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Kojiki

Kojiki sometimes read as Furukotofumi, is an early Japanese chronicle of myths, songs, oral traditions and semi-historical accounts down to 641 concerning the origin of the Japanese archipelago, the kami, the Japanese imperial line. It is claimed in its preface to have been composed by Ō no Yasumaro at the request of Empress Genmei in the early 8th century, thus is considered to be the oldest extant literary work in Japan; the myths contained in the Kojiki as well as the Nihon Shoki are part of the inspiration behind many practices. The myths were re-appropriated for Shinto practices such as the misogi purification ritual, it is believed that the compilation of various geneological and anecdotal histories of the imperial court and prominent clans began during the reigns of Emperors Keitai and Kinmei in the 6th century, with the first concerted effort at historical compilation of which we have record being the one made in 620 under the auspices of Prince Shotoku and Soga no Umako. According to the Nihon Shoki, the documents compiled under their initiative were the Tennōki or the "Record of the Emperors," the Kokki or the "National Record," and other "fundamental records" pertaining to influential clans and free subjects.

Out of these texts, only the Kokki survived the burning of Soga no Emishi's estate during the Isshi incident of 645, it itself was lost soon after. The Kojiki's preface indicates that leading families kept their own historical and genealogical records. According to the preface, Emperor Tenmu ordered the review and emendation of clan documents and commissioned a certain court attendant of exceptional memory named Hieda no Are to memorize records and oral traditions concerning the imperial lineage. Beyond this memorization, nothing occurred until the reign of Empress Genmei, who on the 18th of the 9th month of 711 ordered the courtier Ō no Yasumaro to record what had been learned by Hieda no Are, he finished and presented his work to Empress Genmei on the 28th of the 1st month of 712. The Kojiki is a collation of different traditions woven into a single "official" mythology, made in an attempt to justify the rule of the imperial Yamato polity and at the same time to subsume different interest groups under its wing by giving them a place and an interest in the national genealogy-mythology.

Apart from furthering the imperial agenda, an increased interest in the nation's origins in reaction to the influx of foreign culture and the need for an authoritative genealogical account by which to consider the claims of noble families and to reorganize them into a new system of ranks and titles are possible factors for its compilation. The Kojiki's narrative establishes the Yamato line's right to rule via myth and legend, portraying it as the progeny of heavenly deities and the rightful heir to the land of Japan. A good part of the latter portion of the text is spent recounting various genealogies which served not only to give the imperial family an air of antiquity, but served to tie, whether true or not, many existing clans' genealogies to their own. Regardless of the work's original intent, it finalized and even formulated the framework by which Japanese history was examined in terms of the reign of emperors. In contrast to the Nihon Shoki, the first of six histories commissioned by the imperial court, modeled on Chinese dynastic histories and was intended to be a national chronicle that could be shown with pride to foreign envoys, the Kojiki is inward looking, concerned with the ruling family and prominent clans, is intended for internal consumption.

Whereas the Nihon Shoki uses a variety of source documents, the Kojiki is based on sources handed down within the court. Whereas the Nihon Shoki, owing to its status as one of the six imperial histories, was read and studied during the Heian period, the Kojiki was treated as an ancillary text. Indeed, a work known as the Sendai Kuji Hongi, claimed to have been authored by Prince Shotōku and Soga no Umako, was considered to be earlier and more reliable than the Kojiki. By the Kamakura period, the work languished in obscurity such that few people had access to the text that of the middle volume, it is due to this neglect that the Kojiki is available only in comparatively late manuscripts, the earliest of which dates to the late 14th century. It was with the advent of printing in the early modern period that the Kojiki first reached a wide audience; the earliest printed edition of the text was the Kan'ei Kojiki, published in Kyoto in 1644. A second edition, the Gōtō Kojiki was printed by Deguchi Nobuyoshi, a priest at Ise Shrine, in 1687.

The birth of nativist studies and nationalist sentiment during the Edo period saw a reappraisal of the Kojiki. Kokugaku scholars saw Japan's earliest writings as the repository of a uniquely superior Japanese identity that could be revived by recovering the ancient language they were writ

Inspiration Peak (Washington)

Inspiration Peak is a 7,880+ ft mountain summit located in the Picket Range within North Cascades National Park in the state of Washington. The peak lies 0.28 mi east of Mount Degenhardt, 0.47 mi west of McMillan Spires. Terror Glacier remnants lie to the south of the peaks, the McMillan Cirque glaciers hang on the north slopes; the first ascent of Inspiration Peak was made in 1940 by Fred Beckey and his brother Helmy via the West Ridge. Inspiration Peak can be seen from the North Cascades National Park Newhalem visitor center, weather permitting. Inspiration Peak is located in the marine west coast climate zone of western North America. Most weather fronts originate in the Pacific Ocean, travel northeast toward the Cascade Mountains; as fronts approach the North Cascades, they are forced upward by the peaks of the Cascade Range, causing them to drop their moisture in the form of rain or snowfall onto the Cascades. As a result, the west side of the North Cascades experiences high precipitation during the winter months in the form of snowfall.

During winter months, weather is cloudy, due to high pressure systems over the Pacific Ocean that intensify during summer months, there is little or no cloud cover during the summer. Because of maritime influence, snow tends resulting in high avalanche danger; the North Cascades features some of the most rugged topography in the Cascade Range with craggy peaks, spires and deep glacial valleys. Geological events occurring many years ago created the diverse topography and drastic elevation changes over the Cascade Range leading to the various climate differences; the history of the formation of the Cascade Mountains dates back millions of years ago to the late Eocene Epoch. With the North American Plate overriding the Pacific Plate, episodes of volcanic igneous activity persisted. In addition, small fragments of the oceanic and continental lithosphere called terranes created the North Cascades about 50 million years ago. During the Pleistocene period dating back over two million years ago, glaciation advancing and retreating scoured the landscape leaving deposits of rock debris.

The "U"-shaped cross section of the river valleys are a result of recent glaciation. Uplift and faulting in combination with glaciation have been the dominant processes which have created the tall peaks and deep valleys of the North Cascades area. Weather forecast: Inspiration Peak North Cascades National Park National Park Service

Attorney-General (NSW) v Quin

Attorney General v Quin, is a landmark Australian judgment of the High Court. The matter related to an extent the separation of powers; the NSW Courts of Petty Sessions were replaced by Local Courts. 95 of the former magistrates were appointed to the new Local Courts, however six were not due to concerns about their fitness to be magistrates. Five of the magistrates, commenced proceedings in the Supreme Court of NSW seeking an order that they be appointed magistrates, they were unsuccessful at first, however the NSW Court of Appeal held that the decision of the Attorney-General not to recommend their appointment as Magistrates was void because it was made in such a way as to deny the applicants' legitimate expectations of procedural fairness. The Attorney-General's application for special leave to appeal was refused. In 1988 there was a change of government and the new Attorney-General, John Dowd changed the selection policy to one where magistrates were to be selected on merit and that required an assessment of competing applicants.

None of the five were appointed. Mr Quin, Mr Nash and Mrs Sleeman commenced fresh proceedings, however Mr Nash & Mrs Sleeman subsequently decided to retire. Quin's challenge was on the basis that he had a real expectation to be reappointed, founded in natural justice. An issue in the case was whether the doctrine of estoppel could prevent a government from changing that policy; the Court of Appeal made a declaration that Mr Quin was entitled to have his application considered without reference to other applicants. The Attorney-General obtained special leave to appeal to the High Court; the High Court of Australia found in favour of the Attorney-General, ruling that Courts were not able to overrule government policy as the appointment of magistrates is a role of the executive. Brennan J held that "Judicial review provides no remedies to protect interests, falling short of enforceable rights, which are apt to be affected by the lawful exercise of executive or administrative power" and that "Judicial review has undoubtedly been invoked... to set aside administrative acts and decisions which are unjust or otherwise inappropriate, but only to the extent the purported exercise of power is excessive and or otherwise unlawful."

The Executive can not by promise disable itself from performing a statutory duty. Marbury v. Madison 1 Cranch 137, 177