The X68000 is a home computer created by Sharp Corporation, first released in 1987, sold only in Japan. The first model features a 10 MHz Motorola 68000 CPU, 1 MB of RAM, no hard drive. RAM in these systems is expandable to 12 MB, though most games and applications do not require more than 2 MB; the X68k runs an operating system called Human68k, developed for Sharp by Hudson Soft. An MS-DOS-workalike, Human68k features English-based commands similar to those in MS-DOS. X. Versions of the OS prior to 2.0 have command line output only for common utilities like "format" and "switch", while versions included forms-based versions of these utilities. At least three major versions of the OS were released, with several updates in between. Other operating systems available include NetBSD for X68030 and OS-9. Early models have a GUI called "VS" or "Visual Shell". A third GUI called; these GUI shells can be booted from the system's hard drive. Most games boot and run from floppy disk. Since the system's release, software such as Human68k, console, SX-Window C compiler suites, BIOS ROMs have been released as public domain software and are available for download.
The X68000 features two soft-eject 5.25in floppy drives, or in some of the compact models, two 3.5in floppy drives, a distinctive case design of two connected towers, divided by a retractable carrying handle. This system was one of the first to feature a software-controlled power switch; the screen would fade to black and sound would fade to silence before the system turned off. The system's keyboard has a mouse port built into either side; the front of the computer has a headphone jack, volume control, joystick and mouse ports. The top has a retractable carrying handle only on non-Compact models, a reset button, a non-maskable interrupt button; the rear has a variety of ports, including stereoscopic output for 3D goggles, FDD and HDD expansion ports, I/O board expansion slots. The monitor supports 15/24 and 31 kHz with up to 65,535 colors and functions as a cable-ready television with composite video input, it was an quality monitor for playing JAMMA compatible arcade boards due to its analog RGB input and standard-resolution refresh timing.
Early machines use the rare Shugart Associates System Interface for the hard disk interface. Per the hardware's capability, formatted SASI drives can be 10, 20 or 30 MB in size and can be logically partitioned as well. Human68K does not support the VFAT long filenames standard of modern Windows systems, but it supports 18.3 character filenames instead of the 8.3 character filenames allowed in the FAT filesystem. Human68K is case sensitive and allows lower case and Shift JIS encoded Kanji characters in filenames, both of which cause serious problems when a DOS system tries to read such a directory. If a X68000 user restricts himself to use only filenames according to the 8.3 characters scheme of DOS, using only Latin upper case characters a disk written on the X68000 is compatible with other Japanese standard platforms like e.g. the NEC PC-9800, the Fujitsu FMR and FM Towns computers. The Japanese standard disk format used by the X68000 is: 77 tracks, 2 heads, 8 sectors, 1024 bytes per sector, 360 rpm.
Many add-on cards were released for the system, including networking, SCSI, memory upgrades, CPU enhancements, MIDI I/O boards. The system has two joystick ports, both 9-pin male and supporting Atari standard joysticks and MSX controllers. Capcom produced a converter, sold packaged with the X68000 version of Street Fighter II′ that allowed users to plug in a Super Famicom or Mega Drive controller into the system; the adapter was made so that users could plug in the Capcom Power Stick Fighter controller into the system. In terms of hardware, the X68K was similar to arcade machines of the time, served as the Capcom CPS system development machine, it supports graphic RAM and hardware sprites. Sound is produced internally via Yamaha's top-of-the-line YM2151 FM synthesizer and a single channel OKI MSM6258V for PCM. Due to this and other similarities, it played host to many arcade game ports in its day. Games made for this system include Parodius Da! －Shinwa kara Owarai e－, Ghouls'n Ghosts, Final Fight, Alien Syndrome, Street Fighter II Dash, Akumajo Dracula, Cho Ren Sha 68k and many others.
Many games supported the Roland SC-55 and MT-32 MIDI modules for sound as well as mixed-mode internal/external output. Main CPU X68000 to SUPER models - Hitachi HD68HC000 @ 10 MHz XVI to Compact models - Motorola 68000 @ 16 MHz X68030 models - Motorola MC68EC030 @ 25 MHz Sub-CPU: Oki MSM80C51 MCU GPU chipset: Sharp-Hudson Custom ChipsetX68000 model - CYNTHIA Jr Sprite Controller, VINAS CRT Controller, VSOP Video Controller, RESERVE Video Data Selector ACE to X68030 models - CYNTHIA Sprite
Crazy Climber is a coin-operated arcade game produced by Nichibutsu in 1980. It was released in North America by Taito America by UA Ltd. in 1982 for the Emerson Arcadia 2001 and other video game consoles. It is one of Nichibutsu's most acclaimed video games in its library. A precursor to the platform game genre, Crazy Climber was the first video game revolving around climbing climbing buildings, before Nintendo's 1981 release Donkey Kong; the game was ported to the Atari 2600, Arcadia 2001, Sharp X68000. In Crazy Climber the player assumes the role of a person attempting to climb to the top of four skyscrapers; the climber is controlled via two joysticks. There are a number of obstacles and dangers to avoid including: Windows that open and close. Bald-headed residents, who throw objects such as flower pots, buckets of water and fruit in an effort to knock the climber off the building. A giant condor, who drops eggs and excrement aimed at the climber. A giant ape, whose punch can prove deadly. Falling steel girders and iron dumbbells.
Live wires, which protrude off electric'Nichibutsu' signs. Falling'Crazy Climber' signs; some of these dangers appear at every level of the game. Should the climber succumb to any one of these dangers, a new climber takes his place at the exact point where he fell. One ally the climber has is a pink "Lucky Balloon"; the window onto which it drops the climber may be about to close. If the window that the climber is dropped onto is closed, the balloon pauses there until the window opens up again; the player does not earn bonus points for catching the balloon, but he is awarded the normal'step value' for each of the eight floors that he passes while holding the balloon. If the climber is able to ascend to the top of a skyscraper and grabs the runner of a waiting helicopter, he earns a bonus and is transported to another skyscraper, which presents more dangers than the past; the helicopter would only wait about 30 seconds fly off. If the player completes all four skyscrapers, he is taken back to the first skyscraper and the game restarts from the beginning, but the player keeps his score.
The difficulty level of any game was modified to take into account the skill of previous players. Hence if a player pushed the high score up to say 250,000, any novice player following would get wiped out for several games due to the increased difficulty level and would have to play until it dropped back down. Musical cues used throughout the game include "Baby Elephant Walk", "The Pink Panther Theme", "The Entertainer". If the climber is not moved for several seconds, a voice says "Go for it!" The Family Computer version had a special controller that could be used with it. In 1981, Bandai Electronics manufactured a hand-held VFD version of the game. A Japanese-only sequel, Crazy Climber 2, was produced in 1988; the game was identical to Crazy Climber in gameplay but featured more sophisticated graphics and a few new features. On February 3, 1996, Hyper Crazy Climber was released only in Japan for the PlayStation, it has similar gameplay to that of the original game but a few differences. Players can choose between three cartooney characters, each with their own strength/speed attributes.
Several buildings can be selected from a Bomberman-style map screen, including an underwater building, a medieval clock tower, a haunted skyscraper, a beanstalk. Power-ups are used. On March 2, 2000, Crazy Climber 2000 was released for the PlayStation; this is more of a remake of the original arcade game using 3D graphics for the first time. A notable feature is the ability to turn corners and access different sides of the buildings, which now have a variety of designs; the game included the original port of the arcade Crazy Climber and a scan of the instruction panel. Like Hyper Crazy Climber which released for the same console 4 years earlier, Crazy Climber 2000 was released only in Japan. On July 21, 2005, Japanese publisher HAMSTER released the arcade version of Crazy Climber under their Oretachi Geasen Zoku Sono classic game line for the PlayStation 2. Another sequel or remake, Crazy Climber Wii was released for the Wii in Japan on December 20, 2007, but no North American or European release has happened.
The arcade game was re-released on the Virtual Console in Japan on February 23, 2010. On February 8, 2018, the game was released for the Nintendo Switch by HAMSTER under their Arcade Archives series, it had been released on May 15, 2014, for the Playstation 4 as the first entry in the series. Crazy Climber at the Killer List of Videogames Crazy Climber at Atari Mania. Crazy Climber at Arcade Archives Page
Lumberjacks are North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term refers to a bygone era when hand tools were used in harvesting trees; because of its historical ties, the term lumberjack has become ingrained in popular culture through folklore, mass media and spectator sports. The actual work was difficult, intermittent, low-paying, primitive in living conditions. However, the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength, confrontation with danger, resistance to modernization; the term lumberjack is of Canadian derivation. The first attested use of the word comes from an 1831 letter to the Cobourg Star and General Advertiser in the following passage: "my misfortunes have been brought upon me chiefly by an incorrigible, though useful, race of mortals called LUMBERJACKS, however, I would name the Cossack's of Upper Canada, having been reared among the oaks and pines of the wild forest, have never been subjected to the salutary restraint of laws."The term lumberjack is historical.
When lumberjack is used, it refers to a logger from an earlier time before the advent of chainsaws, feller-bunchers and other modern logging equipment. Other terms for the occupation include shanty boy and the colloquial term woodhick. A logger employed in driving logs down a river was known locally in northern North America as a river pig, catty-man, river hog, or river rat; the term lumberjill has been known for a woman. In Australia, the occupation is referred to cool cutters. Lumberjacks worked in lumber camps and lived a migratory life, following timber harvesting jobs as they opened. Being a lumberjack was seasonal work. Lumberjacks were men, they lived in bunkhouses or tents. Common equipment included the cross-cut saw. Lumberjacks could be found wherever there were vast forests to be harvested and a demand for wood, most in Scandinavia and parts of the United States. In the U. S. many lumberjacks were of Scandinavian ancestry. American lumberjacks were first centred in north-eastern states such as Maine.
They followed the general westward migration on the continent to the Upper Midwest, the Pacific Northwest. Stewart Holbrook documented the emergence and westward migration of the classic American lumberjack in his first book, Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack, he wrote colourfully about lumberjacks in his subsequent books, romanticizing them as hard-drinking, hard-working men. Logging camps were phased out between World War II and the early 1960s as crews could by be transported to remote logging sites in motor vehicles; the division of labour in lumber camps led to several specialized jobs on logging crews, such as whistle punk and high climber. The whistle punk's job was to sound a whistle as a signal to the yarder operator controlling the movement of logs, he had to act as a safety lookout. A good whistle punk think fast as the safety of the others depended on him; the high climber used iron climbing hooks and rope to ascend a tall tree in the landing area of the logging site, where he would chop off limbs as he climbed, chop off the top of the tree, attach pulleys and rigging to the tree so it could be used as a spar so logs could be skidded into the landing.
High climbers and whistle punks were both phased out in the 1960s to early 1970s when portable steel towers replaced spar trees and radio equipment replaced steam whistles for communication. The choker setters attached steel cables to downed logs so they could be dragged into the landing by the yarder; the chasers removed the chokers. Choker setters and chasers were entry-level positions on logging crews, with more experienced loggers seeking to move up to more skill-intensive positions such as yarder operator and high climber, or supervisory positions such as hook tender. Despite the common perception that all loggers cut trees, the actual felling and bucking of trees were specialized job positions done by fallers and buckers. Faller and bucker were once two separate job titles. Before the era of modern diesel or gasoline powered equipment, the existing machinery was steam powered. Animal or steam-powered skidders could be used to haul harvested logs to nearby rail roads for shipment to sawmills.
Horse driven logging wheels were a means used for moving logs out of the woods. Another way for transporting logs to sawmills was to float them down a body of water or a specially-constructed log flume. Log rolling, the art of staying on top of a floating log while "rolling" the log by walking, was another skill much in demand among lumberjacks. Spiked boots known as "caulks" or "corks" were used for log rolling and worn by lumberjacks as their regular footwear; the term "skid row", which today means a poor city neighbourhood frequented by homeless people, originated in a way in which harvested logs were once transported. Logs could be "skidded" down hills or along a corduroy road, one such street in Seattle was named Skid Road; this street became frequented by people down on their luck, both the name and its meaning morphed into the modern term. Among the living history museums that preserve and interpret the forest industry are: BC Forest Discovery Centre, Duncan Camp Five Museum, Wisconsin The Lumberjack Stea
Fukushima Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Tōhoku region. The capital is the city of Fukushima; until the Meiji Restoration, the area of Fukushima prefecture was part of what was known as Mutsu Province. The Shirakawa Barrier and the Nakoso Barrier were built around the 5th century to protect'civilized Japan' from the'barbarians' to the north. Fukushima became a Province of Mutsu after the Taika Reforms were established in 646. In 718, the provinces of Iwase and Iwaki were created, but these areas reverted to Mutsu some time between 722 and 724; this region of Japan is known as Michinoku and Ōshū. The Fukushima Incident took place in the prefecture after Mishima Michitsune was appointed governor in 1882; the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and the resulting Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster caused significant damage to the prefecture but not limited to the eastern Hamadōri region. On Friday, March 11, 2011, 14:46 JST, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture.
Shindo measurements throughout the prefecture reached as high as 6-upper in isolated regions of Hama-dōri on the eastern coast and as low as a 2 in portions of the Aizu region in the western part of the prefecture. Fukushima City, located in Naka-dōri and the capital of Fukushima Prefecture, measured 6-lower. Following the earthquake there were isolated reports of major damage to structures, including the failure of Fujinuma Dam as well as damage from landslides; the earthquake triggered a massive tsunami that hit the eastern coast of the prefecture and caused widespread destruction and loss of life. In the two years following the earthquake, 1,817 residents of Fukushima Prefecture had either been confirmed dead or were missing as a result of the earthquake and tsunami. In the aftermath of the earthquake and the tsunami that followed, the outer housings of two of the six reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma exploded followed by a partial meltdown and fires at three of the other units.
Many residents were evacuated to nearby localities due to the development of a large evacuation zone around the plant. Radiation levels near the plant peaked at 400 mSv/h after the earthquake and tsunami, due to damage sustained; this resulted in increased recorded radiation levels across Japan. On April 11, 2011, officials upgraded the disaster to a level 7 out of a possible 7, a rare occurrence not seen since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. Several months officials announced that although the area nearest the melt down were still off limits, areas near the twenty kilometer radial safe zone could start seeing a return of the close to 47,000 residents, evacuated. Fukushima is both the southernmost prefecture of Tōhoku region and the prefecture of Tōhoku region, closest to Tokyo. With an area size of 13,784 km2 it is the third-largest prefecture of Japan, behind Hokkaido and Iwate Prefecture, it is divided by mountain ranges into three regions called Aizu, Nakadōri, Hamadōri. The coastal Hamadōri region lies on the Pacific Ocean and is the flattest and most temperate region, while the Nakadōri region is the agricultural heart of the prefecture and contains the capital, Fukushima City.
The mountainous Aizu region has scenic lakes, lush forests, snowy winters. As of April 1, 2012, 13% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely Bandai-Asahi, Nikkō, Oze National Parks. Thirteen cities are located in Fukushima Prefecture: These are the towns and villages in each district: The coastal region traditionally specializes in fishing and seafood industries, is notable for its electric and nuclear power-generating industry, while the upland regions are more focused on agriculture. Thanks to Fukushima's climate, various fruits are grown throughout the year; these include pears, cherries and apples. As of March 2011, the prefecture produced 8.7 % of cucumbers. Fukushima produces rice, that combined with pure water from mountain run-offs, is used to make sake; some sakes from the region are considered so tasteful that they are served to visiting royalty and world leaders by hosts. Lacquerware is another popular product from Fukushima. Dating back over four hundred years, the process of making lacquerware involves carving an object out of wood putting a lacquer on it and decorating it.
Objects made are dishes and writing materials. Legend has it that an ogress, once roamed the plain after whom it was named; the Adachigahara plain lies close to the city of Fukushima. Other stories, such as that of a large, red cow that carried wood, influenced toys and superstitions; the Aka-beko cow is a small, red papier-mâché cow on a bamboo or wooden frame, is believed to ease child birth, bring good health, help children grow up as strong as the cow. Another superstitious talisman of the region is self-righting dharma doll; these dolls are seen as bringers of good luck and prosperity because they stand right back up when knocked down. Miharu Koma are small, black or white toy horses painted with colorful designs. Depending upon their design, they may be believed to bring things like long life to the owner. Kokeshi dolls, while less symbolic, are a popular traditional craft, they are carved wooden dolls, with hand painted bodies. Kokeshi dolls are popular throughout many regions of Japan, but Fukushima is credited as their birthplace.
Sōma's Nomaoi Festival is held every summer. The Nomaoi Festival horse riders dressed in complete samurai attire can be seen racing, chasing wild
The TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem, known in Japan and France as the PC Engine, is a cartridge based home video game console manufactured and marketed by NEC Home Electronics, designed by Hudson Soft. It was released in Japan on October 30, 1987 and in the United States on August 29, 1989, it had a limited release in the United Kingdom and Spain in 1990, known as TurboGrafx and based on the American model, while the Japanese model was imported and distributed in France in 1989. It was the first console released in the 16-bit era, although it used an 8-bit CPU. Intended to compete with the Nintendo Entertainment System, it ended up competing with the Sega Genesis, on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System; the TurboGrafx-16 has an 8-bit CPU, a 16-bit video color encoder, a 16-bit video display controller. The GPUs are capable of displaying 482 colors out of 512. With dimensions of just 14 cm × 14 cm × 3.8 cm, the Japanese PC Engine is the smallest major home game console made. Games were stored in CD-ROM optical format with the TurboGrafx-CD add-on.
The TurboGrafx-16 failed to break into the North American market and sold poorly, blamed on inferior marketing. Despite the "16" in its name and the marketing of the console as a 16-bit platform, it used an 8-bit CPU, a marketing tactic, criticized by some as deceptive. Developer Doug Snook of ICOM Simulations said. However, in Japan, the PC Engine, introduced into the market at a much earlier date, was successful, where it gained strong third-party support and outsold the Famicom at its 1987 debut becoming the Super Famicom's main rival. Lots of revisions - at least 17 distinct models - were made, such as portable versions and a CD-ROM add-on. An enhanced model, the PC Engine SuperGrafx, was intended to supersede the standard PC Engine, but failed to break through and was discontinued; the entire series was succeeded by the PC-FX in 1994, only released in Japan. The TurboGrafx-16 or PC Engine was a collaborative effort between Hudson Soft, who created video game software, NEC, a major company, dominant in the Japanese personal computer market with their PC-88 and PC-98 platforms.
NEC's interest in entering the lucrative video game market coincided with Hudson's failed attempt to sell designs for then-advanced graphics chips to Nintendo. NEC lacked the vital experience in the video gaming industry so approached numerous video game studios for support, they found that, by coincidence, Hudson Soft was interested in creating their own system but needed a partner for additional cash. The two companies joined together to develop the new system; the PC Engine made its debut in the Japanese market on October 30, 1987, it was a tremendous success. By 1988 it outsold the Famicom year-on-year, putting NEC and Hudson Soft ahead of Nintendo in the market, far ahead of Sega; the console had an elegant, "eye-catching" design, it was small compared to its rivals. This, coupled with a strong software lineup and strong third-party support from high-profile developers such as Namco and Konami gave NEC the lead in the Japanese market. In 1988 NEC wanted to sell the system to the American market, directed its U.
S. operations to do so. NEC Technologies boss Keith Schaefer formed a team to test the system out. One criticism they found was the lack of enthusiasm in its name'PC Engine'; the team felt its small size was not suitable to American consumers who would prefer a larger and "futuristic" design. As a result they came up with the name'TurboGrafx-16', a name representing its graphical speed and strength, its 16-bit GPU, they completely redesigned the hardware into a large, black casing. However the redesign process was lengthy, NEC in Japan was still cautious about the system's viability in the U. S. both of which delayed the system's debut in the American market. The TurboGrafx-16 was released in the New York City and Los Angeles test market in late August 1989; this came just two weeks after Sega's Genesis test-market launch on August 14, distastrous timing for NEC as Sega of America didn't waste time redesigning the original Japanese Mega Drive system. The Genesis launch was accompanied by an ad campaign mocking NEC's claim that the TurboGrafx-16 was the first 16-bit console.
The TurboGrafx-16 was marketed as a direct competitor to the NES and early television ads touted the TG-16's superior graphics and sound. These ads featured a brief montage of the TG-16's launch titles: Blazing Lazers, China Warrior, Alien Crush, etc. Sega eclipsed the TurboGrafx-16 after its American debut. NEC's decision to pack-in Keith Courage in Alpha Zones, a Hudson Soft game unknown to western gamers, proved costly as Sega packed-in a port of the hit arcade title Altered Beast with the Genesis. NEC's American operations in Chicago were overhyped about its potential and produced 750,000 units, far above actual demand. Hudson Soft earned a lot from this as NEC paid Hudson Soft royalties for every console produced, whether sold or not. By 1990 it was clear that the system was performing poorly and was edged out by Nintendo and Sega's marketing. After seeing the TurboGrafx-16 suffer in America, NEC decided to cancel their European releases. Units for the European markets were produced, which were US models modified to run on PAL television sets, branded as TurboGrafx.
NEC sold this stock to distributors - in the United Kingdom Telegames released the TurboGrafx in 1990 in limited quantities. This model was released in
Atari, Inc. was an American video game developer and home computer company founded in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney. Responsible for the formation of the video arcade and modern video game industries, the company was closed and its assets split in 1984 as a direct result of the American video game crash of 1983. In 1966, Nolan Bushnell saw Spacewar! for the first time at the University of Utah. By 1968, Bushnell had become an employee of Ampex in San Francisco, worked alongside Ted Dabney; the two found they had shared interests, including the game Go, Bushnell shared with Dabney his gaming-pizza parlor idea, had taken him to the computer lab at Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to see the games on those systems. They jointly developed the concept of using a standalone computer system with a monitor and attaching a coin slot to it to play games on. Bushnell and Dabney worked with Nutting Associates to manufacture their product. Dabney developed a method of using video circuitry components to mimic functions of a computer for a much cheaper cost and a smaller space.
Bushnell and Dabney used this to develop a variation on Spacewar! called Computer Space where the player shot at two orbiting UFOs. Nutting helped to manufacture the fiberglass cabinet. While they were developing this, they took on duties under Nutting to repair pinball machines. Computer Space did not fare well commercially when it was placed in Nutting's customary market, bars. Feeling that the game was too complex for the average customer unfamiliar and unsure with the new technology, Bushnell started looking for new ideas, they decided to start a separate venture called the Syzygy Game Company, each putting in US$250 of their own funds to support it. They subsequently made sure that Nutting used "Syzygy Engineering" labels on each Computer Space game sold to reflect their work in the game. Bushnell began seeking other partners outside of Nutting, approached pinball game manufacturer Bally Manufacturing, who indicated interest in funding future efforts in arcade games by Bushnell and Dabney if Nutting was not involved.
The two quit established offices for Syzygy in Sunnyvale. Bally offered them a US$4,000 a month for six months to design a new video game and a new pinball machine. With those funds, they hired Al Alcorn as their first design engineer. Wanting to start Syzygy off with a driving game, Bushnell had concerns that it might be too complicated for the young Alcorn's first game. In May 1972, Bushnell had seen a demonstration of the Magnavox Odyssey, which included a tennis game. According to Alcorn, Bushnell decided to have him produce an arcade version of the Odyssey's Tennis game, which would go on to be named Pong. Bushnell had Alcorn use Dabney's video circuit concepts to help develop the game, believing it would be a first prototype, but Alcorn's success impressed both Bushnell and Dabney, leading them to believe they had a major success on hand and prepared to offer the game to Bally as part of the contract. In anticipation and Dabney went to incorporate the firm, but found that Syzygy existed in California.
Bushnell wrote down several words from Go choosing atari, a term that in the context of the game means a state where a stone or group of stones is imminently in danger of being taken by one's opponent. Atari was incorporated in the state of California on June 27, 1972. Bushnell and Dabney offered to license Pong to Bally, but the company had no idea what to do with the game, did not take the license. Instead and Dabney opted to create a test unit themselves and see how it was received at a local establishment. By August 1972, the first Pong was completed, it consisted of a black and white television from Walgreens, the special game hardware, a coin mechanism from a laundromat on the side which featured a milk carton inside to catch coins. It was placed in a Sunnyvale tavern by the name of Andy Capp's to test its viability; the Andy Capp test was successful, so the company created twelve more test units, ten which were distributed across other local bars. They found, they reported these numbers to Bally.
Bushnell and Dabney realized that they needed to expand on the game but formally needed to get out of their contract with Bally. Bushnell told Bally that they could offer to make another game for them, but only if they rejected Pong. After talks to release Pong through Nutting and several other companies broke down and Dabney decided to release Pong on their own, Atari, Inc. was established as a coin-op design and production company. Around 1973, Dabney felt. In March 1973, Dabney formally left Atari, selling his portion of the company for US$250,000. While Dabney would continue to work for Bushnell on other ventures, including Bushnell's Pizza Time Theater, the predecessor to Chuck E. Cheese's, he had a falling out with Bushnell and left the video game industry. Dabney's contributions towards Atari's founding generally
The cowboy hat is a high-crowned, wide-brimmed hat best known as the defining piece of attire for the North American cowboy. Influenced by 19th century Mexican culture, today it is worn by many people, is associated with ranch workers in the western and southern United States, western Canada and northern Mexico, with country-western singers and ranchero singers in Mexico, for participants in the North American rodeo circuit, it is recognized around the world as part of Old West apparel. The shape of a cowboy hat's crown and brim are modified by the wearer for fashion and to protect against weather; the first western model was the open-crowned "Boss of the Plains", after that came the front-creased Carlsbad, destined to become "the" cowboy style. The high-crowned, wide-brimmed, soft-felt western hats that followed are intimately associated with the cowboy image; the concept of a broad-brimmed hat with a high crown worn by a rider on horseback can be seen as far back as the Mongolian horsemen of the 13th century.
The hat has a tall crown that provides insulation, a wide brim, shade. Hot and sunny climates inspire designs with wide brims such as the sombrero of Mexico, it is not clear. However, European-Americans in the Western United States had no standard headwear. People moving West wore many styles of hat, including top hats, remains of Civil War headgear, sailor hats. Contrary to popular belief, it was the bowler and not the cowboy hat, the most popular in the American West, prompting Lucius Beebe to call it "the hat that won the West"; the working cowboy wore high-crowned hats. The hats were most adopted from the Mexican Vaqueros before the invention of the modern design. However, the original cowboy hats originated in Northern Mexico. John Batterson Stetson is credited for making the modern day American Cowboy Hat; the original "Boss of the Plains", manufactured by Stetson in 1865, was flat-brimmed, had a straight sided crown, with rounded corners. These light-weight, waterproof hats were natural in color, with four-inch brims.
A plain hatband was fitted to adjust head size. The sweatband bore Stetson's name. While only making one style of hat, they came in different qualities ranging from one-grade material at five dollars apiece to pure beaver felt hats for thirty dollars each. J. B. Stetson was the first to market the "Boss of the Plains" to cowboys, it has remained the universal image of the American West; the charisma of the West was carried back East when adventurers returned in the expensive "Boss of the plains" style hat. In the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, a hat was an indispensable item in every man's wardrobe. Stetson focused on expensive, high-quality hats that represented a real investment for the working cowboy and a statement of success for the city dweller; the durability and water-resistance of the original Stetson obtained additional publicity in 1912, when the battleship USS Maine was raised from Havana harbor, where it had sunk in 1898. A Stetson hat was found in the wreck, submerged in seawater for 14 years.
The hat had been exposed to ooze and plant growth. However, the hat was cleaned off, appeared to be undamaged. Modern cowboy hats are made of fur-based felt, straw or, less leather, they are sold with a wide flat brim. They have a simple sweat band on the inside to stabilize the fit of the head, a small decorative hat band on the outside of the crown. Hats are customized by rolling the brim. A more decorative hat band is added. In some places, "stampede strings" or "wind strings" are attached. Hats can be manufactured in any color, but are most seen in shades of beige and black. Beginning in the 1940s, pastel colors were introduced, seen on hats worn by movie cowboys and rodeo riders. "Today's cowboy hat has remained unchanged in construction and design since the first one was created in 1865 by J. B. Stetson." Ornamentation, such as bows or buckles, are attached on the left side. This had a practical purpose; because the majority of people are right-handed, in the absence of a wide brim, bows or feathers on the right side of headwear could interfere with the use of weapons.
Inside the cowboy hat is a memorial bow to past hatters, who developed brain damage from treating felt with toxic mercury. The bow on the inside hatband at the rear of the hat crossbones. "Early hatters used mercury in the making of their felt. Their bodies absorbed mercury, after several years of making hats, the hatters developed violent and uncontrollable muscle twitching. Lack of medical knowledge caused people to attribute these strange gyrations to madness, not mercury."The modern cowboy hat has remained unchanged in construction and underlying design since the Stetson creation. The cowboy hat developed the capability in the early years, to identify its wearer as someone associated with the West. "Within a decade the name "John B. Stetson" became synonymous with the word "hat" in every corner and culture west of the Mississippi." The shape of the hat's crown and brim were modified by the wearer for fashion and to protect against weather by being softened in hot steam and allowed to dry and cool.
Felt tends to stay in the shape. Because of the ease of personalization, it was possible to tell where a cowboy hat was from, right down to which ranch by looking at the crease in the crown; as the mystique of the "Wild West" was popularized by entertainers such as Buffalo Bill Cody and western movies starring actors such