Fujiwara no Okikaze
Fujiwara no Okikaze was an early 10th Century middle Heian waka poet and Japanese nobleman. He is designated as a member of the Thirty-six Poetry Immortals and one of his poems is included in the famous anthology Hyakunin Isshu. Okikaze's poems are included in several imperial poetry anthologies, including Kokin Wakashū. A personal poetry collection known as the Okikazeshū remains. E-text of his poems in Japanese
Waseda University Library
The libraries or library of Waseda University are collectively one of the largest libraries in Japan. Established in 1882, they hold some 4.5 million volumes and 46,000 serials. The Waseda University Library was established at the time of the founding of the University in 1882, its current Central Library building was opened in 1991. All together the university has 29 libraries: the Central Library, four Campus Libraries, school libraries or reading rooms for students, attached to each school and institute; these libraries are said to hold 4.5 million books. The Waseda University Library possesses a unique collection which survived the Bombing of Tokyo in World War II unlike many of its counterparts, it possesses some items which the National Diet Library does not have. Because of this, its collection is an important resource in the study of pre-war Japanese history and literature; the library is divided into a central library and four main branch libraries, including one at each campus. These branch libraries are the S. Takata Memorial Research Library, the Library of Science and Engineering, the Toyama Library, the Tokorozawa Library.
In addition there are a number of departmental and special institute libraries which are integrated into the library system. The Waseda University Library owns a large number of materials of eminent cultural value. Alongside the two items designated as National Treasures and five sets as Important Cultural Assets, are manuscripts, rare books, handwritten strips of poems, archival materials related to Japanese history, several special collections named after their donors, among others; because of their rarity, access to such materials is limited, except for special exhibitions. Among Waseda University Library's many unique collections are the following: Literary works from the Qing Dynasty of China, collected by a writer of Chinese verse, Noguchi Ichitaro. Outside of the library system, Waseda University has museums including the Waseda Theatre Museum, which contains its own collection. Waseda Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies houses important special collections of materials like the Masuda Collection on politics and law in Indonesia in the 1950s-1960s and the Nishijima Collection on the Japanese occupation of Indonesia.
The Waseda University Library system limits access to students, research fellows, alumni association members, Waseda Supporters Club members. However, with a letter of introduction from another university library requesting access to specific materials, entry is possible. Additionally, student/faculty ID holders from Keio University, Doshisha University, Hitotsubashi University, Kansai University can access the library without a letter of introduction. Students from some foreign universities may be able to apply for privileged access if Waseda University has signed an agreement with that university, but in May 2014 there was no reference to these agreements on the Waseda Library website. For example, on May 30, 2002, Professor Michitaro Urukawa, director of Waseda University Library, Columbia University librarian James G. Neal signed such a memorandum that outlines an agreement between the two libraries to cooperate in the exchange of materials, information access, Interlibrary loan and staff exchanges.
Waseda University has signed a similar agreement with the University of Maryland, College Park. Waseda University Library homepage Waseda University Library online catalog An article on the agreement between Columbia and Waseda university libraries. William Bradley Horton and Southeast Asian Language Materials for the Study of Indonesia at Waseda University
The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after modern Kyōto, it is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese; the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 CE after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, to Heian. A rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable.
The Japanese missions to Tang China was suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, a fact which facilitated the independent growth of Japanese culture called kokufu bunka. Therefore, the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that generations have always admired; the period is noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would take power and start the feudal period of Japan. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact, power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara, other noble families required guards and soldiers; the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. As early as 939 CE, Taira no Masakado threatened the authority of the central government, leading an uprising in the eastern province of Hitachi, simultaneously, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west. Still, a true military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away, when much of the strength of the government would lie within the private armies of the shogunate.
The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency, their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the Kamakura shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors and established the shogunate in Kamakura; when Emperor Kanmu moved the capital to Heian-kyō, which remained the imperial capital for the next 1,000 years, he did so not only to strengthen imperial authority but to improve his seat of government geopolitically. Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good river access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces; the early Heian period continued Nara culture. Kanmu endeavored to improve the Tang-style administrative system, in use.
Known as the ritsuryō, this system attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan, despite the "tremendous differences in the levels of development between the two countries". Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period. Kanmu's avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, he became recognized as one of Japan's most forceful emperors. Although Kanmu had abandoned universal conscription in 792, he still waged major military offensives to subjugate the Emishi, possible descendants of the displaced Jōmon, living in northern and eastern Japan. After making temporary gains in 794, in 797, Kanmu appointed a new commander, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, under the title Sei-i Taishōgun. By 801, the shōgun had defeated the Emishi and had extended the imperial domains to the eastern end of Honshū. Imperial control over the provinces was tenuous at best, however. In the ninth and tenth centuries, much authority was lost to the great families, who disregarded the Chinese-style land and tax systems imposed by the government in Kyoto.
Stability came to Japan, but though succession was ensured for the imperial family through heredity, power again concentrated in the hands of one noble family, the Fujiwara which helped Japan develop more. Following Kanmu's death in 806 and a succession struggle among his sons, two new offices were established in an effort to adjust the Taika–Taihō administrative structure. Through the new Emperor's Private Office, the emperor could issue administrative edicts more directly and with more self-assurance than before; the new Metropolitan Police Board replaced the ceremonial imperial guard units. While these two offices strengthened the emperor's position temporarily, soon they and other Chinese-style structures were bypassed in the developing state. In 838 the end of the imperial-sanctioned missions to Tang China, which had begun in 630, marked the effective end of Chinese influence. Tang China was in a state of decline, Chinese Buddhists were persecuted, undermining Japanese respect for Chinese institutions.
Japan began to turn inward. As the Soga clan had taken control of the throne in the sixth century, the Fujiwara by the ninth century had intermarried with the imperial family, one of their members was the first head of the Emperor's Private O
The Shūi Wakashū abbreviated as Shūishū, is the third imperial anthology of waka from Heian period Japan. It was compiled by Emperor Kazan in about 1005, its twenty volumes contain 1,351 poems. The details of its publication and compilation are unclear; the Shūishū was an expansion of Fujiwara no Kintō's earlier anthology, the Shūishō, compiled between 996 and 999. Until the early nineteenth century, it was mistakenly believed that the Shūishō was a selection of the best poems from the Shūishū, so the former was more regarded; the Shūi Wakashū is the first imperial anthology to include tan-renga, or waka composed by two poets - the earliest form of renga recorded. Cranston, Edwin A. 1993. A Waka Anthology, Volume Two: Grasses of Remembrance. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-804-74825-4. Keene, Donald, 1999. Seeds in the Heart: A History of Japanese Literature, Volume 1. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11441-7
Emperor Uda was the 59th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Uda's reign spanned the years from 887 through 897. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Chōjiin-tei. Emperor Uda was the third son of Emperor Kōkō, his mother was a daughter of Prince Nakano. Uda had 20 Imperial children. Important sons include: Prince Atsuhito. Prince Atsuzane. In ancient Japan, there were the Gempeitōkitsu. One of these clans, the Minamoto clan, is known as Genji; some of Uda's grandchildren were granted the surname Minamoto. In order to distinguish Uda's descendants from other Minamoto clan families or Genji, they became known as the Uda Genji; some of the Uda Genji known as Sasaki clan or Ōmi Genji. Among the Uda Genji, Minamoto no Masazane, a son of Prince Atsumi succeeded in the court. Masazane became sadaijin. One of Masazane's daughters, Minamoto no Rinshi married Fujiwara no Michinaga and from this marriage three empresses dowagers and two regents were born.
From Masanobu, several kuge families originated including the Niwata, Ayanokōji, Itsutsuji, Ōhara and Jikōji. From his fourth son Sukeyosi, the Sasaki clan originated, thus Kyōgoku clan originated; these descendants are known as Ōmi Genji today. From this line, Sasaki Takauji made a success at the Muromachi shogunate and the Amago clan originated from his brother. Uda's father, Emperor Kōkō, demoted his sons from the rank of imperial royals to that of subjects in order to reduce the state expenses, as well as their political influence. Sadami was named Minamoto no Sadami. In 887, when Kōkō needed to appoint his successor, Sadami was once again promoted to the Imperial Prince rank with support of kampaku Fujiwara no Mototsune, since Sadami was adopted by a half-sister of Mototsune. After the death of his father in November of that year, Sadami-shinnō ascended to the throne. September 17, 887: Emperor Kōkō died. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Uda formally acceded to the throne. December 5, 887: Mototsune asked Uda for permission to retire from his duties.
Therefore, Mototsune continued to serve. 888: Construction of the newly created Buddhist temple of Ninna-ji was completed. 889: The former emperor Yōzei became deranged, afflicted by mental illness. Yōzei would address courtiers he would meet with the greatest rudeness, he became furious. He garroted women with the strings of musical instruments and threw the bodies into a lake. While riding on horseback, he directed. Sometimes he disappeared into the mountains where he chased wild boars and red deer. In the beginning of Uda's reign, Mototsune held the office of kampaku. Emperor Uda's reign is marked by a prolonged struggle to reassert power by the Imperial Family away from the increasing influence of the Fujiwara, beginning with the death of Mototsune in 891. Records show that shortly thereafter, Emperor Uda assigned scholars Sukeyo and Kiyoyuki, supporters of Mototsune, to provincial posts in the remote provinces of Mutsu and Higo respectively. Meanwhile, non-Fujiwara officials from the Minamoto family were promoted to prominent ranks, while his trusted counselor, Sugawara no Michizane rose in rank within five years to reach the third rank in the court, supervision of the Crown Prince's household.
Meanwhile, Mototsune's son and heir, Fujiwara no Tokihira, rose in rank, but only just enough to prevent an open power struggle. Meanwhile, Emperor Uda attempted to return Court politics to the original spirit envisioned in the Ritsuryō Codes, while reviving intellectual interest in Confucian doctrine and culture. In the seventh month of 896, Emperor Uda dispatched Sugawara no Michizane to review prisoners in the capitol and provide a general amnesty for the wrongfully accused, in keeping with Chinese practices. Emperor Uda issued edicts reinforcing peasant land rights from encroachment by powerful families in the capital or monastic institutions, while auditing tax collections made in the provinces. Emperor Uda stopped the practice of sending ambassadors to China; the emperor's decision was informed by what he understood as persuasive counsel from Sugawara Michizane. The Special Festival of the Kamo Shrine was first held during Uda's reign. In 897, Uda abdicated in favor of his eldest son, Prince Atsuhito, who would come to be known as Emperor Daigo.
Uda left behind an hortatory will or testament which offered general admonitions or precepts for his son's guidance. The document cautions against his womanizing. Both were assigned by Emperor Uda to look after his son until the latter reach maturity. Three years he entered the Buddhist priesthood at age 34 in 900. Having founded the temple at Ninna-ji, Uda made it his new home after his abdic
Japanese poetry is poetry of or typical of Japan, or written, spoken, or chanted in the Japanese language, which includes Old Japanese, Early Middle Japanese, Late Middle Japanese, Modern Japanese, some poetry in Japan, written in the Chinese language or ryūka from the Okinawa Islands: it is possible to make a more accurate distinction between Japanese poetry written in Japan or by Japanese people in other languages versus that written in the Japanese language by speaking of Japanese-language poetry. Much of the literary record of Japanese poetry begins when Japanese poets encountered Chinese poetry during the Tang dynasty. Under the influence of the Chinese poets of this era Japanese began to compose poetry in Chinese kanshi), it took several hundred years to digest the foreign impact and make it an integral part of Japanese culture and to merge this kanshi poetry into a Japanese language literary tradition, later to develop the diversity of unique poetic forms of native poetry, such as waka and other more Japanese poetic specialties.
For example, in the Tale of Genji both kanshi and waka are mentioned. The history of Japanese poetry goes from an early semi-historical/mythological phase, through the early Old Japanese literature inclusions, just before the Nara period, the Nara period itself, the Heian period, the Kamakura period, so on, up through the poetically important Edo period and modern times. Since the middle of the 19th century, the major forms of Japanese poetry have been tanka and shi or western-style poetry. Today, the main forms of Japanese poetry include both experimental poetry and poetry that seeks to revive traditional ways. Poets writing in tanka and shi may write poetry other than in their specific chosen form, although some active poets are eager to collaborate with poets in other genres; the history of Japanese poetry involves both the evolution of Japanese as a language, the evolution of Japanese poetic forms, the collection of poetry into anthologies, many by imperial patronage and others by the "schools" or the disciples of famous poets.
The study of Japanese poetry is complicated by the social context within which it occurred, in part because of large scale political and religious factors such as clan politics or Buddhism, but because the collaborative aspect which has typified Japanese poetry. Much of Japanese poetry features short verse forms collaborative, which are compiled into longer collections, or else are interspersed within the prose of longer works. Older forms of Japanese poetry include kanshi, which shows a strong influence from Chinese literature and culture. Kanshi means "Han poetry" and it is the Japanese term for Chinese poetry in general as well as the poetry written in Chinese by Japanese poets. Kanshi from the early Heian period exists in the Kaifūsō anthology, compiled in 751. Waka is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature. Waka are composed in Japanese, are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese, which are known as kanshi. Thus, waka has the general meaning of "poetry in Japanese", as opposed to the kanshi "poetry in Chinese".
The Man'yōshū anthology preserves from the eighth century 265 chōka, 4,207 tanka, one tan-renga, one bussokusekika, four kanshi, 22 Chinese prose passages. However, by the time of the tenth-century Kokinshū anthology, waka had become the standard term used for short poems of the tanka form, until more recent times. Tanka are poems written in Japanese with five lines having a 5–7–5–7–7 metre; the tanka form has shown some modern revival in popularity. As stated, it used to be called waka. Much traditional Japanese poetry was written as the result of a process of two or more poets contributing verses to a larger piece, such as in the case of the renga form; the "honored guest" composing a few beginning lines in the form of the hokku. This initial sally was followed by a stanza composed by the "host." This process could continue, sometimes with many stanzas composed by numerous other "guests", until the final conclusion. Other collaborative forms of Japanese poetry evolved, such as the renku form.
In other cases, the poetry collaborations were more competitive, such as with uta-awase gatherings, in which Heian period poets composed waka poems on set themes, with a judge deciding the winner. Haiku are a short, 3-line verse form, which have achieved significant global popularity, the haiku form has been adapted from Japanese into other languages. Typical of the haiku form is the metrical pattern of 3 lines with a distribution of 5, 7, 5 on within those lines. Other features include the juxtaposition of two images or ideas with a kireji between them, a kigo, or seasonal reference d