Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Wallpaper, stylized Wallpaper*, is a TI Media publication focusing on design and architecture, travel and lifestyle. The magazine was launched in London in 1996 by Canadian journalist Tyler Brûlé and Austrian journalist Alexander Geringer. Brûlé sold the magazine to Time Warner in 1997. Brûlé stayed on as editorial director until 2002. In 2003 Langmead appointed Tony Chambers as Creative Director. Chambers, a self-styled "visual journalist", replaced Langmead as editor-in-chief in April 2007. In September 2017, Chambers was succeeded by Sarah Douglas. Douglas has worked at the magazine for over a decade, joining as Art Editor in 2007 before ascending to Creative Director in 2012. Chambers, in turn, has taken on the role of Wallpaper* brand and content director. Apart from publishing the monthly magazine and website, the Wallpaper brand creates content, curates exhibitions and designs events for luxury clients, it offers a high-end interior design service, Wallpaper Composed, has published over 100 travel city guide books in partnership with Phaidon Press.
2015 saw the launch of the Wallpaper Store, an e-commerce platform offering the Wallpaper audience the opportunity to purchase a curated selection of the products seen on the pages. The Telegraph Newspaper called it'the Net-a-Porter of interiors'. Other notable names who have worked at Wallpaper include Marcus Von Ackermann, Suzy Hoodless, Alasdhair Willis. Wallpaper's website was launched in 2004 as an arm of the magazine. Since the website has grown exponentially in line with the rise of online media. Rather than publishing reformatted material from the magazine, it covers breaking news across design, art, fashion and technology, it publishes exclusive online features, blogs from global events by Wallpaper editors, a wide range of visual galleries. It has on average over 635,000 unique users per month. Aside from producing the monthly magazine and website, Wallpaper publishes global city guide books with Phaidon Press. There are over 100 different cities available; the city guides are published in English and there are editions available in French, Spanish, German and Japanese.
In 2007, to celebrate its 100th issue and reflect its multi-platform status, the logo's asterisk acquired a cursor in place of one of its arms. In August 2008, Wallpaper launched the Wallpaper Selects website in collaboration with contemporary online art retailer Eyestorm. Wallpaper Selects sells a selection of limited-edition photographs from the Wallpaper archive, signed by the photographer. In July 2011 launched an iPad edition of the magazine, available via the iTunes store. In September 2015 launched the Wallpaper Store, an e-commerce platform offering the Wallpaper audience the opportunity to purchase a curated selection of the products seen on the pages; the Telegraph Newspaper called it'the Net-a-Porter of interiors' In October 2015 Wallpaper celebrated its 200th issue since starting its print in 1996 In November 2015 Wallpaper US Bespoke Edition was launched. An edited version of the global edition, it is published quarterly and distributed to 250,000 high-net-worth individuals across the US.
Wallpaper Design Awards had 66 categories as of 2010. Official website
Ørestad is a developing city area in Copenhagen, Denmark, on the island of Amager. When the area was planned it was expected that 20,000 people would live in Ørestad, 20,000 would study, 80,000 people would be employed in the area. However, so far the area has failed to attract half of those numbers; the area is being developed using the new town concept with the Copenhagen Metro as the primary public transport grid, connecting the area with the rest of Metropolitan Copenhagen. Ørestad is noted for its attractive location and excellent infrastructure, which apart from the metro includes the Oresund Railway and Copenhagen Airport, as well as the nearby Øresund Bridge. The regional Oresundtrains reach Copenhagen Airport in six minutes, Copenhagen Central Station in seven, 29 minutes to Central Station in Malmö, Sweden's third largest city. Ørestad has once been referred to as "the largest crossroad in Scandinavia". However, Ørestad has been criticized for its modernist planning approach, focusing on real estate development and infrastructure connections.
This has resulted in open spaces that are void of any human life. The plans for the area have been remade several times to account for such mistakes, but so far without much success.Ørestad is divided into four districts: Ørestad Nord, Amager Fælled kvarteret, Ørestad City and Ørestad Syd. Among the most notable institutions located in Ørestad are the DR Village, the headquarters of the national Danish broadcaster DR, Copenhagen Concert Hall designed by Jean Nouvel, Field's, the largest shopping mall in Denmark, Bella Center, the largest exhibition and conference center in Scandinavia, with Bella Sky Hotel, the largest hotel in Scandinavia; the area of Ørestad is 3.1 square kilometres, being 5 kilometres long. The central part of Ørestad, Ørestad City, is located 4.5 km west of Copenhagen Airport Kastrup and 5 km south of Copenhagen city centre. Ørestad borders Islands Brygge to the north, Tårnby to the east, the extensive Kalvebod Commons to the west. The legislation regarding Ørestad was enacted in 1992 because the unused areas were regarded as being too valuable.
Ørestad Development Corporation was founded March 11, 1993 to manage the growth of the city district. The corporation is owned 55 % by 45 % by the Ministry of Finance; the development is expected to take 20 to 30 years at a cost of about €175 million, it is expected that 20,000 people will live in Ørestad, 20,000 will study, 80,000 people will be employed in the area. At the beginning of 2008, 53% of the area had been sold; the winning project of an international architectural competition held in 1994 revealed an overall masterplan for Ørestad, dividing the area into four districts. The Finnish design office APRT and Danish KHR Arkitekter established a joint-venture and presented a final plan in 1997; the first office building was completed in 2001. The first residential buildings were completed three years later. There are more than 3000 flats as well as 192,100 m2 of office space in Ørestad. In addition, a total of 13 buildings are under construction. Since the turn of the millennium, a total of 65 buildings have been built, including more than 3000 flats, 71,400 m2 for educational use and 65,000 m2 of retail stores in the whole of Ørestad.
Ørestad North is the most developed of the four areas of Ørestad. It is developed according to a masterplan by KHR Arkitekter from 1997 around a central "village green", the Landscape Canal and the north-south-oriented University Canal. Major institutions in the area include the DR Byen, which includes the Copenhagen Concert Hall, several educational facilities such as the IT University of Copenhagen and University of Copenhagen's Southern Campus. There are around 1,000 residential units in Ørestad North, half which are student housing in Tietgenkollegiet and Bikuben Kollegiet; the protected Amager Fælled district remains undeveloped. Ørestad City is the area in Ørestad which has seen the most new construction since 2001 when the Ferring Tower was completed as the first building. The dominating features in the area include the Field's shopping mall and the Bella Center convention and exhibition center. In 2006, Daniel Libeskind created a master plan for the remaining area of Ørestad City, referred to as Ørestad Down Town, located between Field's and Center Boulevard.
In 2009, the 709-room Cab Inn Metro Hotel was completed to the design of Libeskind as the first building in this project. Ørestad City has seen considerable construction of residential buildings since 2003, most of which are centered around Byparken. The most distinctive residential buildings in the area are the VM Houses and Mountain Dwellings by Bjarke Ingels and Julien De Smedt, while another noteworthy building is Ørestad College by 3XN. Ørestad South will be dominated by large-scale commercial buildings in the northern part and residential developments in the southern part. A new headquarters for international consulting firm Ramboll and the Crowne Plaza Copenhagen Towers hotel, part of the Copenhagen Towers development, are located just south of the Øresund highway. Both are designed by Dissing + Weitling. In the southernmost part of Ørestad South the 57,000 square kilometres mixed-use building 8 House by Bjarke Ingels Group and the residential building Stævnen by Wilhelm Lauritzen Arkitekter are located.
Within the next 5 years the remaining three building sites in Ørestad Nord are expected to go under construction. Only eight building sites remain to be built in Ørestad City apart from the so-called Libeskind site situated west and south of Field's
Walt Disney Concert Hall
The Walt Disney Concert Hall at 111 South Grand Avenue in downtown Los Angeles, California, is the fourth hall of the Los Angeles Music Center and was designed by Frank Gehry. It opened on October 24, 2003. Bounded by Hope Street, Grand Avenue, 1st and 2nd Streets, it seats 2,265 people and serves, among other purposes, as the home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic orchestra and the Los Angeles Master Chorale; the hall is a compromise between an arena seating configuration, like the Berliner Philharmonie by Hans Scharoun, a classical shoebox design like the Vienna Musikverein or the Boston Symphony Hall. Lillian Disney made an initial gift of $50 million in 1987 to build a performance venue as a gift to the people of Los Angeles and a tribute to Walt Disney's devotion to the arts and to the city; the Frank Gehry–designed building opened on October 24, 2003. Both Gehry's architecture and the acoustics of the concert hall, designed by Minoru Nagata, the final completion supervised by Nagata's assistant and protege Yasuhisa Toyota, have been praised, in contrast to its predecessor, the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion.
The project was initiated in 1987, when widow of Walt Disney, donated $50 million. Frank Gehry delivered completed designs in 1991. Construction of the underground parking garage began in 1992 and was completed in 1996; the garage cost had been $110 million, was paid for by Los Angeles County, which sold bonds to provide the garage under the site of the planned hall. Construction of the concert hall itself stalled from 1994 to 1996 due to lack of fundraising. Additional funds were required since the construction cost of the final project far exceeded the original budget. Plans were revised, in a cost-saving move the designed stone exterior was replaced with a less costly stainless steel skin; the needed fundraising restarted in earnest in 1996, headed by Eli Broad and then-mayor Richard Riordan. Groundbreaking for the hall was held in December 1999. Delay in the project completion caused many financial problems for the county of LA; the County expected to repay the garage debts by revenue coming from the Disney Hall parking users.
Upon completion in 2003, the project cost an estimated $274 million. The remainder of the total cost was paid by private donations, of which the Disney family's contribution was estimated to $84.5 million with another $25 million from The Walt Disney Company. By comparison, the three existing halls of the Music Center cost $35 million in the 1960s; as construction finished in the spring of 2003, the Philharmonic postponed its grand opening until the fall and used the summer to let the orchestra and Master Chorale adjust to the new hall. Performers and critics agreed that it was well worth this extra time taken by the time the hall opened to the public. During the summer rehearsals a few hundred VIPs were invited to sit in including donors, board members and journalists. Writing about these rehearsals, Los Angeles Times music critic Mark Swed wrote the following account: When the orchestra got its next in Disney, it was to rehearse Ravel's lusciously orchestrated ballet and Chloé.... This time, the hall miraculously came to life.
Earlier, the orchestra's sound, wonderful as it was, had felt confined to the stage. Now a new sonic dimension had been added, every square inch of air in Disney vibrated merrily. Toyota says that he had never experienced such an acoustical difference between a first and second rehearsal in any of the halls he designed in his native Japan. Salonen could hardly believe his ears. To his amazement, he discovered that there were wrong notes in the printed parts of the Ravel that sit on the players' stands; the orchestra has owned these scores for decades, but in the Chandler no conductor had heard the inner details well enough to notice the errors. The hall met with laudatory approval including its performers. In an interview with PBS, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Music Director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, said, "The sound, of course, was my greatest concern, but now I am happy, so is the orchestra," and said, "Everyone can now hear what the L. A. Phil is supposed to sound like." This remains one of the most successful grand openings of a concert hall in American history.
The walls and ceiling of the hall are finished with Douglas-fir while the floor is finished with oak. Columbia Showcase & Cabinet Co. Inc. based in Sun Valley, CA, produced all of the ceiling panels, wall panels and architectural woodwork for the main auditorium and lobbies. The Hall's reverberation time is 2.2 seconds unoccupied and 2.0 seconds occupied. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority has an agreement with the Los Angeles Music Center to use the most advanced noise-suppression measures for construction of the Regional Connector Transit Corridor subway under 2nd Street where it passes the hall and the Colburn School of Music. Metro will use procedures to ensure that the rumble of trains does not intrude on the sound quality of recordings made in the venues or mar audiences' musical experience within this sensitive stretch of the tunnel. Metro will build an elevated walkway from the station to the concert hall. After the construction, modifications were made to the Founders Room exterior.
The reflective qualities of the surface were amplified by the concave sections of the Founders Room walls. Some residents of the neighboring condominiums suffered glare caused by sunlight, reflected off these surfaces and concentrated
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air through the organ pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops. A pipe organ has one or more keyboards played by the hands, a pedalboard played by the feet; the keyboard and stops are housed in the organ's console. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate after a key is depressed; the smallest portable pipe organs may have one manual. A list of some of the most notable and largest pipe organs in the world can be viewed at List of pipe organs. A list consisting the ranking of the largest organs in the world - based on the criterion constructed by Michał Szostak, i.e.'the number of ranks and additional equipment managed from a single console - can be found in'The Organ' and in'The Vox Humana'.
The origins of the pipe organ can be traced back to the water organ in Ancient Greece, in the 3rd century BC, in which the wind supply was created by the weight of displaced water in an airtight container. By the 6th or 7th century AD, bellows were used to supply Byzantine organs with wind. Beginning in the 12th century, the organ began to evolve into a complex instrument capable of producing different timbres. A pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning the pipe organ's establishment in Western European church music. In England, "The first organ of which any detailed record exists was built in Winchester Cathedral in the 10th century, it was a huge machine with 400 pipes, which needed two men to play it and 70 men to blow it, its sound could be heard throughout the city." By the 17th century, most of the sounds available on the modern classical organ had been developed.
From that time, the pipe organ was the most complex man-made device — a distinction it retained until it was displaced by the telephone exchange in the late 19th century. Pipe organs are installed in churches, concert halls, other public buildings and in private properties, they are used in the performance of classical music, sacred music, secular music, popular music. In the early 20th century, pipe organs were installed in theaters to accompany the screening of films during the silent movie era; the beginning of the 21st century has seen a resurgence in installations in concert halls. The organ boasts a substantial repertoire; the organ is one of the oldest instruments still used in European classical music, credited as having derived from Greece. Its earliest predecessors were built in Ancient Greece in the 3rd century BC; the word organ is derived from the Greek όργανον, a generic term for an instrument or a tool, via the Latin organum, an instrument similar to a portative organ used in ancient Roman circus games.
The Greek engineer Ctesibius of Alexandria is credited with inventing the organ in the 3rd century BC. He devised an instrument called the hydraulis, which delivered a wind supply maintained through water pressure to a set of pipes; the hydraulis was played in the arenas of the Roman Empire. The pumps and water regulators of the hydraulis were replaced by an inflated leather bag in the 2nd century AD, true bellows began to appear in the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th or 7th century AD; some 400 pieces of a hydraulis from the year 228 AD have been revealed during the 1931 archaeological excavations in the former Roman town Aquincum, province of Pannonia, used as a music instrument by the Aquincum fire dormitory. The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the urghun as one of the typical instruments of the Eastern Roman Empire, it was used in the Hippodrome in the imperial capital of Constantinople. A Syrian visitor describes a pipe organ powered by two servants pumping "bellows like a blacksmith's" as being played while guests ate at the emperor's Christmas dinner in Constantinople in 911.
The first Western European pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent from Constantinople to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short King of the Franks in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning its establishment in Western European church music. Portable organs were invented in the Middle Ages. Towards the middle of the 13th century, the portatives represented in the miniatures of illuminated manuscripts appear to have real keyboards with balanced keys, as in the Cantigas de Santa Maria, its portability made the portative useful for the accompaniment of both sacred and secular music in a variety of settings. In the 11th century, the monk Theophilus described in his treatise, known as Schedula diversarum artium or De diversis artibus, all of th
Margrethe II of Denmark
Margrethe II is the Queen of Denmark, as well as the supreme authority of the Church of Denmark and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Defence. Born into the House of Glücksburg, a royal house with origins in Northern Germany, she was the eldest child of Frederick IX of Denmark and Ingrid of Sweden, she succeeded her father upon his death on 14 January 1972, having become heir presumptive to her father in 1953, when a constitutional amendment allowed women to inherit the throne. On her accession, Margrethe became the first female monarch of Denmark since Margrethe I, ruler of the Scandinavian kingdoms in 1375–1412 during the Kalmar Union. In 1967, she married Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, with whom she has two sons: Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim, she has been on the Danish throne for 47 years, becoming the second-longest-reigning Danish monarch after her ancestor Christian IV. Princess Margrethe was born 16 April 1940 at Amalienborg in Copenhagen as the first child of the Crown Prince and Crown Princess.
Her father was the eldest son of the then-reigning King Christian X, while her mother was the only daughter of the Crown Prince of Sweden. Her birth took place just one week after Nazi Germany's invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940, she was baptised on 14 May in the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen. The Princess's godparents were: King Christian X, she was named Margrethe after her late maternal grandmother, Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden, Alexandrine after her paternal grandmother, Queen Alexandrine, Ingrid after her mother. Since her paternal grandfather was the King of Iceland, she was given the Icelandic name Þórhildur; when Margrethe was four years old, in 1944, her younger sister Princess Benedikte was born. Princess Benedikte married Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and lives some of the time in Germany, her second sister, Princess Anne-Marie, was born in 1946. Anne-Marie married Constantine II of the Hellenes and lives in Greece. Margrethe and her sisters grew up in apartments at Frederick VIII's Palace at Amalienborg in Copenhagen and in Fredensborg Palace in North Zealand.
She spent summer holidays with the royal family in her parent's summer residence at Gråsten Palace in Southern Jutland. On 20 April 1947, King Christian X died and Margrethe's father ascended the throne as King Frederick IX. At the time of her birth, only males could ascend the throne of Denmark, owing to the changes in succession laws enacted in the 1850s when the Glücksburg branch was chosen to succeed; as she had no brothers, it was assumed. The process of changing the constitution started in 1947, not long after her father ascended the throne and it became clear that Queen Ingrid would have no more children; the popularity of Frederick and his daughters and the more prominent role of women in Danish life started the complicated process of altering the constitution. The law required that the proposal be passed by two successive Parliaments and by a referendum, which occurred 27 March 1953; the new Act of Succession permitted female succession to the throne of Denmark, according to male-preference cognatic primogeniture, where a female can ascend to the throne only if she does not have a brother.
Princess Margrethe therefore became heir presumptive. On her eighteenth birthday, 16 April 1958, Margrethe was given a seat in the Council of State, she subsequently chaired the meetings of the Council in the absence of the King. In 1960, together with the princesses of Sweden and Norway, she travelled to the United States, which included a visit to Los Angeles, to the Paramount Studios, where they met several celebrities, including Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis and Elvis Presley. Margrethe was educated at the private school N. Zahle's School in Copenhagen from which she graduated in 1959, she spent a year at North Foreland Lodge, a boarding school for girls in Hampshire and studied prehistoric archaeology at Girton College, during 1960–1961, political science at Aarhus University between 1961 and 1962, attended the Sorbonne in 1963, was at the London School of Economics in 1965. She is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Queen Margrethe is fluent in Danish, English and German, has a limited knowledge of Faroese.
Princess Margrethe married a French diplomat, Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, 10 June 1967, at the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen. Laborde de Monpezat received the style and title of "His Royal Highness Prince Henrik of Denmark" because of his new position as the spouse of the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, they were married for over fifty years, until his death on 13 February 2018. Margrethe gave birth to her first child 26 May 1968. By tradition, Danish kings were alternately named either Christian, she chose to maintain this by assuming the position of a Christian, thus named her eldest son Frederik. A second child, named Joachim, was born 7 June 1969. Shortly after King Frederick IX delivered his New Year's Address to the Nation at the 1971/72 turn of the year, he fell ill. At his death 14 days 14 January 1972, Margrethe succeeded to the throne at the age of 31, becoming the first female
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment