Komodo National Park
Komodo National Park is a national park in Indonesia located within the Lesser Sunda Islands in the border region between the provinces of East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. The park includes the three larger islands Komodo and Rinca, and 26 smaller ones, with an area of 1,733 km2. The national park was founded in 1980 to protect the Komodo dragon, it was dedicated to protecting other species, including marine species. In 1991 the national park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Komodo National Park has been selected as one of the New7Wonders of Nature. The waters surrounding Komodo island contains rich marine biodiversity, Komodo islands is a part of the Coral Triangle, which contains some of the richest marine biodiversity on Earth. Komodo National Park was established in 1980 and was declared a World Heritage Site, the park was initially established to conserve the unique Komodo dragon, first discovered by the scientific world in 1912 by J. K. H. Since conservation goals have expanded to protecting its entire biodiversity, the majority of the people in and around the park are fishermen originally from Bima, South Flores, and South Sulawesi.
Those from South Sulawesi are from the Suku Bajau or Bugis ethnic groups, the Suku Bajau were originally nomadic and moved from location to location in the region of Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku, to make their livelihoods. Little is known of the history of the Komodo islanders. They were subjects of the Sultanate of Bima, although the remoteness from Bima meant its affairs were probably little troubled by the Sultanate other than by occasional demand for tribute. The park comprises a section of western Flores, the three larger islands of Komodo and Rinca,26 smaller islands and the surrounding waters of the Sape Straights. The islands of the park are of volcanic origin. The terrain is rugged, characterized by rounded hills, with altitudes up to 735 m. The climate is one of the driest of Indonesia with annual rainfall between 800mm and 1000mm, mean daily temperatures in the dry season from May to October are around 40 °C. The hot and dry climate of the park, characterized by savannah vegetation and their populations are restricted to the islands of Komodo, Gili Motang, Gili Dasami, and Flores, while extinct on Padar.
Cloud forests appear only in few areas above 500 metres but they provide habitat to endemic flora. Coastal vegetation includes mangrove forest, which appear in the sheltered bays of the three larger islands. Fringing and patch reefs are extensive and best developed on the north-east coast of Komodo
A convict is a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court or a person serving a sentence in prison. Convicts are often known as prisoners or inmates or by the slang term con, while a common label for former convicts. Persons convicted and sentenced to non-custodial sentences tend not to be described as convicts, the legal label of ex-convict usually has lifelong implications, such as social stigma and/or reduced opportunities for employment. The particular use of the convict in the English-speaking world was to describe the huge numbers of criminals. Their crimes would today be regarded as petty misdemeanours, or are no longer in the criminal code, most of the punishments at this time were severe, with the death penalty applied for fairly minor crimes. However, this sentence was often commuted to a lesser one. Thus, in the British context, the convict has come to refer in particular to those criminals transported overseas. Initially many British convicts were sent to the American colonies, such as the Maryland, the transportation of convicts from the United Kingdom began around 1615 and became increasingly common in the following years.
Initially most people were transported to North America or the West Indies, from 1718 onwards transportation was entirely to North America. The arrangements ceased when the American Revolutionary War meant it was no longer possible for the United Kingdom to send convicts to North America, the British Government looked to the newly discovered east coast of Australia to use as a penal colony. Convicts were transported to Australia in 1787, arriving in Botany Bay, Sydney Cove, from the very start of European settlement convicts were used as indentured labourers in five out of the six colonies. Many were used on works, but a significant number were assigned to private individuals as domestic servants, rural workers. Transportation was progressively abolished from 1853, eventually ceasing altogether in 1868, in Australia, convicts have come to be key figures of cultural mythology and historiography. British convicts were sent to Canada, West Africa. France sent convicts to French Guiana and New Caledonia, russian criminals who were shipped to Siberia can arguably be regarded as convicts.
Convicted felon Convict lease Convict assignment Convicts in Australia Older prisoners Penal transportation Convict life - State Library of NSW Convict Transportation Registers database
The Komodo dragon, known as the Komodo monitor, is a large species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar. A member of the lizard family Varanidae, it is the largest living species of lizard, growing to a maximum length of 3 metres in rare cases. Their unusually large size has been attributed to island gigantism, since no other carnivorous animals fill the niche on the islands where they live, fossils very similar to V. komodoensis have been found in Australia dating to greater than 3. As a result of their size, these dominate the ecosystems in which they live. Komodo dragons hunt and ambush prey including invertebrates, and it has been claimed that they have a venomous bite, there are two glands in the lower jaw which secrete several toxic proteins. The biological significance of proteins is disputed, but the glands have been shown to secrete an anticoagulant. Komodo dragon group behaviour in hunting is exceptional in the reptile world, the diet of big Komodo dragons mainly consists of deer, though they eat considerable amounts of carrion.
Komodo dragons occasionally attack humans, mating begins between May and August, and the eggs are laid in September. About 20 eggs are deposited in abandoned nests or in a self-dug nesting hole. The eggs are incubated for seven to eight months, hatching in April, young Komodo dragons are vulnerable and therefore dwell in trees, safe from predators and cannibalistic adults. They take 8 to 9 years to mature, and are estimated to live up to 30 years, Komodo dragons were first recorded by Western scientists in 1910. Their large size and fearsome reputation make them popular zoo exhibits, in the wild, their range has contracted due to human activities, and they are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. They are protected under Indonesian law, and a national park, the Komodo dragon is known as the Komodo monitor or the Komodo Island monitor in scientific literature, although this is not very common. To the natives of Komodo Island, it is referred to as ora, buaya darat, the Komodo dragon was believed to have differentiated from its Australian ancestors 4 million years ago.
However, recent fossil evidence from Queensland suggests the Komodo dragon actually evolved in Australia before spreading to Indonesia, in the wild, an adult Komodo dragon usually weighs around 70 kg, although captive specimens often weigh more. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, an adult male will weigh 79 to 91 kg and measure 2.59 m, while an average female will weigh 68 to 73 kg. The largest verified specimen was 3.13 m long and weighed 166 kg. The Komodo dragon has a tail as long as its body and its saliva is frequently blood-tinged, because its teeth are almost completely covered by gingival tissue that is naturally lacerated during feeding
Sumatra is a large island in western Indonesia that is part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island that is entirely in Indonesia and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2, Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean borders the west and southwest sides of Sumatra with the chain of Simeulue, Nias. On the northeast side the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, on the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java. The northern tip of Sumatra borders the Andaman Islands, while on the eastern side are the islands of Bangka and Belitung, Karimata Strait. The Bukit Barisan mountains, which several active volcanoes, form the backbone of the island, while the northeast sides are outlying lowlands with swamps, mangrove. The equator crosses the island at its center on West Sumatra, the climate of the island is tropical and humid with lush tropical rain forest once dominating the landscape.
Sumatra was known in ancient times by the Sanskrit names of Swarnadwīpa and Swarnabhūmi, the first word mentioning the name of Sumatra was the name of Srivijayan Haji Sumatrabhumi, who sent an envoy to China in 1017. Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, which was a rising power until it was replaced by Sultanate of Aceh. Sultan Alauddin Shah of Aceh, on letters written in 1602 addressed to Queen Elizabeth I of England, referred to himself as king of Aceh, the word itself is from Sanskrit Samudra, meaning gathering together of waters, sea or ocean. European writers in the 19th century found that the inhabitants did not have a name for the island. The Melayu Kingdom was absorbed by Srivijaya, Srivijaya was a Buddhist monarchy centred in what is now Palembang. Dominating the region trade and conquest throughout the 7th to 9th centuries. The empire was a thalassocracy or maritime power that extended its influence from island to island, Palembang was a center for scholarly learning, and it was there the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim I Ching studied Sanskrit in 671 CE before departing for India.
On his journey to China, he spent four years in Palembang translating Buddhist texts, Srivijayan influence waned in the 11th century after it was defeated by the Chola Empire of southern India. At the same time, Islam made its way to Sumatra through Arabs, by the late 13th century, the monarch of the Samudra kingdom had converted to Islam. Marco Polo visited the island in 1292, and Ibn Battuta visited twice during 1345–1346, Samudra was succeeded by the powerful Aceh Sultanate, which survived to the 20th century. With the coming of the Dutch, the many Sumatran princely states fell under their control
The banded pig is a subspecies of wild boar native to the Thai-Malay Peninsula and many Indonesian islands, including Sumatra and the Lesser Sundas as far east as Komodo. It is known as the boar in Singapore. It is the most basal subspecies, having the smallest relative brain size, more primitive dentition and it is much smaller than the mainland cristatus subspecies, with the largest specimens on Komodo weighing only 48 kg. On the islands of Komodo and Rinca, its diet is varied, encompassing roots, grasses, fruits, snakes. It frequently eats crabs during low tide, piglets are born from December to March in litters of 2-6, and are raised in grass nests constructed by their mother. They are much less vividly striped than the young of S. s. scrofa, on the islands of Komodo and Flores, the banded pig is a primary food source for Komodo dragons
Pink is a pale red color which takes its name from the flower of the same name. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, pink is the color most often associated with charm, sensitivity, sweetness, femininity, when combined with white, it is associated with innocence. When combined with violet or black, it is associated with eroticism, Pink was first used as a color name in the late 17th century. The color pink is named after the flowers called pinks, flowering plants in the genus Dianthus, the name derives from the frilled edge of the flowers—the verb to pink dates from the 14th century and means to decorate with a perforated or punched pattern. The color pink has been described in literature since ancient times, in the Odyssey, written in approximately 800 BCE, Homer wrote Then, when the child of morning, rosy-fingered dawn appeared. Roman poets described the color, roseus is the Latin word meaning rosy or pink. Lucretius used the word to describe the dawn in his epic poem On the Nature of Things, Pink was not a common color in the fashion of the Middle Ages, nobles usually preferred brighter reds, such as crimson.
However, it did appear in fashion, and in religious art. In the 13th and 14th century, in works by Cimabue and Duccio, the Christ child was sometimes portrayed dressed in pink, in the high Renaissance painting the Madonna of the Pinks by Raphael, the Christ child is presenting a pink flower to the Virgin Mary. The pink was a symbol of marriage, showing a spiritual marriage between the mother and child, during the Renaissance, pink was mainly used for the flesh color of faces and hands. John’s white, as it is called in Florence, and this white is made from thoroughly white, and when these two pigments have been thoroughly mulled together, make little loaves of them like half walnuts and leave them to dry. When you need some, take much of it seems appropriate. And this pigment does you great credit if you use it for painting faces, the golden age of the color pink was the Rococo Period in the 18th century, when pastel colors became very fashionable in all the courts of Europe. Pink was particularly championed by Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France.
Who wore combinations of blue and pink, and had a particular tint of pink made for her by the Sevres porcelain factory, created by adding nuances of blue, black. In this painting, it symbolized childhood and tenderness, sarah Moulton was just eleven years old when the picture was painted, and died the following year. In 19th century England, pink ribbons or decorations were worn by young boys, boys were simply considered small men. In fact the clothing for children in the 19th century was almost always white, before the invention of chemical dyes, queen Victoria was painted in 1850 with her seventh child and third son, Prince Arthur, who wore white and pink
Bogor is a city in the West Java province, Indonesia. Located around 60 kilometers south from the capital of Jakarta, Bogor is the 6th largest city of Jabodetabek. Bogor is an important economic, scientific and tourist center, in the Middle Ages, the city served as the capital of Sunda Kingdom and was called Pakuan Pajajaran or Dayeuh Pakuan. During the Dutch colonial era, it was named Buitenzorg and served as the residence of the Governor-General of Dutch East Indies. With several hundred people living on an area of about 20 km2. The city has a palace and a botanical garden – one of the oldest and largest in the world. It bears the nickname the Rain City, because of frequent rain showers and it nearly always rains even during the dry season. The first mentioning of a settlement at present Bogor dates to the 5th century when the area was part of Tarumanagara and it was named Pakuan Pajajaran, that in old Sundanese means a place between the parallel, and became the predecessor of the modern Bogor.
Over the next centuries, Pakuan Pajajaran become one of the largest cities in medieval Indonesia with population reaching 48,000. The name Pajajaran was used for the kingdom. The chronicles of that time were written in Sanskrit, which was the used for official and religious purposes, using the Pallava writing system. The prasasti found in and around Bogor differ in shape and text style from other Indonesian prasasti and are among the attractions of the city. In the 9–15th centuries, the capital was moving between Pakuan and other cities of the kingdom, and finally returned to Pakuan by King Siliwangi on 3 June 1482 – the day of his coronation, since 1973, this date is celebrated in Bogor as an official city holiday. In 1579, Pakuan was captured and almost completely destroyed by the army of Sultanate of Banten, the city was abandoned and remained uninhabited for decades. The formal transition occurred on 17 April 1684 by signing an agreement between the Crown Prince of Banten and the VOC. The first, and temporal, colonial settlement at Pakuan was a camp of lieutenant Tanoejiwa, in a short time, several agricultural settlements appeared around Pakuan, the largest being Kampung Baru.
In 1701, they were combined into a district, Tanoejiwa was chosen as the head of the district and is regarded as the founder of the modern Bogor Regency. The district was developed during the 1703 Dutch mission headed by the Inspector General of the VOC Abraham van Riebeeck
Provinces of Indonesia
Indonesian territory is composed of 34 provinces. A province is the highest tier of the local government divisions of Indonesia, provinces are further divided into regencies and cities, which are in turn subdivided into sub-districts. Each province has its own government, headed by a governor. The governor and members of representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Five provinces have special status, for the use of the law as the regional law of the province. Special Region of Yogyakarta, a sovereign monarchy within Indonesia with the sultan Hamengkubuwono as hereditary Governor, SR Yogyakarta refused to call themselves as the province according to Law No. 12/2012 about The Speciality of Special Region of Yogyakarta, for implementation of sustainable development. West Papua, for granting implementation of sustainable development, the provinces are officially grouped into seven geographical units. This clickable map shows provinces of Indonesia as of 25 October 2012, click on a province name to go to its main article.
A considerable number of new provinces have been proposed in addition to the 34 existing provinces of Indonesia, as of 2013, the government has targeted the creation of eight new provinces by 2020, by splitting several of the existing provinces. On 25 October 2013, the Indonesian House of Representatives began reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies and 8 new provinces
Gunongan Historical Park
Gunongan Historical Park is located in the Aceh Province of Sumatra, Indonesia. This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on October 19,1995 in the Cultural category and it is a great place to visit in Indonesia. Gunongan Historical Park - UNESCO World Heritage Centre Accessed 2009-02-27, eliot, J & Jane Bickersteth, Sumatra Handbook, Footprint Travel Guides
Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. It is part of the province of West Nusa Tenggara, traditionally the island is known as the source of sappanwood used to make red dye, as well as honey and sandalwood. Its savanna-like climate and vast grassland is used to breed horses and cattle, Sumbawa has an area of 15,448 square kilometres or 5,965 square miles with a current population of around 1.39 million. It marks the boundary between the islands to the west, which were influenced by religion and culture spreading from India, in particular this applies to both Hinduism and Islam. The 14th-century Nagarakretagama mentioned several principalities identified to be on Sumbawa, Bima, four principalities in western Sumbawa were dependencies of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java. Because of Sumbawas natural resources, it was invaded by outside forces – from Javanese, Makassarese, Dutch.
The Dutch first arrived in 1605, but did not effectively rule Sumbawa until the early 20th century, the Balinese kingdom of Gelgel ruled western Sumbawa for a short period as well. Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, sappan wood for producing red dye, the area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally. In the 18th century the Dutch introduced coffee plantation on the slopes of Mount Tambora. Sumbawa is administratively divided into four regencies and one kota and they are, Islam was introduced via the Makassarese language of Sulawesi island. Sumbawa has historically had two major groups who spoke languages that were unintelligible to each other. One group centered in the side of the island speaks Basa Semawa which is similar to the Sasak language from Lombok. They were once separated by the Tambora culture, which spoke a related to neither. After the demise of Tambora, the kingdoms located in Sumbawa Besar and this division of the island into two parts remains today, Sumbawa Besar and Bima are the two largest towns on the island, and are the centers of distinct cultural groups that share the island.
The population of the island was 1.33 million at the latest decennial census in 2010, there are a number of large surrounding islands, most notably are Moyo Island, volcanically active Sangeang Island, and the tourist Komodo Islands to the east. There are a number of offshore islands which fall within the regencies based on Sumbawa Island. It is an island, including Mount Tambora which exploded in April 1815. The eruption killed as many as 72,000 and it apparently destroyed a small culture of Southeast Asian affinity, known to archaeologists as the Tambora culture
The Barelang Bridge is a chain of 6 bridges of various types that connect the islands of Batam and Galang, Riau Islands. Barelang refers to the islands themselves, which are all part of the municipality of Batam. The smaller islands of Tonton and Setotok connect Batam, the entire Barelang region covers 715 km². Some locals call the bridge Jembatan Habibie after Dr. Jusuf Habibie, the concept design for the 6 bridges were proposed by Bruce Ramsay of VSL. Dr. Overtime the bridge sites have grown more into a tourist attraction rather than a transportation route, the full stretch of all 6 bridges total to 2 kilometers. Travelling from the first bridge to the last is about 50km, construction of the bridges started in 1992 and took names from fifteenth to eighteenth-century rulers of the Riau Sultanate. The Tengku Fisabilillah bridge connects Batam and Tonton island and it stretches for 642 meters and is the most popular bridge of all, being a cable-stayed bridge with two 118 m high pylons and main span 350 m.
Tonton-Nipah Bridge is a bridge with total length 420 m. Setoko-Nipah Bridge is a bridge with total length 270 m. Setoko-Rempang Bridge is a bridge with total length 365 m. Barelang Bridge is a bridge with total length 385 m. Your best Batam Island Info guide
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with seismic and volcanic activity. Southeast Asia consists of two regions, Mainland Southeast Asia, known historically as Indochina, comprising Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar. Maritime Southeast Asia, comprising Indonesia, East Malaysia, Philippines, East Timor, Cocos Islands, definitions of Southeast Asia vary, but most definitions include the area represented by the countries listed below. All of the states are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the area, together with part of South Asia, was widely known as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea, Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, and is currently an observer. Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia and Maritime Southeast Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia includes, Maritime Southeast Asia includes, The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are geographically considered part of Southeast Asia.
Eastern Bangladesh and the Seven Sister States of India are culturally part of Southeast Asia, the eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago, homo floresiensis lived in the area up until 12,000 years ago, when they became extinct. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the population in Indonesia, Brunei, East Timor. Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD. The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of Austronesian descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years and their vessels, such as the vinta, were ocean-worthy. Magellans voyage records how much more manoeuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships, Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonisation of Madagascar by the Austronesian people, as well as commerce between West Asia and Southeast Asia.
Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome and this was replaced by Hinduism. Theravada Buddhism soon followed in 525, in the 15th century, Islamic influences began to enter. This forced the last Hindu court in Indonesia to retreat to Bali, in Mainland Southeast Asia, Burma and Thailand retained the Theravada form of Buddhism, brought to them from Sri Lanka. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture, very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the 2nd century BCE onwards. Prior to the 13th century CE, Hinduism and Buddhism were the religions in Southeast Asia