification is reminiscent of the unification of electric and magnetic forces by Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism in the 19th century, but its physical implications and mathematical structure are qualitatively different. SU is the simplest GUT; the smallest simple Lie group which contains the standard model, upon which the first Grand Unified Theory was based, is S U ⊃ S U × S U × U. Such group symmetries allow the reinterpretation of several known particles, including the photon, W and Z bosons, gluon, as different states of a single particle field. However, it is not obvious that the simplest possible choices for the extended "Grand Unified" symmetry should yield the correct inventory of elementary particles; the fact that all known matter particles fit into three copies of the smallest group representations of SU and carry the correct observed charges, is one of the firs

Perfecto Records

Perfecto Records is a United Kingdom-based trance record label, founded by Paul Oakenfold in 1989. Perfecto was a remix team consisting of Paul Oakenfold and Steve Osborne and in its years, Osborne was replaced with Andy Gray. Perfecto Records have provided remixes for U2, New Order, Rolling Stones and more. Perfecto was founded by electronic music record producer and DJ Paul Oakenfold in 1989. At the time, house music and the balearic style was beginning to break into the mainstream and Oakenfold was working as an A&R man for Champion Records; the label was distributed through Warner Music through the 1990s, until Paul Oakenfold moved distribution to Mushroom UK in 1998. Following the acquisition by Warner Music of Mushroom UK, the Perfecto catalogue since 1998 transitioned to Warner Music and a couple of years Perfecto began to operate and release independently until it became a sublabel of Armada Music in 2010. Perfecto has released singles and albums from such artists as BT, Robert Vadney and Carl Cox, as well as mix albums from Sandra Collins, Seb Fontaine, DJ Skribble, Oakenfold himself.

The most well-known of their artist album releases is A Lively Mind, by Oakenfold. In 2015, Perfecto Records released an album titled Paul Oakenfold Presents 25 Years of Perfecto Records for the anniversary of Perfecto Records running with Paul Oakenfold for 25 years, it became, after Armada, a sublabel of Black Hole Recordings. Source: Paul Oakenfold 29 Palms A Split Second Arthur Baker D:Fuse Dope Smugglaz Harry Romero Konkrete Liquid State Mekka Monoboy Planet Perfecto Flash Hernán Cattáneo Jan Johnston PPK Timo Maas Amoeba Assassin Andy Gray DJ Skribble Elucidate Emjay Mystica Quivver Richard Beynon Ross Lara Rui da Silva Sandra Collins Seb Fontaine Steve Osborne Source: Paul Oakenfold Harry Vederci Sean Tyas Zaa Joyriders Vicky Jackson Greg Downey Jordan Suckley Layout Stoneface & Terminal Philthy Chit PARKX Cosmic Gate Paul Morrell Harper & Green Kyau & Albert Ce Ce Peniston Saccao Charlotte Haining Art Deko Mary S. K. Sharapov Zed White Solarstone Max Graham Markus Schulz Yahel Liquid Sould Talisman & Hudson RAM JES Mike Saint-Jules DIM3NSION Trilucid Amba Shepherd Kya Tom Budin M.

I. K. E. Push Phil Martyn Arroba Music Alex M. O. R. P. H. Marco V Ferry Corsten Kenneth Thomas Adam White Magnus Ritmo Simon Patterson Richard Durand Marmion Jennifer Rene Jada Tawiah Venaccio Andre Sobota Gary Maguire Johnny Yono Vanilla Ace Jason Bye Planet Perfecto James Dymond Bo Bruce 2Symmetry Mia Dahli Fenton Gee Somna Harry Square Harmonic Rush BakuBoy & Austin Blake Kim Kiona Roald Hughes Andy Moor Tilt Robert Nickson John Askew Mark Sherry Paul Thomas Sunny Lax Sied van Riel Bryan Kearney Juno Reactor Ben Gold Freejak Tammy Rex Mundi Danilo Ercole Alex Di Stefano Tempo Giusto Gai Barone Will Atkinson Chris Schweizer Amoeba Assassin TrancEye Kate Miles Neev Kennedy Cassandra Fox Danny Stubbs Solid Stone Source: Paul Oakenfold Ace Ventura Activa Active Limbic System Adam Ellis Aerospace Amir Hussain Angry Man Apogee Apoogee Astrix B. Exp Beatman & Ludmilla Benjani Björn Åkesson Blazer Brian Cameron Bryan Kearney C. M. Captain Hook Casey Rasch Chemical Content 1 Chris Voro Cold Rush Craig Purvis Daniel Skyver Dark Matter Darkboy Darma David Forbes Dimibo DJ Tim & DJ Misjah Eddie Bitar Eshericks Federation Freak Full Tilt Future Disciple Gary Maguire Gadium Harmonic Rush Ian Buff Infected Mushroom James Dymond Swab & Joey Mova Johan Ekman John Askew John Dopping John O'Callaghan Johnny Yono Jordan Suckley Kid Alaska Liquid Soul Liya Magnus Man With No Name Mark Sherry Marmion Mekka Metronome Mika Miro Neelix Nicholson Nick Callaghan Nick Grater Nick Sentience Omjee Pablo Anon Paul Denton Paul Miller Paul Webster Peetu S Peter Plaznik Phaxe Phuture Pixel Protoculture Protonica PureNRG Ranji Reaky Robert Vadney Rocky Scot Project Sean Truby Sean Tyas Second Sine Simon Patterson Skaivox Solar Kid Sonic Element Stereo Wildlife Steve Haines Stoneface & Terminal Suntree Symbolic System Nipel Talla 2XLC Tammy The Commercial Hippies Thomas Datt Ticon Trance Arts TrancEye Transwave Vertical Mode Vini Vici Will Atkinson Xgenic Yahel Yotopia Zack Mia Zen Mechanics Zyce Zyrus 7 Source: Paul Oakenfold Philthy Chit Phil Martyn 2Symmetry Alex Collings Amber Long Andre Sobota Audio Noir CBM Cordoba Daniele Davoli Darin Epsilon Derek Howell Forerunners Gai Barone Galestian Greenhaven DJs Harper & Green Hibernate Marsh Mike Koglin Naian Oliver Harper Rolo Green Peter Martin Rise And Fall Rory Galagher SEQU3L Slam Duck Steve Haines Tawiah Trilucid Victoria Gydov Yuriy From Russia Zen Source: Andy Manning Chris Bushnell Cory Enemy Freejak K & K Layout Martay M'Kenzy Nightlapse PATIØN Rich James Ruby Turner Sankuh Shane Hopkinz Tilt Tom Bull Perfecto Records official website Perfecto Records discography at Discogs

Poplar Bluff Township, Butler County, Missouri

Poplar Bluff Township is one of ten townships in Butler County, Missouri, USA. As of the 2000 census, its population was 24,929. Poplar Bluff Township covers an area of 138.92 square miles and contains one incorporated settlement, Poplar Bluff. It contains seventeen cemeteries: Ashcraft, Black Creek, Carpenter Bend, Friendship, Green Hill, Marble Hill, Memorial Gardens, Oak Hill, Sacred Heart, Shadle and Woodlawn. Carpenter Lake is within this township; the streams of Agee Creek, Black Creek, Black River, Buck Creek, Dobbs Creek, Harwell Creek, Hickory Creek, Hoedapp Creek, Indian Creek, Lewis Creek, Mill Creek, Pike Creek and Pike Slough run through this township. Poplar Bluff Township contains three airports or landing strips: Earl Fields Memorial Airport, Hayes Field and Lucy Lee Hospital Heliport. USGS Geographic Names Information System US-Counties.com City-Data.com