A nuclear reactor known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in propulsion of ships. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid; these either turn electrical generators' shafts. Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating; some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, or for production of weapons-grade plutonium. Some are run only for research; as of early 2019, the IAEA reports there are 454 nuclear power reactors and 226 nuclear research reactors in operation around the world. Just as conventional power-stations generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy released from burning fossil fuels, nuclear reactors convert the energy released by controlled nuclear fission into thermal energy for further conversion to mechanical or electrical forms; when a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239 absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission.
The heavy nucleus splits into two or more lighter nuclei, releasing kinetic energy, gamma radiation, free neutrons. A portion of these neutrons may be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons, so on; this is known as a nuclear chain reaction. To control such a nuclear chain reaction, neutron poisons and neutron moderators can change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fission. Nuclear reactors have automatic and manual systems to shut the fission reaction down if monitoring detects unsafe conditions. Used moderators include regular water, solid graphite and heavy water; some experimental types of reactor have used beryllium, hydrocarbons have been suggested as another possibility. The reactor core generates heat in a number of ways: The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these nuclei collide with nearby atoms; the reactor absorbs some of the gamma rays produced during fission and converts their energy into heat.
Heat is produced by the radioactive decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. This decay heat-source will remain for some time after the reactor is shut down. A kilogram of uranium-235 converted via nuclear processes releases three million times more energy than a kilogram of coal burned conventionally. A nuclear reactor coolant — water but sometimes a gas or a liquid metal or molten salt — is circulated past the reactor core to absorb the heat that it generates; the heat is carried away from the reactor and is used to generate steam. Most reactor systems employ a cooling system, physically separated from the water that will be boiled to produce pressurized steam for the turbines, like the pressurized water reactor. However, in some reactors the water for the steam turbines is boiled directly by the reactor core; the rate of fission reactions within a reactor core can be adjusted by controlling the quantity of neutrons that are able to induce further fission events.
Nuclear reactors employ several methods of neutron control to adjust the reactor's power output. Some of these methods arising from the physics of radioactive decay and are accounted for during the reactor's operation, while others are mechanisms engineered into the reactor design for a distinct purpose; the fastest method for adjusting levels of fission-inducing neutrons in a reactor is via movement of the control rods. Control rods therefore tend to absorb neutrons; when a control rod is inserted deeper into the reactor, it absorbs more neutrons than the material it displaces—often the moderator. This action results in fewer neutrons available to cause fission and reduces the reactor's power output. Conversely, extracting the control rod will result in an increase in the rate of fission events and an increase in power; the physics of radioactive decay affects neutron populations in a reactor. One such process is delayed neutron emission by a number of neutron-rich fission isotopes; these delayed neutrons account for about 0.65% of the total neutrons produced in fission, with the remainder released upon fission.
The fission products which produce delayed neutrons have half lives for their decay by neutron emission that range from milliseconds to as long as several minutes, so considerable time is required to determine when a reactor reaches the critical point. Keeping the reactor in the zone of chain-reactivity where delayed neutrons are necessary to achieve a critical mass state allows mechanical devices or human operators to control a chain reaction in "real time"; this last stage, where delayed neutrons are no longer required to maintain criticality, is known as the prompt critical point. There is a scale for describing criticality in numerical form, in which bare criticality is known as zero dollars and the prompt critical point is one dollar, other points in the process interpolated in cents. In some reactors, the coolant acts as a neutron moderator. A moderator increases the power of the reactor by causin
Polyarnye Zori is a town in Murmansk Oblast, located on the Niva River, Lake Imandra, Lake Pinozero, 224 kilometers south of Murmansk. Population: 15,096 . Polyarnye Zori was founded in 1968 as a settlement for workers of the electric power industry due to the construction of the Kola Nuclear Power Plant. A work settlement subordinated to the town of Apatity, it was elevated in status to that of a town under oblast jurisdiction by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR Decree of April 22, 1991. A part of the territory in jurisdiction of Apatity was transferred to Polyarnye Zori by the Decision of the Presidium of the Murmansk Oblast Soviet of People's Deputies of May 16, 1991. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated as Polyarnye Zori Town with Jurisdictional Territory—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, Polyarnye Zori Town with Jurisdictional Territory is incorporated as Polyarnye Zori Urban Okrug.
Lyudmila Chistova Valery Mironov Vladimir Goncharenko Nikolay Goldobin Мурманская областная Дума. Закон №96-01-ЗМО от 6 января 1998 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Мурманской области», в ред. Закона №1953-01-ЗМО от 24 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Мурманской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Мурманской области"». Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №10, стр. 3, 16 января 1998 г.. Мурманская областная Дума. Закон №535-01-ЗМО от 2 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе муниципального образования город Полярные Зори с подведомственной территорией», в ред. Закона №906-01-ЗМО от 26 октября 2007 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Мурманской области в связи с упразднением населённых пунктов Мурманской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №234, стр. 3, 7 декабря 2004 г.. Архивный отдел Администрации Мурманской области. Государственный Архив Мурманской области.. Административно-территориальное деление Мурманской области.
Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское издательско-полиграфическое предприятие "Север"
Kursk Nuclear Power Plant
The Nuclear power station Kursk is located in western Russia on the bank of the Seym River about 40 kilometers west of the city of Kursk. The nearby town of Kurchatov was founded; the plant feeds the grid for 19 other regions. The reactors at the plant are the now obsolete RBMK type, the same type used at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant; the plant was equipped with two reactors. Two more reactors were added between 1983 and 1985; the Kursk Nuclear Power Plant and the neighbouring town of Kurchatov stood in for the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and Pripyat for the production of the 1991 American television movie Chernobyl: The Final Warning. In 2018, the first concrete construction started on a VVER-TOI reactor. Kursk-II-1 and II-2 will replace Kursk 2 which are approaching end of life; the Kursk Nuclear Power Plant has 4 operational units: Nuclear power in Russia Kursk NPP home page at Energoatom. About Kursk NPP at Bellona Foundation
Pressurized water reactor
Pressurized water reactors constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants and are one of three types of light water reactor, the other types being boiling water reactors and supercritical water reactors. In a PWR, the primary coolant is pumped under high pressure to the reactor core where it is heated by the energy released by the fission of atoms; the heated water flows to a steam generator where it transfers its thermal energy to a secondary system where steam is generated and flows to turbines which, in turn, spin an electric generator. In contrast to a boiling water reactor, pressure in the primary coolant loop prevents the water from boiling within the reactor. All LWRs use ordinary water as both neutron moderator. PWRs were designed to serve as nuclear marine propulsion for nuclear submarines and were used in the original design of the second commercial power plant at Shippingport Atomic Power Station. PWRs operating in the United States are considered Generation II reactors.
Russia's VVER reactors are similar to U. S. PWRs. France operates many PWRs to generate the bulk of its electricity. Several hundred PWRs are used for marine propulsion in aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines and ice breakers. In the US, they were designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use as a nuclear submarine power plant with a operational submarine power plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. Follow-on work was conducted by Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory; the first purely commercial nuclear power plant at Shippingport Atomic Power Station was designed as a pressurized water reactor, on insistence from Admiral Hyman G. Rickover that a viable commercial plant would include none of the "crazy thermodynamic cycles that everyone else wants to build."The United States Army Nuclear Power Program operated pressurized water reactors from 1954 to 1974. Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station operated two pressurized water reactor plants, TMI-1 and TMI-2; the partial meltdown of TMI-2 in 1979 ended the growth in new construction of nuclear power plants in the United States for two decades.
The pressurized water reactor has three new Generation III reactor evolutionary designs: the AP-1000, VVER-1200, ACPR1000+, APR1400. Nuclear fuel in the reactor pressure vessel is engaged in a fission chain reaction, which produces heat, heating the water in the primary coolant loop by thermal conduction through the fuel cladding; the hot primary coolant is pumped into a heat exchanger called the steam generator, where it flows through hundreds or thousands of small tubes. Heat is transferred through the walls of these tubes to the lower pressure secondary coolant located on the sheet side of the exchanger where the coolant evaporates to pressurized steam; the transfer of heat is accomplished without mixing the two fluids to prevent the secondary coolant from becoming radioactive. Some common steam generator arrangements are single pass heat exchangers. In a nuclear power station, the pressurized steam is fed through a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator connected to the electric grid for transmission.
After passing through the turbine the secondary coolant is cooled condensed in a condenser. The condenser converts the steam to a liquid so that it can be pumped back into the steam generator, maintains a vacuum at the turbine outlet so that the pressure drop across the turbine, hence the energy extracted from the steam, is maximized. Before being fed into the steam generator, the condensed steam is sometimes preheated in order to minimize thermal shock; the steam generated has other uses besides power generation. In nuclear ships and submarines, the steam is fed through a steam turbine connected to a set of speed reduction gears to a shaft used for propulsion. Direct mechanical action by expansion of the steam can be used for a steam-powered aircraft catapult or similar applications. District heating by the steam is used in some countries and direct heating is applied to internal plant applications. Two things are characteristic for the pressurized water reactor when compared with other reactor types: coolant loop separation from the steam system and pressure inside the primary coolant loop.
In a PWR, there are two separate coolant loops, which are both filled with demineralized/deionized water. A boiling water reactor, by contrast, has only one coolant loop, while more exotic designs such as breeder reactors use substances other than water for coolant and moderator; the pressure in the primary coolant loop is 15–16 megapascals, notably higher than in other nuclear reactors, nearly twice that of a boiling water reactor. As an effect of this, only localized boiling occurs and steam will recondense promptly in the bulk fluid. By contrast, in a boiling water reactor the primary coolant is designed to boil. Light water is used as the primary coolant in a PWR. Water enters through the bottom of the reactor's core at about 548 K and is heated as it flows upwards through the reactor core to a temperature of about 588 K; the water remains liquid despite the high temperature due to the high pressure in the primary coolant loop around 155 bar. In water, the critical point occurs at 22.064 MPa.
Pressure in the primary circuit is maintained by a pressurizer, a separate vessel, conne
International Atomic Energy Agency
The International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute, the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council; the IAEA has its headquarters in Austria. The IAEA has two "Regional Safeguards Offices" which are located in Toronto, in Tokyo, Japan; the IAEA has two liaison offices which are located in New York City, United States, in Geneva, Switzerland. In addition, the IAEA has laboratories and research centers located in Seibersdorf, Austria, in Monaco and in Trieste, Italy; the IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide. The programs of the IAEA encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear energy and technology, provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials, promote nuclear safety and nuclear security standards and their implementation.
The IAEA and its former Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on 7 October 2005. The IAEA's current Director General is Yukiya Amano. In 1953, the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, proposed the creation of an international body to both regulate and promote the peaceful use of atomic power, in his Atoms for Peace address to the UN General Assembly. In September 1954, the United States proposed to the General Assembly the creation of an international agency to take control of fissile material, which could be used either for nuclear power or for nuclear weapons; this agency would establish a kind of "nuclear bank." The United States called for an international scientific conference on all of the peaceful aspects of nuclear power. By November 1954, it had become clear that the Soviet Union would reject any international custody of fissile material if the United States did not agree to a disarmament first, but that a clearing house for nuclear transactions might be possible.
From 8 to 20 August 1955, the United Nations held the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva, Switzerland. In October 1957, a Conference on the IAEA Statute was held at the Headquarters of the United Nations to approve the founding document for the IAEA, negotiated in 1955–1957 by a group of twelve countries; the Statute of the IAEA was approved on 23 October 1956 and came into force on 29 July 1957. Former US Congressman W. Sterling Cole served as the IAEA's first Director General from 1957 to 1961. Cole served only one term, after which the IAEA was headed by two Swedes for nearly four decades: the scientist Sigvard Eklund held the job from 1961 to 1981, followed by former Swedish Foreign Minister Hans Blix, who served from 1981 to 1997. Blix was succeeded as Director General by Mohamed ElBaradei of Egypt, who served until November 2009. Beginning in 1986, in response to the nuclear reactor explosion and disaster near Chernobyl, the IAEA increased its efforts in the field of nuclear safety.
The same happened after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan. Both the IAEA and its Director General, ElBaradei, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. In ElBaradei's acceptance speech in Oslo, he stated that only one percent of the money spent on developing new weapons would be enough to feed the entire world, that, if we hope to escape self-destruction nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience, no role in our security. On 2 July 2009, Yukiya Amano of Japan was elected as the Director General for the IAEA, defeating Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa and Luis E. Echávarri of Spain. On 3 July 2009, the Board of Governors voted to appoint Yukiya Amano "by acclamation," and IAEA General Conference in September 2009 approved, he took office on 1 December 2009. The IAEA's mission is guided by the interests and needs of Member States, strategic plans and the vision embodied in the IAEA Statute. Three main pillars -- or areas of work -- underpin the IAEA's mission: Security.
The IAEA as an autonomous organisation is not under direct control of the UN, but the IAEA does report to both the UN General Assembly and Security Council. Unlike most other specialised international agencies, the IAEA does much of its work with the Security Council, not with the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the structure and functions of the IAEA are defined by the IAEA Statute. The IAEA has three main bodies: the Board of Governors, the General Conference, the Secretariat; the IAEA exists to pursue the "safe and peaceful uses of nuclear sciences and technology". The IAEA executes this mission with three main functions: the inspection of existing nuclear facilities to ensure their peaceful use, providing information and developing standards to ensure the safety and security of nuclear facilities, as a hub for the various fields of science involved in the peaceful applications of nuclear technology; the IAEA recognises knowledge as the nuclear energy industry's most valuable asset and resource, without which the industry cannot operate safely and economically.
Following the IAEA General Conference since 2002 resolutions the Nuclear Knowledge Management, a formal programme was established to address Member States' priorities in the 21st century. In 2004, the IAEA developed a Progr
Murmansk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the northwestern part of the country. Its administrative center is the city of Murmansk; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 795,409. Geographically, Murmansk Oblast is located on the Kola Peninsula completely north of the Arctic Circle and is a part of the larger Lapland region that spans over four countries; the oblast borders with the Republic of Karelia in Russia in the south, Lapland Region in Finland in the west, Finnmark County in Norway in the northwest, is washed by the Barents Sea in the north and the White Sea in the south and east. Arkhangelsk Oblast of Russia lies across the White Sea. Much of the oblast's relief is hilly, with the Khibiny and Lovozero ranges rising as high as 1,200 meters above sea level and stretching from west to east; the north of the oblast is covered by tundra. There are over 18,000 rivers in the oblast; the coast contains the Cape Svyatoy Nos peninsulas. The climate is harsh and unstable, due to the proximity of the Gulf Stream on one side and Arctic cold fronts on the other.
Sharp temperature changes, high winds, abundant precipitation are common throughout the year, with the heating season lasting for ten straight months. However, the waters of the Murman Coast in the south remain warm enough to remain ice-free in winter. There is a large number of islands belonging to the oblast, the main ones being the Aynovy Islands, Bolshoy Oleny Island, Kildin Island Malyy Oleniy Island, Kharlov Island, Vesknyak Island, Litskiye Island, Nokuyev Island, Vitte Island, Lumbovskiy Island, Goryainov Island and Sosnovets Island; the Saami, now a small minority, are the indigenous people of the region. However, Russians started exploring the shores of the White Sea as early as in the 12th century. However, the city of Murmansk, home to nearly 40% of the oblast's population in the 307,257 ; the oblast was established on May 28, 1938 from Murmansk Okrug of Leningrad Oblast and Kandalakshsky District of the Karelian ASSR. The area of Pechengsky District, ceded to Finland by the 1920 Treaty of Tartu and gave Finland access to the Barents Sea, was recaptured by the Soviet Union in 1940.
After the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947, the local Saami population was given the choice either of staying in Soviet Russia or resettling in Finland. Most of them chose the second option. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Murmansk CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Murmansk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Murmansk Oblast is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province.
The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Source: Population: 795,409 ; the indigenous people of the area, the Saami, are only a tiny minority today. As of the 2002 Census, 92.2% of the oblast's population live in urban areas. The most populous city is the Oblast's administrative center, with 336,137 inhabitants. Other large cities and towns include Severomorsk, Kandalaksha and Kirovsk. According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows: Russians: 89% Ukrainians: 4.8% Belarusians: 1.7% Tatars: 0.8% Azeris: 0.5% Mordvins: 0.2% Karelians: 0.2% Komi: 0.2% Saami: 0.2% others: 2.4% 73,484 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. Birth rate: 11.7 per 1000 Death rate: 11.2 per 1000 Total fertility rate:In 2009, the urban areas were marked by natural population decline and the rural areas were marked by natural population growth.
According to a 2012 survey 41.7% of the population of Murmansk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to any church or are members of other Orthodox churches, 1% are adherents of Islam, 0.4% are adherents of Rodnovery and other indigenous folk religions, 1% are members of the Catholic Church. In addition, 28% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, 12.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. The Murmansk Oblast is rich in natural resources and has deposits of over
The water-water energetic reactor, or VVER is a series of pressurised water reactor designs developed in the Soviet Union, now Russia, by OKB Gidropress. VVER were developed before the 1970s, have been continually updated; as a result, the name VVER is associated with a wide variety of reactor designs spanning from generation I reactors to modern generation III+ designs. Power output ranges with designs of up to 1700 MWe in development. VVER power stations have been installed in Russia and the former Soviet Union, but in China, Germany and Iran. Countries that are planning to introduce VVER reactors include Bangladesh, Egypt and Turkey; the earliest VVERs were built before 1970. The VVER-440 Model V230 was the most common design; the V230 employs six primary coolant loops each with a horizontal steam generator. A modified version of VVER-440, Model V213, was a product of the first nuclear safety standards adopted by Soviet designers; this model includes added emergency core cooling and auxiliary feedwater systems as well as upgraded accident localization systems.
The larger VVER-1000 was developed after 1975 and is a four-loop system housed in a containment-type structure with a spray steam suppression system. VVER reactor designs have been elaborated to incorporate automatic control, passive safety and containment systems associated with Western third generation nuclear reactors; the VVER-1200 is the version offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe and providing additional passive safety features. In 2012, Rosatom stated that in the future it intended to certify the VVER with the British and U. S. regulatory authorities, though was unlikely to apply for a British licence before 2015. The Russian abbreviation VVER stands for'water-water energy reactor'; the design is a type of pressurised water reactor. The main distinguishing features of the VVER compared to other PWRs are: Horizontal steam generators Hexagonal fuel assemblies No bottom penetrations in the pressure vessel High-capacity pressurisers providing a large reactor coolant inventoryReactor fuel rods are immersed in water kept at 15 MPa pressure so that it does not boil at the normal operating temperatures.
Water in the reactor serves both as a coolant and a moderator, an important safety feature. Should coolant circulation fail, the neutron moderation effect of the water diminishes, reducing reaction intensity and compensating for loss of cooling, a condition known as negative void coefficient. Versions of the reactors are encased in massive steel pressure shells. Fuel is low enriched uranium dioxide or equivalent pressed into pellets and assembled into fuel rods. Reactivity is controlled by control rods; these rods are made from a neutron absorbing material and, depending on depth of insertion, hinder the chain reaction. If there is an emergency, a reactor shutdown can be performed by full insertion of the control rods into the core; as stated above, the water in the primary circuits is kept under a constant elevated pressure to avoid its boiling. Since the water transfers all the heat from the core and is irradiated, the integrity of this circuit is crucial. Four main components can be distinguished: Reactor vessel: Water flows through the fuel rod assemblies which are heated by the nuclear chain reaction.
Volume compensator: To keep the water under constant but controlled pressure, the volume compensator regulates the pressure by controlling the equilibrium between saturated steam and water using electrical heating and relief valves. Steam Generator: In the steam generator, the heat from the primary coolant water is used to boil the water in the secondary circuit. Pump: The pump ensures the proper circulation of the water through the circuit. To provide for the continued cooling of the reactor core in emergency situations the primary cooling is designed with redundancy; the secondary circuit consists of different subsystems: Steam Generator: Secondary water is boiled taking heat from the primary circuit. Before entering the turbine remaining water is separated from the steam. Turbine: The expanding steam drives a turbine, which connects to an electrical generator; the turbine is split into low pressure sections. To prevent condensation steam is reheated between these sections. Reactors of the VVER-1000 type deliver 1 GW of electrical power.
Condenser: The steam is cooled and allowed to condense, shedding waste heat into a cooling circuit. Deaerator: Removes gases from the coolant. Pump: The circulation pumps are each driven by their own small steam turbine. To increase efficiency of the process, steam from the turbine is taken to reheat coolant before the deaerator and the steam generator. Water in this circuit is not supposed to be radioactive; the tertiary cooling circuit is an open circuit diverting water from an outside reservoir such as a lake or river. Evaporative cooling towers, cooling basins or ponds transfer the waste heat from the generation circuit into the environment. In most VVERs this heat can be further used for residential and industrial heating. Operational examples of such systems are Bohunice NPP supplying heat to the towns of Trnava and Hlohovec, Temelín NPP supplying heat to a nearby town 5 km