Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and
The ǁKaras Region spelled! Karas Region, is the least densely populated of the 14 regions of Namibia; the name assigned to the region reflects the prominence of the Karas mountain range in its southern part. The ǁKaras region includes the magisterial districts of Keetmanshoop, Bethanie, Lüderitz; the name of this region was Karas Region since Namibian independence in 1990. In an effort to consolidate spelling, it was renamed to ǁKaras Region in August 2013.ǁKaras' western border is the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Its location in Namibia's south means that it shares a long border in the south and east with the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Domestically, it borders only the Hardap Region, to the north. ǁKaras is subdivided into seven electoral constituencies: Berseba Karasburg East Keetmanshoop Rural Keetmanshoop Urban ǃNamiǂNûs Oranjemund Karasburg WestThe Governor of ǁKaras Region is Lucia Basson, succeeding Bernadus Clinton Swartbooi in 2015. In the 2004 presidential election, the region supported SWAPO's Hifikepunye Pohamba with 65% of the votes.
No other candidate received more than 10%. In the 2015 regional elections, Swapo won all seven constituencies; the region is a predominantly a small stock-farming area, consisting of animals such as sheep or goats. Game farming and irrigation farming along the Naute Dam and the Orange River have gained in importance. Notable characteristics of the region include the harbour town of Lüderitz and its fishing and boat building industry, the diamond areas along the coast—both on and off shore—with Oranjemund as the main centre, mining enterprises in the southern part of Namibia, the Kudu Gas field in the Atlantic Ocean near Lüderitz, small-scale industries in Lüderitz and Keetmanshoop; the Hot Water Springs at Ai-Ais, the Hot Water Springs in Warmbad, the Kokerboom Forest near Keetmanshoop, the Fish River Canyon, the Brukaros Mountain near Berseba, the coastal town Lüderitz, several guest and game farms have become important tourist attractions. The tourism industry has the potential for further expansion.
The economic growth potential of the area is considerable, but needs an intensive general development policy. It is a profitable tax-generating area, which predominantly comes from diamond mining for the central government; the main railway line and two main trunk roads give access to South Africa. Keetmanshoop is considered as the capital of the south and has direct air and road links with Windhoek, its airport suitable for international air traffic. The airfield at Kolmanskop near Lüderitz is visited by Air Namibia on its flights to Cape Town and Windhoek. Well-developed landing facilities exist at Oranjemund. ǁKaras has 49 schools with a total of 20,110 pupils. According to the Namibia 2001 Population and Housing Census, ǁKaras had a population of 69,329 growing at an annual rate of 1.3%. The fertility rate was 3.1 children per woman. About 54% lived in urban areas, while 46% lived in rural areas, with an area of 161,215 km2, the population density was 0.4 persons per km2. By age, 11% of the population was under 5 years old, 20% between 5 and 14 years, 63% between 15 and 59 years, 6% 60 years and older.
The population was divided into 15,481 households, with an average size of 4.1 persons. For those 15 years and older, 69% had never married, 20% married with certificate, 2% married traditionally, 5% married consensually, 1% were divorced or separated, 2% were widowed; the most spoken languages at home were Afrikaans, Nama/Damara and Oshiwambo. For those 15 years and older, the literacy rate was 87%. Nearly 45 % of the population are from white Namibian groups. In terms of education, 52% of girls and 48% of boys between the ages of 6 and 15 were attending school, of those 15 years and older, 77% had left school, 7% were at school, 7% had never attended. In 2001, the employment rate for the labor force was 71% employed and 29% unemployed. For those 15 years old or older and not in the labor force, 28% were students, 40% homemakers, 32% retired or unable to work. According to the 2012 Namibia Labour Force Survey, unemployment in the ǁKaras Region stood at 23.9%. The two studies are methodologically not comparable.
Among households, 94% had safe water, 26% no toilet facility, 50% electricity for lighting, 81% access to radio, 35% had wood or charcoal for cooking. In terms of households' main sources of income, 7% derived it from farming, 69% from wages and salaries, 6% cash remittances, 5% from business or nonfarming, 10% from pension. For every 1,000 live births, 37 female and 56 male infant deaths occurred; the life expectancy at birth was 61 years for females and 54 for males. Among children younger than 15, 4% had lost a mother, 6% a father, 1% were orphaned by both parents. About 3% of the entire population had a disability, of which 22% were deaf, 29% blind, 10% had a speech disability, 13% hand disability, 27% leg disability, 7% mental disability
Glossary of rail transport terms
Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology. The difference between the American term railroad and the international term railway is the most significant difference in rail terminology. There are others, due to the parallel development of rail transport systems in different parts of the world. Various global terms are presented here; the abbreviation "UIC" refers to standard terms adopted by the International Union of Railways in its official publications and thesaurus. Adhesion railway The most common type of railway, where power is applied by driving some or all of the wheels of the locomotive Adhesive weight The weight on the driving wheels of a locomotive, which determines the frictional grip between wheels and rail, hence the drawbar pull a locomotive can exert Air brake A power braking system with compressed air as the operating medium Alerter or watchdog Similar to the dead man's switch other than it does not require the operator's constant interaction. Instead, an alarm is sounded at a preset interval in which the operator must respond by pressing a button to reset the alarm and timer if no other controls are operated.
If the operator does not respond within a preset time, the prime mover is automatically throttled back to idle and the brakes are automatically applied. All weather adhesion The adhesion available during traction mode with 99% reliability in all weather conditions Alternator An electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current American Locomotive Company The second largest builder of steam locomotives in the United States American type A steam locomotive with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement Angle cock A valve affixed to each end of a piece of rolling stock that, when opened, admits compressed air to the brake pipe Articulated locomotive A steam locomotive with one or more engine units that can move relative to the main frame Articulation The sharing of one truck by adjacent ends of two rail vehicles Ashpan A feature of a locomotive with the same form and purpose as the domestic variety; the only significant difference is the size, measured in feet rather than inches.
Asynchronous An alternating current electric motor whose speed varies with load and has no fixed relation to the frequency of the supply Atlantic type A steam locomotive with a 4-4-2 wheel arrangement Automatic block signaling A system that consists of a series of signals that divide a railway line into a series of blocks and functions to control the movement of trains between them through automatic signals Automatic train control A system that applies an emergency brake if the driver does not react to certain signals or speed restrictions Automatic train operation An operational safety enhancement device used to help automate operations of trains Automatic train protection A system that enforces obedience to signals and speed restrictions by speed supervision, including automatic stop at signals Autotrain A branch-line train consisting of a steam locomotive and passenger carriages that can be driven from either end by means of rodding to the regulator and an additional vacuum brake valve.
The fireman remains with the locomotive and, when the driver is at the other end, the fireman controls the cut off and vacuum ejectors in addition to his usual duties. See also: Push-pull train. Axlebox or axle box The housing that holds the axle bearings on a rail vehicle The housing that attaches to the end of the axle to the bogie and contains the bearing on which the axle rotates See journal box below. Backhead The cab-side rear panel of a steam locomotive boiler through which the firebox is accessed. Bad order A note applied to a defective piece of equipment. Equipment tagged as bad order must not be used until repaired and approved for use. Bail off To release the locomotive brakes while the train brakes are applied, to permit smoother handling and prevent excessive slack, wheel slide and flat wheels Balancing The reciprocation and revolving masses of any steam, diesel or electric locomotive need balancing, if it is to work smoothly. Revolving masses can be balanced by counterweights, but the balancing of reciprocating parts is a matter of compromise and judgement.
Balise A transponder, used as a intermittent data point in an automatic train protection system or as reference point for train location in radio-based train control Ballast Aggregate stone, gravel, or cinders forming the track bed on which sleepers and track are laid to ensure stability and proper drainage Ballast tamper See Tamping machine. Balloon A looped length of track at the end of a spur or branch, which trains use to turn around for the return trip without reversing or shunting. Can be used as part of a freight installation to allow the loading or unloading of bulk materials without the need to stop the train. Bay platform A platform and track arrangement where the train pulls into a siding, or dead-end, when serving the platform Beep A one-of-a-kind switcher locomotive built by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway in 1970 Bellmouth A widening of an underground rail tunnel, in preparation for future connection or expansion of service. Used in subway nomenclature. Berkshire type A steam locomotive with a 2-8-4 wheel arrangement Blastpipe A part of a steam locomotive that discharges exhaust steam from the cylinders into the smokebox beneath the chimney to increase draught through the fire Block section A section
Elizabeth Bay, Namibia
Elizabeth Bay is a mining town in southern coast of Namibia, 25 km south of Lüderitz. It was considered a ghost town. Diamonds were first discovered in the region around 1908; the mine had a projected life-span of ten years and was expected to produce 2.5 million cts of diamonds. The mine was opened by Dr. Sam Nujoma on 2 August 1991 and stopped being operational sometime around 1998. By 2000, the town was considered a ghost town and tours were run through it by Kolmanskop. In 2005 it was announced that the mine would be expanded, thus furthering its lifespan by eight years; the mine is operated by Namdeb Diamond Corp. It is owned jointly by the Namibia Government; as of 2009 the Elizabeth Bay mine was operating at a $76 million loss. Elizabeth Bay is home to forty percent of the world's Cape fur seals; the derelict theater building in Elizabeth Bay was filmed in a 2010 episode of Life After People: The Series, featuring Kolmanskop, another ghost town 30 km north of Elizabeth Bay. The episode focused on the effects of wind and sand upon the various run-down buildings and displayed rooms that were filled with sand.
A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry. Casinos are most built near or combined with hotels, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate over whether the social and economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated; some casinos are known for hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy and sporting events. The term "casino" is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators. Casino is of Italian origin; the term casino may mean summerhouse, or social club. During the 19th century, the term casino came to include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel, a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming; the Catalina Casino, a famous landmark overlooking Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, has never been used for traditional games of chance, which were outlawed in California by the time it was built.
The Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre; the Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant. In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers' mess; the precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance; the first known European gambling house, not called a casino although meeting the modern definition, was the Ridotto, established in Venice, Italy in 1638 by the Great Council of Venice to provide controlled gambling during the carnival season.
It was closed in 1774. In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons; the creation and importance of saloons was influenced by four major cities: New Orleans, St. Louis and San Francisco, it was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, gamble with. During the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada. America's first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in Atlantic City, now America's second largest gambling city. Most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age. Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in some cases with an element of skill, such as craps, baccarat and video poker. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players; this can be expressed more by the notion of expected value, uniformly negative.
This advantage is called the house edge. In games such as poker where players play against each other, the house takes a commission called the rake. Casinos sometimes give out complimentary comps to gamblers. Payout is the percentage of funds returned to players. Casinos in the United States say that a player staking money won from the casino is playing with the house's money. Video Lottery Machines have become one of the most popular forms of gambling in casinos; as of 2011 investigative reports have started calling into question whether the modern-day slot-machine is addictive. Casino design—regarded as a psychological exercise—is an intricate process that involves optimising floor plan, décor and atmospherics to encourage gambling. Factors influencing gambling tendencies include sound and lighting. Natasha Dow Schüll, an anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, highlights the decision of the audio directors at Silicon Gaming to make its slot machines resonate in "the universally pleasant tone of C, sampling existing casino soundscapes to create a sound that would please but not clash".
Dr Alan Hirsch, founder of the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago, studied the impact of certain scents on gamblers, discerning that a pleasant albeit unidentifiable odour released by Las Vegas slot machines generated about 50% more in daily revenue. He suggested. Casino designer Roger Thomas is credited with implementing a successful, disruptive design for the Las Vegas Wynn Resorts casinos in 2008, he broke casino design convention by introducing natural sunlight and flora to appeal to women. Thomas put in skylights and antique clocks, defying the commonplace notion that a casino should be a timeless space; the following li
Samsara (2011 film)
Samsara is a 2011 American non-narrative documentary film, directed by Ron Fricke and produced by Mark Magidson, who collaborated on Baraka, a film of a similar vein. Samsara was filmed over five years in 25 countries around the world, it was shot in output to digital format. The film premiered at the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival and received a limited release in August 2012; the official website describes the film, "Expanding on the themes they developed in Baraka and Chronos, Samsara explores the wonders of our world from the mundane to the miraculous, looking into the unfathomable reaches of humanity's spirituality and the human experience. Neither a traditional documentary nor a travelogue, Samsara takes the form of a nonverbal, guided meditation." Samsara is produced by Mark Magidson. The pair had reunited in 2006 to plan Samsara, they researched locations that would fit the conceptual imagery of saṃsāra, to them "meaning'birth and rebirth' or'impermanence'". They gathered research from people's works and photo books as well as the Internet and YouTube, resources not available at the time of planning Baraka.
They considered using digital cameras but decided to film in 70 mm instead, considering its quality superior. Fricke and Magidson began filming Samsara the following year. Filming took place in 25 countries across five continents. Three years into filming, the pair began editing it, they pursued several pick-up shoots to augment the final product. The crew used three 70 mm cameras for filming. While the scenes were captured on 65 mm negative film, they were output to Digital Cinema Package, a digital output. Magidson described the process, "We're doing a combination of what we think is the best of both technologies, the best way to image capture and the best way to output. Once we get into the digital environment, we're able to refine the imagery, we're able to save shots that we'd have to otherwise trash for various reasons." Where they cut their negatives for Baraka, the negatives for Samsara were scanned worked on digitally. The pair used the Telecine process to format the film to ProRes for the editing process and used Final Cut for editing.
The crew filmed from a bird's-eye view a scene of pilgrims surrounding the Kaaba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. A 40-floor building was constructed next to the mosque that surrounded the Kaaba, so the filmmakers were able to film the pilgrims with permission of the building's owner; the film's music was composed by Michael Stearns, Lisa Gerrard, Marcello De Francisci. Stearns collaborated with the filmmakers on Baraka and Chronos, Gerrard collaborated with them on Baraka. Unlike Baraka, Samsara was edited without music, the composers worked on numerous sequences as separate pieces; the filmmakers connected the sequences. Magidson explained of the pieces, "It's a piece of music you can listen to as music as well that interprets their feelings to know that imagery in that sequence visually, so they're kind of interpreting it musically." The scoring process lasted between seven months. Fricke and Magidson emphasized avoiding a particular political view in assembling the film. Fricke said, "We just try to keep it in the middle and we form little blocks of content and we set them aside until we had enough.
We did all of this without sound effects. We just let the image guide the flow and we started stringing the blocks together." Nicolas Rapold of The New York Times wrote that Samsara's lack of a specific message is "a departure from expansive, globally conscious nonfiction films in vogue now, like the critically acclaimed work of Michael Glawogger and Nikolaus Geyrhalter that serve as probing sociological critique." Samsara premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 2011. In March 2012, Oscilloscope Laboratories acquired the rights to distribute Samsara in the United States; the film had a limited release in two theaters on August 24, 2012. By its fifth weekend, Samsara had expanded to 60 theaters and achieved the highest-grossing documentary release of 2012. On October 14, distributor Oscilloscope Laboratories announced that at $1.8 million in box office earnings, Samsara had become the highest-grossing film in Oscilloscope's history. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 77% based on reviews from 77 critics and reports a rating average of 7 out of 10.
It reports the critics' consensus that "it's a tad heavy-handed in its message, but Samsara's overwhelmingly beautiful visuals more than compensate for any narrative flaws." At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 65% based on 23 reviews, reflecting "generally favorable reviews."Kenneth Turan, reviewing for the Los Angeles Times, called Samsara "as frustrating as it is beautiful." Turan expressed frustration that the filmmakers did not name the more obscure locations, such as the Cebu Provincial Detention and Rehabilitation Center in the Philippines. The critic took issue with some of the film's "disconcerting" images. Turan concluded, "Some of the connections made are too obvious, like following images of ammunition with a portrait of a wounded veteran, while others are elusive. Shots of the devastation Katrina left behind in New Orleans are beautifully spooky, but does it say anything useful to follow that with images of Versailles?
The makers of'Samsara'
The pfennig or penny is a former German coin or note, official currency from the 9th century until the introduction of the euro in 2002. While a valuable coin during the Middle Ages, it lost its value through the years and was the minor coin of the Mark currencies in the German Reich and East Germany, the reunified Germany until the introduction of the euro. Pfennig was the name of the subunit of the Danzig mark and the Danzig gulden in the Free City of Danzig; the pfennig is etymologically related to the English penny, the Swedish penning, model for the Finnish penni, the Polish fenig, the Lithuanian word for money pinigai and the pfenig of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The etymology of all of these is not clear, but seems to rely on the way coins were minted during the Middle Ages: the base material were thin flat metal discs; the value was embossed from one side - like coin. In some German countries, coins had similar but different names, as pfenning, pending and penny; this was for better handling due to different currencies used simultaneously.
As a currency sign a variation of the minuscule letter ‘d’ for ‘denarius’ in German Kurrent script was modified so the terminal end of the minuscule Kurrent ‘d’, that trailed at the top of the ascender in an anticlockwise loop, was instead brought down behind the right of the ascender, to form a descender, that hooked clockwise, thus making it a distinct symbol, different from any of the other Kurrent letters in its own right: ₰. The pfennig symbol has nearly fallen out of use since the 1950s, with the demise and eventual abolition of the Reichsmark with its Reichspfennig, to say nothing of the abolition of Kurrent by the National Socialists on 3 January 1941, thus making it cryptic as familiarity with Kurrent script has decreased since that time; the symbol is encoded in Unicode at U+20B0 ₰ GERMAN PENNY SIGN. In the 8th century Charlemagne declared. A single coin had a mass of 1.7 grams after the coinage reform of circa 790. Until the 13th century, the pfennig was made from real silver, thus of high value.
From the 12th century on, the German King was no longer able to enforce the regalia to mint coins, so many towns and local lords made their own coins. Less valuable metals and less metal per coin was used, so different pfennigs had different values. Within a few decades, two parallel denominations had developed: high-value Weißpfennige with over 50 percent of silver and low-value Schwarzpfennige with a high content of copper and little silver or no silver at all; some renowned coins made of copper are the Häller or Haller pfennig of Schwäbisch Hall, some centuries called Heller, minted throughout the country, the Kreuzer, minted in Austria and some regions of Upper Germany. By the late 17th century, the pfennigs had lost most of their value; the last pfennig coins containing traces of silver are rarities minted in 1805. The Mark gold currency, introduced in 1871 as currency of the newly founded German Reich, was divided as 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig; this partition was retained through all German currencies until 2001.
The last West German one- and two-pfennig coins were steel with a copper coating. The five- and ten-pfennig coins were steel with a brass coating; the latter was called a Groschen, while the five-pfennig coin, half a groschen, was regionally referred to as the Sechser, deriving from the former duodecimal division of the groschen. All four coins had their value imprinted on an oak on the reverse; the coins of the Mark der DDR were made of aluminium, except for the 20 pfennigs coin, made of an aluminium copper alloy. After the introduction of the euro, some older, Germans tend to use the term pfennig instead of cent for the copper-coloured coins; the pfennig ligature is defined and coded in Unicode as follows: Bracteate Penny Denier, the French penny