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Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Kolkata Megalopolis is the area surrounding Kolkata Metropolitan city with additional population. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 80 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city, nicknamed the "City of Joy" is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India and as of 2019, six Nobel Laureates have been associated with the city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post.

Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them, several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas.

Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges. West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by focusing on association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from Kôlikata, the Bengali name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was established.

There are several explanations for the etymology of this name: Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali". It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal.

Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city. The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British com

Furzefield Wood and Lower Halfpenny Bottom

Furzefield Wood and Lower Halfpenny is a 7.4 hectare Local Nature Reserve in Potters Bar in Hertfordshire. It is managed by Hertsmere Borough Council; the site is part of a parcel of land purchased in 1935 by Potters Bar Urban District Council. The southern area became the King George V Playing Fields, which are used for recreation, while the wood and meadow are managed for wildlife. Furze is an ancient name for gorse, the wood has been managed for coppicing for over 300 years, it now provides a habitat for birds, fallen branches are important for invertebrates. Lower Halfpenny Bottom is a meadow, once the route of an old drovers' track. There is access from Cranbourne Avenue

Judo at the 2008 Summer Paralympics – Women's 63 kg

The women's 63 kg judo competition at the 2008 Summer Paralympics was held on September 8 at the Beijing Workers' Gymnasium. Preliminary rounds started at 12:00 pm CST. Repechage finals, bouts for bronze medals, the final were held at 5:00 pm CST; this event was the third-heaviest of the women's judo weight classes, limiting competitors to a maximum of 63 kilograms of body mass. Like all other judo events, bouts lasted five minutes. If the bout was still tied at the end, it was extended for another sudden-death period; the tournament bracket consisted of a single-elimination contest culminating in a gold medal match. There was a repechage to determine the winners of the two bronze medals; each judoka who had lost to a semifinalist competed in the repechage. The two judokas who lost in the semifinals faced the winner of the opposite half of the bracket's repechage in bronze medal bouts. "Schedules and Results - Judo". The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28.

Retrieved 2008-09-12

Student life at the University of Pennsylvania

Students at the University of Pennsylvania enjoy many different events at social gatherings around campus, with some sponsored by the college. As a sign of school pride, crowds of Quaker fans perform a unique ritual. After the third quarter of football games, spirited onlookers unite in the singing of "Drink a Highball," which refers to the University's unofficial cocktail, the Pennsylvanian, made with Calvados, a dash of Madeira Wine, an egg white, a twist of lemon. In years long past, students would make a toast with the drink to the success of Penn's athletic teams. During Prohibition, stubborn students insisted on keeping their tradition - since they could not use alcohol, they had no choice but to "toast" Penn; as the last line, "Here's a toast to dear old Penn," is sung, the fans send toast hurling through the air onto the sidelines. In another version of the origins of toast throwing, in 1977, a student threw the first slice of toast after being inspired while attending a showing of The Rocky Horror Picture Show where members of the audience throw toast at the screen.

In more recent years, some students have become more creative in their choice of projectiles, it is not rare to see a hail of bagels or donuts, or a loaf of French bread come flying down from the stands. The athletics department has purchased several industrial street sweepers built by Tenant Inc; the latest is a 6400 Rider Sweeper used for cleaning the concourses and track area of the stadium. The sweeper is called the "toast Zamboni". At midnight on the eve of the first Microeconomics 001 midterm exam, hundreds of students try to release stress by participating in a collective shout on the Junior Balcony of the Lower Quadrangle. Streakers run around on the grassy area of the lower quad; this tradition has been upheld by the Freshman Class Board, a branch of Penn's student government, as their inaugural Board event every year. In past years, the Penn Quakers have won the Ivy League championship, sending the jubilant fans into a frenzy. In celebration, the fans tossed them into the Schuylkill River.

This tradition has most ended, as the last attempt to tear down the goalposts failed in 2003 as a result of a concrete footing that made efforts to topple them futile. In 2009, students did not attempt to tear down the goal posts, as Penn police officers had made a blockade around them using their bicycles. Started with the Class of 2021, U-Night is the final addition to the Penn traditions experience; the event is one of the four times, along with Convocation, Hey Day, Graduation, where all the students of the Sophomore class will be together in the same place. In April, several class traditions are celebrated. Class Day, which began in 1865 to supplement the final graduation exercises, celebrates the progression of all classes and the departure of the seniors. In 1916, this day merged with Straw Hat Day and became the "day of two events." In 1931, Hey Day arose from these two celebrations. On this day, the juniors gather on High Rise Field for a picnic, don straw "skimmers" and canes, march triumphantly down Locust Walk to College Hall.

The procession tradition began in 1949. More the straw skimmers have changed to styrofoam hats, classmates take bites out of one another's hats; when the procession reaches College Hall, the students make an arch with their canes to greet the President of the University. The outgoing and incoming senior class presidents give speeches, the juniors are "officially" declared seniors. In May 2015, the university commemorated the celebration of the 100th Hey Day. One plants ivy by a building, an "Ivy Stone" is placed on the building to commemorate the occasion. In 1981, the day was moved to the Saturday before Commencement. On this day, the Spoon, Bowl and Spade awards, honoring four graduating men and the Hottel, Harnwell and Brownlee awards, honoring four graduating women, are presented. During the celebration, a noted individual, chosen by the class gives an address. Recent Ivy Day addresses have been presented by Penn Parent Joan Rivers, former Philadelphia Mayor and Governor of Pennsylvania Ed Rendell, basketball player Julius Erving.

The building receiving the Ivy Stone is often a building of some significance to the graduating class. For example, in 1983, a stone was placed near the field in Franklin Field celebrating Penn's first Ivy League championship in football since 1959 the previous fall—at the yard line from which the game-winning field goal against Harvard was kicked, clinching at least a share of the championship. Penn students have a school anthem, "The Red and Blue"; this is not to be confused with the official alma mater of the university, "Hail, Pennsylvania!". Spring Fling is an annual festival for the students at the end of each Spring semester beginning on the Friday of the second to last week of the semester and continuing until Saturday night. Fling, which began in 1973, is dubbed the largest college party on the East Coast, is hosted by the university's Social Planning and Events Committee; the event takes place on College Green, Wynn Commons, The Quadrangle for a student body drenched in alcohol, for the most part.

Over the past few years there has been legitimate discussion towards moving the event out of the Quad, but improved behavior has resulted in the carnival aspect of the festival remaining in the Quad. College Green becomes a staging area for carnival food. Two stages in the Quad host Penn's performing arts groups. Saturday night, Penn holds a festival on College Green, Friday night SPEC brings

Scott Burrell

Scott David Burrell is an American basketball coach and former player, the men's basketball head coach at Southern Connecticut State University. He has played internationally and was a professional baseball player. Burrell was the first American athlete to be a first round draft-pick of two major sporting organizations. In 1990 he was drafted by the Toronto blue jays; when he was done with baseball, he was drafted by the Charlotte Hornets, but in the 96-97 season he was traded to the Warriors and to the Bulls where he won his first ring. He played 3 more seasons after that with the Nets and the Hornets. Burrell was born in Connecticut. A 6'7" multi-sport star at Hamden High School in Connecticut, Burrell was drafted by baseball's Seattle Mariners during his senior year; the Mariners wanted to develop Burrell as a pitcher and suggested that he bypass college for the minor leagues. However, Burrell wanted to attend college and made plans to play baseball at the University of Miami before University of Connecticut assistant basketball coach Howie Dickenman convinced Burrell to play basketball for the Huskies.

After his freshman year at University of Connecticut, Burrell was drafted by another baseball team, the Toronto Blue Jays, Burrell decided to spend his summers playing minor league baseball while concentrating on basketball for the rest of the year. Burrell's basketball career would overshadow his baseball career, however, as he became the first player in NCAA history to compile over 1,500 points, 750 rebounds, 275 assists and 300 steals. Scott is known for his full court pass with 1 second on the clock to Tate George, who hit a shot as time expired to beat Clemson in the East Regional Semi-final in the 1990 NCAA tournament. Burrell was selected by the Charlotte Hornets with the 20th pick of the 1993 NBA Draft, he averaged 4.8 points per game during his rookie season, but he blossomed during his sophomore year, averaging 11.5 points and finishing third in voting for the NBA Most Improved Player Award. That year, he finished third at the AT&T Long-Distance Shootout. During the 1995-96 NBA season, injuries limited Burrell to 20 games, he would be reduced to a supporting role during the rest of his career.

He split the 1996-97 season between the Hornets and the Golden State Warriors, averaging only 5.9 points per game, before being traded by the Warriors to the Chicago Bulls for Dickey Simpkins in the fall of 1997. However, Burrell was able to win his first and only NBA Championship ring during his season with the Bulls, he would play three more seasons after that before taking his career overseas. Burrell's international stops have included China, the Philippines, Japan. Burrell is the head men's basketball coach at Southern Connecticut State University in New Haven, he was hired on July 13, 2015. He had coached at Quinnipiac University in his hometown of Hamden, where he coached under former UConn assistant coach Tom Moore. Burrell went back to school and received his bachelor's degree in General Studies from the University of Connecticut on May 8, 2010, he was honored with Scott Burrell Day in Hamden on May 26, 2014. He is married to SportsNet New York reporter Jeané Coakley. Player Profile @ College & NBA Stats @ The Baseball Cube @ Scott Burrell at

Sonrise Church

Sonrise Church is a non-denominational Christian church in Hillsboro in the U. S. state of Oregon. Founded in 1980 as Sonrise Baptist Church, the church is located in the Orenco neighborhood and has about 1,200 worshipers at its main campus, a former industrial building; the main church grounds house a winter homeless shelter and a community garden. Sonrise Baptist Church was started in 1980 in Hillsboro, Oregon, by families including G. Robert and Loretta Schwarz, with Larry E. Allen as pastor. In October 1981, it received approval from the city to build a 10,600-square-foot structure at the location near Jackson School and Northeast Ninth Avenue; the new building was to be used as the church’s sanctuary. Sonrise Baptist built a new building at the original church location on NE Rogahn Street in 2000. In 1998, Americans United for Separation of Church and State alleged that Sonrise was one of nine churches in the country that violated federal tax law by distributing voter guides seen as pro-Republican.

In 2006, Sonrise started Washington County Project Homeless Connect, a one-day, annual event that provides a variety of services to the homeless, including pet care, medical care and legal services. Other partners in the program as of 2012 included Pacific University, Vision Action Network, Hands On Greater Portland, among others; the 2009 event had visits by about 500 homeless people served by 450 volunteers. The church offered to buy about 9.7 acres that included a 54,000-square-foot industrial building owned by Toshiba Ceramics America for $4.5 million in October 2006. Sonrise’s offer was for only half of the site, the proposed location for a hospital by Providence Health System in 2003. At the time of the purchase, Sonrise had grown to 700 in its congregation. Toshiba Ceramics had opened its factory on the site in 1989 and closed it in April 2002. Sonrise moved into the former Toshiba facility near Cornell Road and Northwest 231st Avenue in 2007; the nearly 10-acre campus in the Orenco neighborhood is next to Quatama Elementary School.

The church added a community garden in 2009 in partnership with the Hillsboro Parks & Recreation Department, with a second phases with more plots added the following year. In 2009, Heritage Christian School closed, Carden Cascade Academy moved into the classroom space at the church in September. Sonrise opened a homeless shelter at the church in December 2008; the next year it opened in December for a 90-day run, staffed by volunteers from nine area churches, calling it the Shelter at Orenco Station. The church serves as a cooling center during extreme heat in the summer. Sonrise opened a second church in April 2012 in Forest Grove. At the time, Sonrise had grown to about 1,500 people; the new location opened in a 8,000-square-foot former retail space belonging to Tupper’s Home Furnishings, was to be led by Rudy Tinoco. The church faced controversy in November 2012 when parents in the area brought their complaints to local media about meetings held at the church for convicted felons. Participants at the meetings included registered sex offenders, parents raised the concern that Quatama Elementary was adjacent to the church.

The church said. The church has three locations on the Westside of the Portland metropolitan area: the main campus in Hillsboro, one in Forest Grove, one in Cornelius; the main campus in Hillsboro is near the Orenco Station light rail stop along Cornell Road. The building sits on 9.77 acres. In addition to the sanctuary, the grounds house classrooms, a seasonal 45-bed homeless shelter, a community garden operated through the city’s parks department. Media related to Sonrise Church at Wikimedia Commons Shelter at Orenco Station A place of warmth, faith for homeless