Indian Railways is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways. It manages the fourth largest railway network in the world by size, with 67,368-kilometre route.. Routes are electrified with 25 kV AC electric traction while thirty three percent of them are double or multi-tracked. Indian Railway runs more than 20,000 passenger trains daily, on both long-distance and suburban routes, from 7,349 stations across India; the trains have a five-digit numbering system. Mail or express trains, the most common types, run at an average speed of 50.6 kilometres per hour. In the freight segment, IR runs more than 9,200 trains daily; the average speed of freight trains is around 24 kilometres per hour. As of March 2017, IR's rolling stock consisted of 277,987 freight wagons, 70,937 passenger coaches and 11,452 locomotives. IR owns coach-production facilities at several locations in India; the world's eighth-largest employer, it had 1.308 million employees as of March 2017. In the year ending March 2018, IR carried 8.26 billion passengers and transported 1.16 billion tonnes of freight.
In the fiscal year 2017–18, IR is projected to have revenue of ₹1.874 trillion, consisting of ₹1.175 trillion in freight revenue and ₹501.25 billion in passenger revenue, with an operating ratio of 96.0 percent. The first railway proposals for India were made in Madras in 1832; the country's first train, Red Hill Railway, ran from Red Hills to the Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837. In 1845, the Godavari Dam Construction Railway was built by Cotton at Dowleswaram in Rajahmundry, to supply stone for the construction of a dam over the Godavari River. In 1851, the Solani Aqueduct Railway was built by Proby Cautley in Roorkee to transport construction materials for an aqueduct over the Solani River. India's first passenger train, hauled by three steam locomotives, ran for 34 kilometres with 400 people in 14 carriages on 1,676 mm broad gauge track between Bori Bunder and Thane on 16 April 1853; the Thane viaducts, India's first railway bridges, were built over the Thane creek when the Mumbai-Thane line was extended to Kalyan in May 1854.
Eastern India's first passenger train ran 24 miles from Howrah, near Kolkata, to Hoogly on 15 August 1854. The first passenger train in South India ran 60 miles from Royapuram- Veyasarapady to Wallajah Road on 1 July 1856. On 24 February 1873, a horse-drawn 3.8-kilometre tram opened in Calcutta between Sealdah and Armenian Ghat Street. On 9 May 1874, a horse-drawn tramway began operation in Bombay between Parel. In 1897, lighting in passenger coaches was introduced by many railway companies. On 3 February 1925, the first electric passenger train in India ran between Victoria Terminus and Kurla; the organisation of Indian railways into regional zones began in 1951, when the Southern and Western zones were created. Fans and lights were mandated for all compartments in all passenger classes in 1951, sleeping accommodations were introduced in coaches. In 1956, the first air-conditioned train was introduced between Howrah and Delhi. Ten years the first containerized freight service began between Mumbai and Ahmedabad.
In 1986, computerized ticketing and reservations were introduced in New Delhi. In 1988, the first Shatabdi Express was introduced between New Jhansi. Two years the first self-printing ticket machine was introduced in New Delhi. In 1993, air-conditioned three-tier coaches and a sleeper class were introduced on IR; the CONCERT system of computerized reservations was deployed in New Delhi and Chennai in September 1996. In 1998, coupon validating machines were introduced at Mumbai Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus; the nationwide Concierge system began operation on 18 April 1999. In February 2000, the Indian Railways website went online. On 3 August 2002, IR began ticketing. Indian Railways announced on 31 March 2017 that the country's entire rail network would be electrified by 2022. Indian Railways is headed by a seven-member Railway Board whose chairman reports to the Ministry of Railways. Railway Board acts as the Ministry of Railways; the officers manning the office of Railway Board are from organised Group A Railway Services and Railway Board Secretariat Service.
IR is divided into 17 zones, headed by general managers. The zones are further subdivided into 68 operating divisions, headed by divisional railway managers; the divisional officers of the engineering, electrical and telecommunication, accounts, operating, commercial and safety branches report to their respective DRMs and are tasked with the operation and maintenance of assets. Station masters control individual stations and train movements through their stations' territory. In addition, there are a number of production units, training establishments, public sector enterprises and other offices working under the control of the Railway Board. IR is a major shareholder in 16 public sector undertakings and other organizations that are related to rail transport in India. Notable among this list include:Financing and project implementation: IRFC, RITES, IRCON, MRVC, RVNL Land and station development: RLDA, IRSDC Rail infrastructure: DFCCIL, PRCLPassenger and freight train operations: KRCL, CONCOR IT and communications: CRIS, RCIL Catering and tourism: IRCTC Staff are classified into gazetted an
Kilikollur railway station
Kilikollur railway station is a railway station in the cashew hub of Kollam city - Kilikollur. Kilikollur Railway Station is coming under the Madurai railway division of the Southern Railway Zone, Indian Railways; the station is one among the three railway stations serving the city of Kollam. Other railway stations in the city are Kollam Junction railway station and Eravipuram railway station. All the trains passing through have halt in this station, except the Tambaram - Kollam special express running on the newly commissioned Punalur - Sengottai line. Kilikollur railway station is situated at Karicode Indian railways is connecting Kilikollur with various cities in India like Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam, Nagercoil, Madurai & with various towns like Punalur, Kottarakkara, Karunagappalli, Neyyattinkara & Kanyakumari. Nearest railway stations are Kollam Chandanathoppe. Kollam Junction railway station Paravur railway station Punalur railway station Kundara railway station
Ernakulam Junction railway station
Ernakulam Junction railway station is the biggest railway station in the city of Kochi in Kerala, India. At ₹158 crore, it is the second largest in terms of passenger revenues in Kerala and the fifth largest in Southern Railway, it is an A1 classified station operated by the Southern Railway zone of the Indian Railways and comes under the Thiruvananthapuram railway division. Ernakulam Junction is the first disabled-friendly railway station in India. Ernakulam Jn was first opened as Ernakulam South in 1932 when the metre gauge line terminating at Ernakulam Terminus was extended from Pachalam to the Cochin Harbor Terminus Station on the Willingdon Island for proximity to the Kochi Port. Ernakulam North, Mattanchery Halt and CHTS were the newly opened stations on the route. In 1946 the station was converted into broad gauge as part of the Shoranur-CHTS line, linking it directly to the rest of India via the Mangalore-Jolarpet mainline at Shoranur Jn. In 1956 the Ernakulam-Kottayam metre gauge line was opened and further extended to Kollam in 1958, joining to the Kollam-Trivandrum line, connecting Ernakulam with Trivandrum for the first time.
Since the opening of the Kottayam line made it a junction, Ernakulam South was renamed Ernakulam Junction, Ernakulam North was renamed Ernakulam Town. This was what made Ernakulam Jn rise to prominence, until just a small wayside station en route to the much busier Cochin Harbour Terminus station; until 1979 when the Kottayam line was converted into broad gauge, ERS had both broad and metre gauge tracks. As the coastal line to Alappuzha was opened in 1989, Ernakulam Jn rose to the status of the most premier railway station in central Kerala. Ernakulam Jn is a railway junction with lines branching off from it to four different directions: North towards Chennai/Bangalore and Mumbai South towards Thiruvananthapuram via Alappuzha-Kayamkulam South-west towards Willingdon Island and CHTS East towards Thiruvananthapuram via Kottayam-KayamkulamThe station has six platforms to handle long distance trains and local trains and two entrances, its A1 classification is the highest. It does have all amenities expected out of a major junction including a paid air-conditioned lounge with free WiFi, a library, rest room, children's play areas etc.
However, the station lacks the spread-out roominess and large built-up area of large stations. Ernakulam Junction was the first railway station in Kerala to have an escalator, it was installed on 9 September 2013. All its platforms are served by escalators. Southern Railway zone Ernakulam Junction railway station at the India Rail Info
A bicycle called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered or motor-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the late 19th century in Europe, by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion were in existence at a given time; these numbers far exceed the number of cars, both in total and ranked by the number of individual models produced. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions, they provide a popular form of recreation, have been adapted for use as children's toys, general fitness and police applications, courier services, bicycle racing and bicycle stunts. The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or "safety bicycle", has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. However, many details have been improved since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design; these have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling.
The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that played a key role in the development of the automobile were invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets and tension-spoked wheels; the word bicycle first appeared in English print in The Daily News in 1868, to describe "Bysicles and trysicles" on the "Champs Elysées and Bois de Boulogne". The word was first used in 1847 in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle a carriage; the design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, although the words were used with some degree of overlap for a time. Other words for bicycle include "bike", "pushbike", "pedal cycle", or "cycle". In Unicode, the code point for "bicycle" is 0x1F6B2; the entity 🚲. The "Dandy horse" called Draisienne or Laufmaschine, was the first human means of transport to use only two wheels in tandem and was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais.
It is regarded as the modern bicycle's forerunner. Its rider sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his or her feet while steering the front wheel; the first mechanically-propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built by Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish blacksmith, in 1839, although the claim is disputed. He is associated with the first recorded instance of a cycling traffic offense, when a Glasgow newspaper in 1842 reported an accident in which an anonymous "gentleman from Dumfries-shire... bestride a velocipede... of ingenious design" knocked over a little girl in Glasgow and was fined five shillings. In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel; this was the first in mass production. Another French inventor named Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier.
Several inventions followed using rear-wheel drive, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1869. In that same year, bicycle wheels with wire spokes were patented by Eugène Meyer of Paris; the French vélocipède, made of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing". It featured a tubular steel frame on; these bicycles were difficult to ride due to poor weight distribution. In 1868 Rowley Turner, a sales agent of the Coventry Sewing Machine Company, brought a Michaux cycle to Coventry, England, his uncle, Josiah Turner, business partner James Starley, used this as a basis for the'Coventry Model' in what became Britain's first cycle factory. The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. This, in turn, required gearing—effected in a variety of ways—to efficiently use pedal power. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Englishman J. K. Starley, J. H. Lawson, Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive, connecting the frame-mounted cranks to the rear wheel.
These models were known as safety bicycles, dwarf safeties, or upright bicycles for their lower seat height and better weight distribution, although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller-wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger-wheeled variety. Starley's 1885 Rover, manufactured in Coventry is described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon the seat tube was added. Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s Golden Age of Bicycles. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the first practical pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tyres in 1889, winning the tyre's first-ever races in Ireland and England. Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed; this refinement led to the 1890s invention of coaster brakes. Dérailleur gears and hand-operated Bowden cable-pull brakes were developed during these years, but were only adopted by casual riders; the Svea Velocipede with vertical pedal arrangement and
25 kV AC railway electrification
Railway electrification systems using alternating current at 25 kilovolts are used worldwide for high-speed rail. This electrification is ideal for railways that carry heavy traffic. After some experimentation before World War II in Hungary and in the Black Forest in Germany, it came into widespread use in the 1950s. One of the reasons why it was not introduced earlier was the lack of suitable small and lightweight control and rectification equipment before the development of solid-state rectifiers and related technology. Another reason was the increased clearance distances required where it ran under bridges and in tunnels, which would have required major civil engineering in order to provide the increased clearance to live parts. Railways using older, lower-capacity direct current systems have introduced or are introducing 25 kV AC instead of 3 kV DC/1.5 kV DC for their new high-speed lines. The first successful operational and regular use of the 50 Hz system dates back to 1931, tests having run since 1922.
It was developed by Kálmán Kandó in Hungary, who used 16 kV AC at 50 Hz, asynchronous traction, an adjustable number of poles. The first electrified line for testing was Budapest–Dunakeszi–Alag; the first electrified line was Budapest–Győr–Hegyeshalom. Although Kandó's solution showed a way for the future, railway operators outside of Hungary showed a lack of interest in the design; the first railway to use this system was completed in 1936 by the Deutsche Reichsbahn who electrified part of the Höllentalbahn between Freiburg and Neustadt installing a 20 kV, 50 Hz AC system. This part of Germany was in the French zone of occupation after 1945; as a result of examining the German system in 1951 the SNCF electrified the line between Aix-les-Bains and La Roche-sur-Foron in southern France at using the same 20 kV but converted to 25 kV in 1953. The 25 kV system was adopted as standard in France, but since substantial amounts of mileage south of Paris had been electrified at 1,500 V DC, SNCF continued some major new DC electrification projects, until dual-voltage locomotives were developed in the 1960s.
The main reason why electrification at this voltage had not been used before was the lack of reliability of mercury-arc-type rectifiers that could fit on the train. This in turn related to the requirement to use DC series motors, which required the current to be converted from AC to DC and for that a rectifier is needed; until the early 1950s, mercury-arc rectifiers were difficult to operate in ideal conditions and were therefore unsuitable for use in railway locomotives. It was possible to use AC motors, but they have less than ideal characteristics for traction purposes; this is because control of speed is difficult without varying the frequency and reliance on voltage to control speed gives a torque at any given speed, not ideal. This is why DC series motors are the best choice for traction purposes, as they can be controlled by voltage, have an ideal torque vs speed characteristic. In the 1990s, high-speed trains began to use lighter, lower-maintenance three-phase AC induction motors; the N700 Shinkansen uses a three-level converter to convert 25 kV single-phase AC to 1,520 V AC to 3,000 V DC to a maximum 2,300 V three-phase AC to run the motors.
The system works in reverse for regenerative braking. The choice of 25 kV was related to the efficiency of power transmission as a function of voltage and cost, not based on a neat and tidy ratio of the supply voltage. For a given power level, a higher voltage allows for a lower current and better efficiency at the greater cost for high-voltage equipment, it was found that 25 kV was an optimal point, where a higher voltage would still improve efficiency but not by a significant amount in relation to the higher costs incurred by the need for larger insulators and greater clearance from structures. To avoid short circuits, the high voltage must be protected from moisture. Weather events, such as "the wrong type of snow", have caused failures in the past. An example of atmospheric causes occurred in December 2009, when four Eurostar trains broke down inside the Channel Tunnel. Electric power from a generating station is transmitted to grid substations using a three-phase distribution system. At the grid substation, a step-down transformer is connected across two of the three phases of the high-voltage supply.
The transformer lowers the voltage to 25 kV, supplied to a railway feeder station located beside the tracks. SVCs are used for voltage control. In some cases dedicated single-phase AC power lines were built to substations with single phase AC transformers; such lines were built to supply the French TGV. Railway electrification using 25 kV, 50 Hz AC has become an international standard. There are two main standards that define the voltages of the system: EN 50163:2004+A1:2007 - "Railway applications. Supply voltages of traction systems" IEC 60850 - "Railway Applications. Supply voltages of traction systems"The permissible range of voltages allowed are as stated in the above standards and take into account the number of trains drawing current and their distance from the substation; this system is now part of the European Union's Trans-European railway interoperability standards. Systems based on this standard but with some variations have been used. In countries where 60 Hz is the normal gr
Kollam pronunciation known by its former name Quilon pronunciation and Coulão and Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of the Indian state of Kerala. The city is on the banks Ashtamudi Lake. Kollam has a strong commercial reputation since the days of the Romans. Fed by the Chinese trade, it was mentioned by Ibn Battuta in the 14th century as one of the five Indian ports he had seen during the course of his twenty-four year travels. Desinganadu's rajas exchanged embassies with Chinese rulers while there was a flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam. In the 9th Century, on his way to Canton, Persian merchant Sulaiman al-Tajir found Kollam to be the only port in India visited by huge Chinese junks. Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller, in Chinese service under Kublai Khan in 1275, visited Kollam and other towns on the west coast, in his capacity as a Chinese mandarin. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822 AD two East Syriac bishops Mar Sabor and Mar Proth, settled in Quilon with their followers.
Two years the Malabar Era began and Quilon became the premier city of the Malabar region ahead of Travancore and Cochin. Kollam Port was founded by Mar Sabor at Tangasseri in 825 as an alternative to reopening the inland sea port of Kore-ke-ni Kollam near Backare, known as Nelcynda and Tyndis to the Romans and Greeks and as Thondi to the Tamils. Kollam is a coastal city on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake that took the title God's Own Country without much demur; the Ashtamudi Lake lie about 71 kilometres north of Thiruvananthapuram. The city hosts the administrative offices of Kollam district and is a prominent trading city for the state; the proportion of females to males in Kollam city is second highest among the 500 most populous cities in India. Kollam is the least polluted city in India. Four major trading centers around Kollam are Kottarakara, Punalur and Karunagapally. Kollam is an ancient trading town – trading with Romans, Chinese and other Orientals – mentioned in historical citations dating back to Biblical times and the reign of Solomon, connecting with Red Sea ports of the Arabian Sea.
There was internal trade through the Punalur Pass connecting the ancient town to Tamil Nadu. The overland trade in pepper by bullock cart and the trade over the waterways connecting Allepey and Cochin established trade linkages that enabled it to grow into one of the earliest Indian industrial townships; the rail links established to Tamil Nadu supported still stronger trade links. The factories processing marine exports and the processing and packaging of cashewnuts extended its trade across the globe. Kollam is the fifth largest in terms of corporation area, it is known for cashew coir manufacturing. Ashtamudi Lake is considered the southern gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is a prominent tourist destination at Kollam; the Kollam urban area includes suburban towns such as Paravur in the south, Kundara in the east and Karunagapally in the north of the city. Other important towns in the city suburbs are Eravipuram, Kottiyam and Chavara. Kollam appeared as Palombe in Mandeville's Travels, where he claimed it contained a Fountain of Youth.
During the stages of the rule of the Chera monarchy in Kerala, Kollam emerged as the focal point of trade and politics. Kollam continues to be a major business and commercial centre in the Southern Kerala. In 825 CE, the Malayalam calendar, or Kollavarsham, was created in Kollam at meetings held in the city; the present Malayalam calendar is said to have begun with the re-founding of the town, rebuilt after its destruction by a fire. The name Kollam is believed meaning pepper; as the ancient city of Quilon, Kollam was a flourishing port during the Chera dynasty, became the capital of the independent Venad or Kingdom of Quilon on its foundation in c. 825. Kollam was considered one of the four early entrepots in global sea trade during the 13th century, along with Alexandria and Cairo in Egypt, the Chinese city of Quanzhou, Malacca in the Malaysian archipelago Along with Pattanam, Quilon was an ancient seaport on the Malabar Coast of India from the early centuries before the Christian era; the city had a high commercial reputation from the days of the Phoenicians and Ancient Romans.
Pliny the Elder mentions Greek ships anchored at Nelcynda. There was a land route over the Western Ghats. Spices, pearls and silk were exported to Egypt and Rome from these ports. Pearls and diamonds came to the Chera Kingdom from Ceylon and the southeastern coast of India known as the Pandyan Kingdom. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek Nestorian sailor, in his book the Christian Topography who visited the Malabar coast in 550, mentions an enclave of Christian believers in Male, he writes, "In the island of Tabropane, there is a church of Christians, clerics and faithful. At Male, where the pepper grows, in the farming community of Kalliana there is a bishop consecrated in Persia in accordance with the Nicea sunnahadose of 325 AD." The Nestorian Patriarch Jesujabus, who died in 660 AD, mentions Kollam in his letter to Simon, Metropolitan of Persia. The port at Kollam known as Quilon, was founded in 825 by the Nestorian Christians Mar Sabor and Mar Proth with sanction from Ayyanadikal Thiruvadikal, the king of the independent Venad or State of Quilon, a feudatory under the Chera kingdom.
It is believed that Mar Sapor Iso also
Kayamkulam Junction railway station
Kayamkulam Junction railway station is a railway station in Kerala, located at Kayamkulam, Alappuzha District. It is an NSG 3 category station, it stands at the junction of three lines- south towards Thiruvananthapuram via Kollam, north towards Ernakulam via Alappuzha and north-east towards Ernakulam Junction/Ernakulam Town via Kottayam. The station is located at a distance of 1.7 km from Kayamkulam town, near to Kayamkulam-Punalur Road. In 2018, the rail wi-fi. Kayamkulam rail link came into existence in 1958; the railway station was upgraded to a junction station in 1992 when the rail link via Alappuzha to Ernakulam was inaugurated. This station has five platforms and six tracks to handle long distance and goods trains. Southern Railway zone Karunagappalli railway station