Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon was a Frankish knight and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, he refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Jesus Christ, preferring the title of Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre. He is known as the "Baron of the Holy Sepulchre" and the "Crusader King". Godfrey of Bouillon was born around 1060 as the second son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, Ida, daughter of the Lotharingian duke Godfrey the Bearded by his first wife, Doda, his birthplace was Boulogne-sur-Mer, although one 13th-century chronicler cites Baisy, a town in what is now Walloon Brabant, Belgium. As second son, he had fewer opportunities than his older brother and seemed destined to become just one more minor knight in service to a rich landed nobleman.
However his maternal uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, died childless and named his nephew, Godfrey of Bouillon, as his heir and next in line to his Duchy of Lower Lorraine. This duchy was an important one at the time, serving as a buffer between the kingdom of France and the German lands. In fact, Lower Lorraine was so important to the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire that Henry IV, the German king and future emperor, decided in 1076 that he would place it in the hands of his own son and give Godfrey only Bouillon and the Margraviate of Antwerp as a test of Godfrey's abilities and loyalty. Godfrey served Henry IV loyally, supporting him when Pope Gregory VII was battling the German king in the Investiture Controversy. Godfrey fought alongside Henry and his forces against the rival forces of Rudolf of Swabia and took part in battles in Italy when Henry IV took Rome away from the pope. A major test of Godfrey’s leadership skills was shown in his battles to defend his inheritance against a significant array of enemies.
In 1076 he had succeeded as designated heir to the Lotharingian lands of his uncle, Godfrey the Hunchback, Godfrey was struggling to maintain control over the lands that Henry IV had not taken away from him. Claims were raised by his uncle's estranged widow, Matilda of Tuscany, Albert III, Count of Namur, Theoderic Flamens, Count of Veluwe; this coalition was joined by Theoderic, Bishop of Verdun, two minor counts attempting to share in the spoils: Waleran, Count of Arlon and Limburg, Arnold I, Count of Chiny. As these enemies outside the family tried to take away portions of his land, Godfrey's brothers and Baldwin, both came to his aid. Following these long struggles and proving that he was a loyal subject to Henry IV, Godfrey won back his duchy of Lower Lorraine in 1087. Still, Godfrey's influence in the German kingdom would have been minimal if it had not been for his major role in the First Crusade. In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim forces and to aid the Byzantine Empire, under Muslim attack.
Godfrey took out loans on most of his lands, or sold them, to the bishop of Liège and the bishop of Verdun. With this money he gathered thousands of knights to fight in the Holy Land as the Army of Godfrey of Bouillon. In this he was joined by his older brother and his younger brother, who had no lands in Europe, he was not the only major nobleman to gather such an army. Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse known as Raymond of Saint-Gilles, created the largest army. At age 55, Raymond was the oldest and the best known of the Crusader nobles; because of his age and fame, Raymond expected to be the leader of the entire First Crusade. Adhemar, the papal legate and bishop of Le Puy, travelled with him. There was the fiery Bohemond, a Norman knight from southern Italy, a fourth group under Robert II, Count of Flanders; each of these armies travelled separately: some went southeast across Europe through Hungary and others sailed across the Adriatic Sea from southern Italy. Pope Urban II's call for the crusade had spurred antisemitism.
In the People's Crusade, beginning in the spring and early summer of 1096, bands of peasants and low-ranking knights set off early for Jerusalem on their own, persecuted Jews during the Rhineland massacres. Godfrey, along with his two brothers, started in August 1096 at the head of an army from Lorraine along "Charlemagne's road", as Urban II seems to have called it —the road to Jerusalem. A Hebrew text known to modern scholars as the Solomon bar Simson Chronicle, which seems to have been written more than 50 years after the events, says of the Duke: "It was at this time that Duke Godfrey, may his bones be ground to dust, arose in the hardness of his spirit, driven by a wantoness to go with those journeying to the profane shrine, vowing to go on this journey only after avenging the blood of the crucified one by shedding Jewish blood and eradicating any trace of those bearing the name'Jew,' thus assuaging his own burning wrath." After being notified of Godfrey's pledge by a messenger from Kalonymus ben Meshullam, Emperor Henry IV issued an order prohibiting any harm to the Jewish communities.
Solomon bar Simson asserted that Godfrey claimed he had never intended to harm Jews, but the Jews in Mainz and Cologne each gave him a bribe of 500 silver marks, Godfre
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs, was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia, were targets of the First Crusade; the Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz Turks, who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy, in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan. During the 10th century, due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities; when Seljuq, the leader of the Seljuq clan, had a falling out with Yabghu, the supreme chieftain of the Oghuz, he split his clan off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz and set up camp on the west bank of the lower Syr Darya. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam. In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire.
In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania. The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, were given the title of dehqan. At the Battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51, they established an empire called the Great Seljuk Empire; the Seljuqs mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and Persian language in the following decades. After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government, played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art and language. They are regarded as the partial ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan and Turkey.
The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia. Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, the governor of Khurasan at the time being the senior member of the family, became the Great Seljuq Sultan; the rulers of western Persia, who maintained a loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids. Mahmud II 1118–1131 1131–1134 disputed between: Dawud Mas'ud 1131 Toghrul II 1132–1134 Mas'ud 1133–1152 Malik Shah III 1152–1153 Muhammad II Suleiman Shah 1160–1161 Arslan Shah 1161–1174 Toghrul III 1174–1194In 1194, Tugrul III was killed in battle with the Khwarezm Shah, who annexed Hamadan. Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Between 1053 and 1154, the territory included Umman. Qawurd 1041–1073 Kerman Shah 1073–1074 Sultan Shah 1074–1075 Hussain Omar 1075–1084 Turan Shah I 1084–1096 Iran-Shah 1096–1101 Arslan Shah I 1101–1142 Mehmed I 1142–1156 Toğrül Shah 1156–1169 Bahram Shah 1169–1174 Arslan Shah II 1174–1176 Turan Shah II 1176–1183 Muhammad Shah 1183–1187Muhammad abandoned Kerman, which fell into the hands of the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar.
Kerman was annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196. Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1085–1086 Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I of Great Seljuq 1086–1087 Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib 1087–1094 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1094–1095 Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan 1095–1113 Tadj ad-Dawla Alp Arslan al-Akhras 1113–1114 Sultan Shah 1114–1123To the Artuqids Sultans/Emirs of Damascus: Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi 1076–1079 Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1079–1095 Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq 1095–1104 Tutush II 1104 Muhi ad-Din Baqtash 1104Damascus seized by the Burid Toghtekin The Seljuq line having been deprived of any significant power ended in the early 14th century. Kutalmish 1060–1077 Suleyman I 1077–1086 Dawud Kilij Arslan I 1092–1107 Malik Shah 1107–1116 Rukn ad-Din Mesud I 1116–1156 Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II 1156–1192 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1192–1196 Suleyman II 1196–1204 Kilij Arslan III 1204–1205 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw I 1205–1211 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus I 1211–1220 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246 Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260 Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257 Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1284–1293 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1293–1294 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1294–1301 Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1301–1303 Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1303–1307 Seljuk Empire Sultanate of Rûm Ottoman dynasty List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Grousset, Rene.
The Empire of the Steppes: a History of Central Asia. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. P. 147. ISBN 0813506271. Peacock, A. C. S. Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation. W.. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Robert Guiscard was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become Count of Apulia and Calabria, Duke of Apulia and Calabria and Duke of Sicily, Prince of Benevento before returning the title to the Pope, his sobriquet, in contemporary Latin Viscardus and Old French Viscart, is rendered "the Resourceful", "the Cunning", "the Wily", "the Fox", or "the Weasel". In Italian sources he is Roberto il Guiscardo or Roberto d'Altavilla. From 999 to 1042 the Normans in Italy, coming first as pilgrims, were mercenaries serving at various times the Byzantines and a number of Lombard nobles; the first of the independent Norman Lords was Rainulf Drengot who established himself in the fortress of Aversa becoming Count of Aversa and Duke of Gaeta. In 1038 there arrived William Iron-Arm and Drogo, the two eldest sons of Tancred of Hauteville, a petty noble of the Cotentin in Normandy; the two joined in the revolt of the Lombards against Byzantine control of Apulia.
By 1040 the Byzantines had lost most of that province. In 1042 Melfi was chosen as the Norman capital, in September of that year the Normans elected as their count William Iron-Arm, succeeded in turn by his brothers Drogo, Comes Normannorum totius Apuliæ e Calabriæ, Humphrey, who arrived about 1044. Robert Guiscard was the sixth son of eldest by his second wife Fressenda. According to the Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, he left Normandy with only five mounted riders and thirty followers on foot. Upon arriving in Langobardia in 1047, he became the chief of a roving robber-band. Anna Comnena leaves a physical description of Guiscard: This Robert was Norman by birth, of obscure origins, with an overbearing character and a villainous mind, he was a man of immense stature, surpassing the biggest men. In a well-built man one looks for breadth here and slimness there. Homer remarked of Achilles that when he shouted his hearers had the impression of a multitude in uproar, but Robert’s bellow, so they say, put tens of thousands to flight.
Lands were scarce in Apulia at the time and the roving Guiscard could not expect any grant from Drogo reigning, for Humphrey had just received his own county of Lavello. Guiscard soon joined Prince Pandulf IV of Capua in his ceaseless wars with Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno; the next year, Guiscard left Pandulf, according to Amatus of Montecassino because Pandulf reneged on a promise of a castle and his daughter's hand. Guiscard asked to be granted a fief. Drogo, who had just finished campaigning in Calabria, gave Guiscard command of the fortress of Scribla. Dissatisfied with this position, Guiscard moved to the castle of San Marco Argentano. During his time in Calabria, Guiscard married his first wife, Alberada De Macon, known in Italy as Alberada of Buonalbergo, she was the daughter of Reginald I, Count of Burgundy known as Renaud I De Macon, Baron of Buonalbergo, Girard of Buonalbergo, his wife Alice of Normandy. Guiscard soon rose to distinction; the Lombards turned against their erstwhile allies, Pope Leo IX determined to expel the Norman freebooters.
His army was defeated, however, at the Battle of Civitate sul Fortore in 1053 by the Normans, united under Humphrey. Humphrey commanded the centre against the pope's Swabian troops. Early in the battle Count Richard of Aversa, commanding the right van, put the Lombards to flight and chased them down returned to help rout the Swabians. Guiscard had come all the way from Calabria to command the left, his troops were held in reserve until, seeing Humphrey's forces ineffectually charging the pope's centre, he called up his father-in-law's reinforcements and joined the fray, distinguishing himself even being dismounted and remounting again three separate times, according to William of Apulia. Honored for his actions at Civitate, Guiscard succeeded Humphrey as count of Apulia in 1057, over his elder half-brother Geoffrey. In company with Roger, his youngest brother, Guiscard carried on the conquest of Apulia and Calabria, while Richard conquered the principality of Capua. Soon after his succession in 1058, Guiscard separated from his wife Alberada because they were related within the prohibited degrees.
Shortly after, he married the sister of Gisulf II of Salerno, Guaimar's successor. In return for giving him his sister's hand, Gisulf demanded that Guiscard destroy two castles of his brother William, count of the Principate, which had encroached on Gisulf's territory; the reformist Papacy, at odds with the Holy Roman Emperor and the Roman nobility itself, resolved to recognize the Normans and secure them as allies. Therefore, at the Council of Melfi, on 23 August 1059, Pope Nicholas II invested Guiscard as duke of Apulia and Sicily. Guiscard, now "by the Grace of God and St Peter duke of Apulia and Calabria and, if either aid me, future lord of Sicily", agreed to hold his titles and lands by annual rent of the Holy See and to maintain its cause. In the next twenty years he undertook a series of
Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos, Latinized Alexius I Comnenus, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power. Inheriting a collapsing empire and faced with constant warfare during his reign against both the Seljuq Turks in Asia Minor and the Normans in the western Balkans, Alexios was able to curb the Byzantine decline and begin the military and territorial recovery known as the Komnenian restoration; the basis for this recovery were various reforms initiated by Alexios. His appeals to Western Europe for help against the Turks were the catalyst that contributed to the convoking of the Crusades. Alexios was the son of the Domestic of the Schools John Komnenos and Anna Dalassene, the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos. Alexios' father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, thus succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Under one of these emperors, Romanos IV Diogenes, Alexios served with distinction against the Seljuq Turks.
Under Michael VII Doukas Parapinakes and Nikephoros III Botaneiates, he was employed, along with his elder brother Isaac, against rebels in Asia Minor, in Epirus. In 1074, western mercenaries led by Roussel de Bailleul rebelled in Asia Minor, but Alexios subdued them by 1076. In 1078, he was appointed commander of the field army in the West by Nikephoros III. In this capacity, Alexios defeated the rebellions of Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder and Nikephoros Basilakes, the first at the Battle of Kalavrye and the latter in a surprise night attack on his camp. Alexios was ordered to march against his brother-in-law Nikephoros Melissenos in Asia Minor but refused to fight his kinsman; this did not, lead to a demotion, as Alexios was needed to counter the expected invasion of the Normans of Southern Italy, led by Robert Guiscard. While Byzantine troops were assembling for the expedition, the Doukas faction at court approached Alexios and convinced him to join a conspiracy against Nikephoros III; the mother of Alexios, Anna Dalassene, was to play a prominent role in this coup d'état of 1081, along with the current empress, Maria of Alania.
First married to Michael VII Doukas and secondly to Nikephoros III Botaneiates, she was preoccupied with the future of her son by Michael VII, Constantine Doukas. Nikephoros III intended to leave the throne to one of his close relatives, this resulted in Maria's ambivalence and alliance with the Komnenoi, though the real driving force behind this political alliance was Anna Dalassene; the empress was closely connected to the Komnenoi through Maria's cousin Irene's marriage to Isaac Komnenos, so the Komnenoi brothers were able to see her under the pretense of a friendly family visit. Furthermore, to aid the conspiracy Maria had adopted Alexios as her son, though she was only five years older than he. Maria was persuaded to do so on the advice of her own "Alans" and her eunuchs, instigated by Isaac Komnenos. Given Anna's tight hold on her family, Alexios must have been adopted with her implicit approval; as a result and Constantine, Maria's son, were now adoptive brothers, both Isaac and Alexios took an oath that they would safeguard his rights as emperor.
By secretly giving inside information to the Komnenoi, Maria was an invaluable ally. As stated in the Alexiad and Alexios left Constantinople in mid-February 1081 to raise an army against Botaneiates. However, when the time came and surreptitiously mobilized the remainder of the family and took refuge in the Hagia Sophia. From there she negotiated with the emperor for the safety of family members left in the capital, while protesting her sons' innocence of hostile actions. Under the falsehood of making a vesperal visit to worship at the church, she deliberately excluded the grandson of Botaneiates and his loyal tutor, met with Alexios and Isaac, fled for the forum of Constantine; the tutor discovered they were missing and found them on the palace grounds, but Anna was able to convince him that they would return to the palace shortly. To gain entrance to both the outer and inner sanctuary of the church, the women pretended to the gatekeepers that they were pilgrims from Cappadocia who had spent all their funds and wanted to worship before starting their return trip.
However, before they were to gain entry into the sanctuary and royal guards caught up with them to summon them back to the palace. Anna protested that the family was in fear for their lives, her sons were loyal subjects, had learned of a plot by enemies of the Komnenoi to have them both blinded and had, fled the capital so they may continue to be of loyal service to the emperor, she refused to go with them and demanded that they allow her to pray to the Mother of God for protection. This request was granted and Anna manifested her true theatrical and manipulative capabilities: She was allowed to enter; as if she were weighed down with old age and worn out by grief, she walked and when she approached the actual entrance to the sanctuary made two genuflections. Nikephoros III Botaneiates was forced into a public vow that he would grant protection to the family. Straboromanos tried to give Anna his cross, but for her it was not sufficiently
The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks; the resulting military expedition of Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade, not only re-captured Anatolia but went on to conquer the Holy Land, which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as the 7th century, culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The expedition was a reaction to the appeal for military aid by Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Urban's convocation of the Council of Clermont was dedicated to this purpose, proposing siege warfare against the occupied cities of Nicaea and Antioch though Urban's speech at Clermont in the testimony of witnesses writing after 1100 was phrased to allude to the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the Holy Land as additional goals.
The successful Princes' Crusade was preceded by the "people crusade", a popular movement instigated by Peter the Hermit in the spring of 1096. Mobs of peasants and laymen travelled to Anatolia where they came up against the Turks, on the way attacking populations of Jews in the Rhineland, they were decisively defeated at the Battle of Civetot in October. The Princes' Crusade, by contrast, was a well-organized military campaign, starting out in late summer of 1096 and arriving at Constantinople between November 1096 and April 1097; the crusaders marched into Anatolia, capturing Nicaea in June 1097 and Antioch in June 1098. They arrived at Jerusalem in June 1099 and took the city by assault on 7 July 1099, massacring the defenders. A brief attempt by the Saracens to recapture Jerusalem was repulsed at the Battle of Ascalon. During their conquests, the crusaders established the Latin Rite crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Edessa.
This was contrary to the wishes of the Eastern Rite Byzantines, who wanted the land that the Muslims took from them returned, rather than occupied by Latin Catholics. After the retaking of Jerusalem, most of the crusaders returned home; this left the crusader kingdoms vulnerable to Muslim reconquest during the Second and Third Crusades. The causes of the Crusades in general, of the First Crusade, is debated among historians. While the relative weight or importance of the various factors may be the subject of ongoing disputes, it is clear that the First Crusade came about from a combination of factors in both Europe and the Near East, its origin is linked both with the political situation in Catholic Christendom, including the political and social situation in 11th-century Europe, the rise of a reform movement within the papacy, as well as the military's and religious confrontation of Christianity and Islam in the East. Christianity had been adopted throughout the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, but in the 7th to 8th centuries, the Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria and North Africa from the predominantly Christian Byzantine Empire, Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom.
In North Africa, the Umayyad empire collapsed and a number of smaller Muslim kingdoms emerged, such as the Aghlabids, who attacked Italy in the 9th century. Pisa and the Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean Basin, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign of 1087 and battles at Majorca and Sardinia. Between the years of 1096 and 1101, the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived in Constantinople in three separate waves. In the early summer of 1096, the first large unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople; this wave was reported to be ill-equipped as an army. This first group is called the Peasants' Crusade or the People's Crusade, it was led by Walter Sans Avoir. The second wave was not under the command of the Emperor and was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders. Together, this group and the first wave numbered an estimated 60,000; the second wave was led by Count of Vermandois, the brother of King Philip I of France.
Among the second wave were Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse and the army of Provençals. "It was this second wave of crusaders which passed through Asia Minor, captured Antioch in 1098 and took Jerusalem 15 July 1099."The third wave, composed of contingents from Lombardy and Bavaria, arrived in Jerusalem in the early summer of 1101. At the western edge of Europe and of Islamic expansion, the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was well underway by the 11th century, it was intermittently ideological, as evidenced by the Codex Vigilanus compiled in 881. In the 11th century foreign knights from France, visited Iberia to assist the Christians in their efforts. Shortly before the First Crusade, Pope Urban II had encouraged the Iberian Christians to reconquer Tarragona, using much of the same symbolism and rhetoric, used to preach the crusade to the people of Europe; the heart of Western Europe had been stabilized after the Christianization of the Saxon and Hungarian peoples by the end of the 10th century.
However, the breakdown of the Carolingian Empire gave rise to an entire class of warriors who now had little to do but fight among themselves. The random violence of the knightly class was condemned by the church, in response, it established the Peace and Truce of God to prohibit fighting on certain days of the year. At the same time, the reform-minded papacy came into conflict with the Holy Roman E
Nicaea or Nicea was an ancient Greek city in northwestern Anatolia, is known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the Nicene Creed, as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261. The ancient city is located within the modern Turkish city of İznik, is situated in a fertile basin at the eastern end of Lake Ascanius, bounded by ranges of hills to the north and south, it is situated with its west wall rising from the lake itself, providing both protection from siege from that direction, as well as a source of supplies which would be difficult to cut off. The lake is large enough that it could not be blockaded from the land and the city was large enough to make any attempt to reach the harbour from shore-based siege weapons difficult; the ancient city is surrounded on all sides by 5 kilometres of walls about 10 metres high. These are in turn surrounded by a double ditch on the land portions, included over 100 towers in various locations.
Large gates on the three landbound sides of the walls provided the only entrance to the city. Today the walls have been pierced in many places for roads, but much of the early work survives and, as a result, it is a major tourist destination; the place is said to have been colonized by Bottiaeans, to have borne the name of Ancore or Helicore, or by soldiers of Alexander the Great's army who hailed from Nicaea in Locris, near Thermopylae. The version however was not widespread in Antiquity. Whatever the truth, the first Greek colony on the site was destroyed by the Mysians, it fell to Antigonus I Monophthalmus, one of Alexander's successors to refound the city ca. 315 BC as Antigoneia after himself. Antigonus is known to have established Bottiaean soldiers in the vicinity, lending credence to the tradition about the city's founding by Bottiaeans. Following Antigonus' defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, the city was captured by Lysimachus, who renamed it Nicaea, in tribute to his wife Nicaea, who had died.
Sometime before 280 BC, the city came under the control of the local dynasty of the kings of Bithynia. This marks the beginning of its rise to prominence as a seat of the royal court, as well as of its rivalry with Nicomedia; the two cities' dispute over which one was the pre-eminent city of Bithynia continued for centuries, the 38th oration of Dio Chrysostom was expressly composed to settle the dispute. Along with the rest of Bithynia, Nicaea came under the rule of the Roman Republic in 72 BC; the city remained one of the most important urban centres of Asia Minor throughout the Roman period, continued its old competition with Nicomedia over pre-eminence and the location of the seat of the Roman governor of Bithynia et Pontus. The geographer Strabo described the city as built in the typical Hellenistic fashion with great regularity, in the form of a square, measuring 16 stadia in circumference, i.e. approx. 700 m × 700 m or 0.7 km × 0.7 km covering an area of some 50 ha or 0.5 km2. This monument stood in the gymnasium, destroyed by fire but was restored with increased magnificence by Pliny the Younger, when he was governor there in the early 2nd century AD.
In his writings Pliny makes frequent mention of its public buildings. Emperor Hadrian visited the city in 123 AD after it had been damaged by an earthquake and began to rebuild it; the new city was enclosed by a polygonal wall of some 5 kilometres in length. Reconstruction was not completed until the 3rd century, the new set of walls failed to save Nicaea from being sacked by the Goths in 258 AD; the numerous coins of Nicaea which still exist attest the interest taken in the city by the Roman emperors, as well as its attachment to the rulers. By the 4th century, Nicaea was a large and prosperous city, a major military and administrative centre. Emperor Constantine the Great convened the First Ecumenical Council there, the city gave its name to the Nicene Creed; the city remained important in the 4th century, seeing the proclamation of Emperor Valens and the failed rebellion of Procopius. During the same period, the See of Nicaea became independent of Nicomedia and was raised to the status of a metropolitan bishopric.
However, the city was hit by two major earthquakes in 363 and 368, coupled with competition from the newly established capital of the Eastern Empire, Constantinople, it began to decline thereafter. Many of its grand civic buildings began to fall into ruin, had to be restored in the 6th century by Emperor Justinian I; the city disappears from sources thereafter and is mentioned again in the early 8th century: in 715, the deposed emperor Anastasios II fled there, the city resisted attacks by the Umayyad Caliphate in 716 and 727. The city was again damaged by an earthquake in 740, served as the base of the rebellion of Artabasdos in 741/2, served as the