Golden Ring of Russia
The Golden Ring of Russia is a vast area in which old Russian cities are located in a ring-like arrangement and a well-known theme-route. The cities are located northeast of Moscow and were the north-eastern part of the ancient Rus'; the Golden Ring of Russia comprised the region known as Zalesye. The idea of the route and the term were created in 1967 by Soviet historian and essayist Yuri Bychkov, who published in the newspaper Sovetskaya Kultura in November–December 1967 a series of essays on the cities under the heading "Golden Ring"; these ancient towns, which played a significant role in the formation of the Russian Orthodox Church, preserve the memory of the most important and significant events in Russian history. The towns have been called "open-air museums" and feature unique monuments of Russian architecture of the 12th–18th centuries, including kremlins, monasteries and churches; these towns prominently feature Russia's onion domes. There is no official list of which cities make up part of the Golden Ring with the exception of the eight principal cities of Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Sergiev Posad, Pereslavl-Zalessky and Rostov Veliky.
In addition to this other old cities in the Ivanovo and Yaroslavl regions considered themselves as part of the ring, including Palekh and Shuya Gorokhovets, Gus-Khrustalny, Yuriev-Polsky and Rybinsk and Uglich. Some of the churches and monasteries are declared as World Heritage by UNESCO. In Russia, the area of the Golden Ring is one of the regions that has preserved many traditions and culture of ancient Russia to this day. Sergiyev Posad the only city in the Moscow Region to be included in the Golden Ring is Sergiev Posad, linked with the UNESCO-protected Troitse-Sergieva Lavra, founded in the 14th century by St Sergius of Radonezh; the Lavra is now one of the most important religious sites in Russian and St Sergius is one of the most revered native Russian saints. Pereslavl-Zalesskiy is the birthplace of Aleksandr Nevsky – a celebrated Russian hero and saint, it has links with Peter the Great who used to have a toy flotilla here on Lake Plescheevo. In addition the city boasts a beautiful 12th-century cathedral, earthen mounds and six monasteries, four of which are active.
Rostov Velikiy is known as Rostov-Veliky to distinguish it from the larger Rostov-on-Don. It is among the oldest of cities in Russia, having first been mentioned in chronicles in 862, its most impressive sight is the white-stone kremlin which stands on Lake Nero and is now a museum-reserve. The city has three monasteries and museums dedicated to the art of painting on enamel for which the city is famed. Yaroslavl is considered the unofficial capital of the Golden Ring and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is believed to have been founded in 1010 by Prince Yaroslav the Wise. The city’s main sight is the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery, now a museum and among its many beautiful churches the most famous are St Elijah the Prophet’s Church and the John the Baptist’s Church, both of which are beautifully decorated with frescos. Yaroslavl is just a 3-hour express train ride from Moscow. Kostroma Like Moscow, Kostroma is believed to have been founded by Grand Prince Yury Dolgoruky in the 12th century.
The city is most famous for its Ipatievsky Monastery which has links with the Romanov Dynasty as the first Romanov tsar – Tsar Michael – was here being anointing to reign. Kostroma is the Golden Ring city furthest from Moscow and can be reached by a night train from the capital. Ivanovo is both the most industrial of all Golden Ring cities; the city was known as Ivanovo-Voznesensk after the two villages which merged to form the new city in 1871. It is forever connected with its once-booming textile trade which led to the city being known as Bride City and Russian Manchester. Gus-Khrustalny Suzdal is referred to as an open-air museum for the number of old buildings that have been preserved and the lack of industrialisation. Several sights are protected by UNESCO as the White Stone Monuments of Suzdal. Highlights include the Spaso-Yefimiev Monastery, now a museum, the museums of the kremlin. In addition there are another four monasteries in the city. Vladimir As the former capital of medieval Russia, Vladimir is a historically important city.
It is somewhat more industrial than its neighbour of Suzdal but its Golden Gates, St Demetrius’ Cathedral and the Dormition Cathedral are UNESCO protected and masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. Rybinsk Uglich Myshkin AlexandrovMany of these cities are to be found along the M8 highway or can be reached from Yaroslavsky railway station in Moscow. Golden Ring of Russia route: overview, day trips, tourist maps. Golden ring of Russia: photos, maps Golden Ring travel overview Jeffrey Tayler, Escape to Old Russia: The Golden Ring, northeast of Moscow, offers a respite from the capital and an immersion in the past, The Atlantic, October 2006. Golden ring of Russia in English & Russian Golden ring of Russia: afisha Golden Ring travel guide from Wikivoyage
Battle of Kulikovo
For the opera'The Battle of Kulikovo' see Dmitry Donskoy The Battle of Kulikovo was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow. The battle took place on 8 September 1380, at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River and was won by Dmitry, who became known as Donskoy after the battle. Although the victory did not end the Mongol domination over Russia, it is regarded by Russian historians as the turning point when Mongol influence began to wane and Muscovite power to rise; this process led to Muscovite independence and formation of the modern Russian state. After the Mongol-Tatar conquest, the territories of the disintegrating Kievan Rus became part of the western region of the Mongol Empire, centered in the lower Volga region; the numerous Russian principalities became the Horde's tributaries. During this period, the small regional principality of Moscow was growing in power and was challenging its neighbors over territory, including clashing with the Grand Duchy of Ryazan.
Thus, in 1300, Moscow seized the city of Kolomna from Ryazan, the Ryazan Prince was killed after several years in captivity. After the killing of Khan Berdi Beg of the Golden Horde at 1359, a civil war had arisen there. Warlord Mamai, son-in-law and beylerbey of Berdi Beg, soon took the power in the western part of the Golden Horde. Mamai enthroned Abdullah Khan in 1361 and after his mysterious death in 1370 immature Khan Muhammad Bolak was enthroned. Mamai was not a Genghisid, as such his grip on power was tenuous, as there were true Genghisids with claims to mastery. Therefore, he had to fight for supreme power and at the same time struggle against separatism. While there was a civil war in the falling Golden Horde, the new political powers were appearing, such as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Grand Duchy of Ryazan. Meanwhile, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania continued its expansion, it competed with Moscow for supremacy over Tver and in 1368-1372 made three campaigns against Moscow.
After the death of Algirdas in 1377, his eldest sons Andrei of Polotsk and Dmitri of Bryansk began to struggle with their step-brother Jogaila for their legitimate right to the throne and entered into an alliance with the Grand Prince of Moscow. With the beginning of the Great Troubles in the Horde in 1359, Prince of Moscow Ivan II died and the new Khan of the Horde by his jarliq transferred the throne of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir to the Prince of Nizhny Novgorod, but the Moscow elite did not accept this. They used armed force and bribes to various Khans and as a result, in 1365, forced the princes of Nizhny Novgorod to give up claims to the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. In 1368, the conflict between Moscow and Tver began. Prince of Tver Mikhail used the help of Lithuania, in addition, in 1371 Mamai gave him a jarliq to the Grand Duchy of Vladimir, but the Moscow troops did not let the new "Grand Prince" enter to Vladimir, despite the presence of the Tatar ambassador. The campaigns of the Lithuanian army ended in failure and so the jarliq returned to Dmitry.
According to the results of the truce with Lithuania in 1372, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir was now recognized as the hereditary possession of the Moscow Princes. In 1375 the Prince of Tver once again received a jarliq for the Grand Duchy from Mamai. Dmitri with a strong army moved to Tver and forced it to capitulate. Mikhail recognized himself as the "little brother" of the Moscow Prince and ensure to participate in wars with the Tatars; the open conflict between Dmitry and Mamai began in 1374, the exact reasons are unknown. It is believed that the illegitimacy of the puppet khans of Mamai was by that time too obvious, he demanded more and more money, as he lost the war for the throne of the Golden Horde. In the following years the Tatars raided Dmitry's allies and the Moscow troops made campaign against Tatars over the Oka River in 1376 and seized the city Bolghar in 1377. In the same year "Mamai's tatars" defeated the army of Nizhny Novgorodl with an auxiliary detachment left by Dmitry at the Battle on Pyana River.
The Tatars began to raid Nizhniy Novgorod and Ryazan. Mamai continued attempts to re-affirm his control over the tributary lands of the Golden Horde. In 1378, he sent forces led by the warlord Murza Begich to ensure Prince Dmitri's obedience, but this army suffered crushing defeat at the Battle of the Vozha River. Meanwhile, another khan, seized power in the eastern part of the Golden Horde, he was ready to unite the entire Horde under his rule. In 1380, despite the threat from Tokhtamysh, Mamai chose to lead his army against the forces of Moscow. In preparation for the invasion, he entered into an alliance with Prince Jogaila of Lithuania. Ryazan Prince Oleg was defeated by Mamai in 1378, he had no strength to resist Mamai, Ryazan's relationship with Moscow had long been hostile. Therefore, in the campaign of 1380 Oleg took the side of Mamai, although this fact is sometimes challenged. Mamai camped his army on the bank of the Don River. In August 1380 Prince Dmitri learned of the approaching army of Mamai.
It is alleged. The interpretations of such an act are different; some believe that he did this, because in fact he was not a su
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight. They may be sensitive military establishments or secret research installations that require much more space or freedom than is available in a conventional military base. There may be a wider variety of permanent residents including close family members of workers or trusted traders who are not directly connected with its clandestine purposes. Many closed cities existed in the Soviet Union. After 1991, a number of them still existed in the CIS countries Russia. In modern Russia, such places are known as "closed administrative-territorial formations". Sometimes closed cities may only be represented on classified maps that are not available to the general public. In some cases there may be no road signs or directions to closed cities, they are omitted from railroad time tables and bus routes. Sometimes closed cities may be indicated obliquely as a nearby insignificant village, with the name of the stop serving the closed city made equivocal or misleading.
For mail delivery, a closed city is named as the nearest large city and a special postcode e.g. Arzamas‑16, Chelyabinsk‑65; the actual settlement can be rather distant from its namesakes. People not living in a closed city were subject to document checks and security checkpoints, explicit permission was required for them to visit. To relocate to a closed city, one would need security clearance by the organization running it, such as the KGB in Soviet closed cities. Closed cities were sometimes guarded by a security perimeter with barbed wire and towers; the fact of such a city's existence was classified, residents were expected not to divulge their place of residence to outsiders. This lack of freedom was compensated by better housing conditions and a better choice of goods in retail trade than elsewhere in the country. In the Soviet Union, people working with classified information received a salary bonus. Closed cities were established in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s onwards under the euphemistic name of "post boxes", referring to the practice of addressing post to them via mail boxes in other cities.
They fell into two distinct categories. The first category comprised small communities with sensitive military, industrial, or scientific facilities, such as arms plants or nuclear research sites. Examples are the modern towns of Ozyorsk with a plutonium production plant, Sillamäe, the site of a uranium enrichment facility. Soviet citizens were not allowed access to these places without proper authorization. In addition to this, some bigger cities were closed for unauthorized access to foreigners, while they were accessible to Soviet citizens; these included cities like Perm, a center for Soviet tank production, Vladivostok, the headquarters and primary base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet. The second category consisted of border cities. Comparable closed areas existed elsewhere in the Eastern bloc. Citizens were required to have special permits to enter such areas; the locations of the first category of the closed cities were chosen for their geographical characteristics. They were established in remote places situated deep in the Urals and Siberia, out of reach of enemy bombers.
They were built close to rivers and lakes that were used to provide the large amounts of water needed for heavy industry and nuclear technology. Existing civilian settlements in the vicinity were used as sources of construction labour. Although the closure of cities originated as a temporary measure, to be normalized under more favorable conditions, in practice the closed cities took on a life of their own and became a notable institutional feature of the Soviet system. Movement to and from closed areas was controlled. Foreigners were prohibited from entering them and local citizens were under stringent restrictions, they had to have special permission to travel there or leave, anyone seeking residency was required to undergo vetting by the NKVD and its successor agencies. Access to some closed cities was physically enforced by surrounding them with barbed wire fences monitored by armed guards. "Box" was the unofficial name of a secret Soviet facility much like the closed city, but smaller the size of a factory.
The "box" name was classified, as were the activities there. Incoming mail was addressed to "mailbox #XXXX", thus the name of "box". Most Soviet design bureaus for weapons, space technology, military electronics, etc. were "boxes". Russia has the largest number of closed cities; the policy of closing cities underwent major changes in early 1990s. Some cities, such as Perm, were opened well before the fall of the Soviet Union; the adoption of a new constitution for the Russian Federation in 1993 prompted significant reforms to the status of closed cities, which were renamed "closed administrative-territorial formations". Municipally
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Catherine the Great
Catherine II known as Catherine the Great, born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader. She came to power following a coup d'état which she organized—resulting in her husband, Peter III, being overthrown. Under her reign, Russia was revitalized; that said, she was a usurper of the Russian throne because her son, Paul I, should have been the Tsar following Peter III’s death. In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin. Assisted by successful generals such as Alexander Suvorov and Pyotr Rumyantsev, admirals such as Fyodor Ushakov, she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding by conquest and diplomacy. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo–Turkish wars, Russia colonised the territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas.
In the west, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherine's former lover, king Stanisław August Poniatowski, was partitioned, with the Russian Empire gaining the largest share. In the east, Russia started establishing Russian America. Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas, many new cities and towns were founded on her orders. An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernise Russia along Western European lines. However, military conscription and the economy continued to depend on serfdom, the increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs; this was one of the chief reasons behind several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev's Rebellion of cossacks and peasants. Catherine decided to have herself inoculated against smallpox by Thomas Dimsdale. While this was considered a controversial method at the time, she succeeded, her son Pavel was inoculated as well. Catherine sought to have inoculations throughout her empire stating: "My objective was, through my example, to save from death the multitude of my subjects who, not knowing the value of this technique, frightened of it, were left in danger."
By 1800 2 million inoculations were administered in the Russian Empire. The period of Catherine the Great's rule, the Catherinian Era, is considered the Golden Age of Russia; the Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility, issued during the short reign of Peter III and confirmed by Catherine, freed Russian nobles from compulsory military or state service. Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the Empress, changed the face of the country, she enthusiastically supported the ideals of the Enlightenment and is regarded as an enlightened despot. As a patron of the arts she presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment, a period when the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens, the first state-financed higher education institution for women in Europe, was established. Catherine was born in Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia as Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, her father, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, belonged to the ruling German family of Anhalt, but held the rank of a Prussian general in his capacity as governor of the city of Stettin.
Two of her first cousins became Kings of Sweden: Gustav III and Charles XIII. In accordance with the custom prevailing in the ruling dynasties of Germany, she received her education chiefly from a French governess and from tutors. Catherine was known by the nickname Fike, her childhood was quite uneventful. She once wrote to her correspondent Baron Grimm: "I see nothing of interest in it." Although Catherine was born a princess, her family had little money. Catherine's rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives who were both wealthy nobles and royal relations; the choice of Sophie as wife of her second cousin, the prospective tsar Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, resulted from some amount of diplomatic management in which Count Lestocq, Peter's aunt Elizabeth and Frederick II of Prussia took part. Lestocq and Frederick wanted to strengthen the friendship between Prussia and Russia to weaken Austria's influence and ruin the Russian chancellor Bestuzhev, on whom Empress Elizabeth relied, who acted as a known partisan of Russo-Austrian co-operation.
Catherine first met Peter III at the age of 10. Based on her writings, she found, she disliked his fondness for alcohol at such a young age. Peter still played with toy soldiers. Catherine wrote that she stayed at one end of the castle, Peter at the other; the diplomatic intrigue failed due to the intervention of Sophie's mother, Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. Historical accounts portray Johanna as a abusive woman who loved gossip and court intrigues, her hunger for fame centred on her daughter's prospects of becoming empress of Russia, but she infuriated Empress Elizabeth, who banned her from the country for spying for King Frederick of Prussia. The Empress Elizabeth knew the family well: she had intended to marry Princess Johanna's brother Charles Augustus, who had died of smallpox in 1727 before the wedding could take place. In spite of Johanna's interference, Empress Elizabeth took a strong liking to the daughter, who, o
Kolomensky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-six in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders with Lukhovitsky, Stupinsky and with Yegoryevsky Districts and the territory of the City of Kolomna; the area of the district is 1,112.28 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the city of Kolomna. Population: 44,856 . Main rivers flowing through the district are the Moskva, they are clean. The district was established in 1929. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kolomensky District is one of the thirty-six in the oblast; the city of Kolomna serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as a city under oblast jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Kolomensky Municipal District. Kolomna City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated separately from the district as Kolomna Urban Okrug.
Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №72/2015-ОЗ от 5 мая 2015 г. «Об отнесении города Озёры Озёрского района Московской области к категории города областного подчинения Московской области, упразднении Озёрского района Московской области и внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г.. Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г..
Московская областная Дума. Закон №43/2005-ОЗ от 15 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Коломенского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №121/2011-ОЗ от 14 июля 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Коломенского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №35, 26 февраля 2005 г.. Московская областная Дума. Закон №153/2004-ОЗ от 25 ноября 2004 г. «О статусе и границе городского округа Коломна», в ред. Закона №52/2010-ОЗ от 6 мая 2010 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границе городского округа Коломна" и Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Коломенского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №231, 4 декабря 2004 г