Koninklijke Philips N. V. is a Dutch technology company headquartered in Amsterdam with primary divisions focused in the areas of electronics and lighting. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891, by Gerard Philips and it is one of the largest electronics companies in the world and employs around 105,000 people across more than 60 countries. Philips is organized into three divisions, Philips Consumer Lifestyle, Philips Healthcare and Philips Lighting. As of 2012, Philips was the largest manufacturer of lighting in the world measured by applicable revenues, Philips said it would seek damages for breach of contract in the US$200-million sale. In April 2016, the International Court of Arbitration ruled in favour of Philips, Philips has a primary listing on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. It has a listing on the New York Stock Exchange. The Philips Company was founded in 1891, by Gerard Philips and this first factory has been adapted and is used as a museum.
In 1895, after a difficult first few years and near bankruptcy, though he had earned a degree in engineering, Anton started work as a sales representative, however, he began to contribute many important business ideas. After Gerard and Anton Philips changed their business by founding the Philips corporation. In the 1920s, the company started to other products. In 1939, they introduced their electric razor, the Philishave, the Chapel is a radio with built-in loudspeaker, which was designed during the early 1930s. On 11 March 1927, Philips went on the air with shortwave radio station PCJJ which was joined in 1929 by sister station PHOHI, PHOHI broadcast in Dutch to the Dutch East Indies while PCJJ broadcast in English and German to the rest of the world. The international program on Sundays commenced in 1928, with host Eddie Startz hosting the Happy Station show, broadcasts from the Netherlands were interrupted by the German invasion in May 1940. The Germans commandeered the transmitters in Huizen to use for pro-Nazi broadcasts, some originating from Germany, Philips Radio was absorbed shortly after liberation when its two shortwave stations were nationalised in 1947 and renamed Radio Netherlands Worldwide, the Dutch International Service.
Some PCJ programs, such as Happy Station, continued on the new station, by the late 1940s, the Type 10 was ready to be handed over to Philips subsidiary Johan de Witt in Dordrecht to be produced and incorporated into a generator set as originally planned. The result, rated at 180/200 W electrical output from a bore, approximately 150 of these sets were eventually produced. However, they filed a number of patents and amassed a wealth of information. The first Philips shaver was introduced in the 1930s, and was simply called “The Philishave”, in the USA, it was called the “Norelco”, which remains a part of their product line today
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Information technology is the application of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology, the term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that the new technology not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology, based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development, pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic. This article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940, devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick.
Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s, the electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the worlds first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronic digital computer, although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It lacked the ability to store its program in memory, programming was carried out using plugs, the first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948. The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, by comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes. IBM introduced the first hard drive in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is stored magnetically on hard disks. Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally, 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has been estimated that the capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly, one of the earliest such systems was IBMs Information Management System, which is still widely deployed more than 50 years later
Enghave Brygge is a waterfront area in the Souterhn Docklands of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located between Teglholmen to the south and Kalvebod Brygge to the north, currently an abandoned industrial site, a plan for its redevelopment was adopted in July 2013. The most prominent landmark in the area is the H. C, the land is owned by NPV A/S, JM Danmark samt By & Havn. The plan for the area has created by Juul Frost Arkitekter, Gröning Arkitekter. The area will comprise 2,400 apartments and about 37.800 square metres of commercial and retail space. A central element in the plan is the creation of a 700 metres long canal, Enghave Canal, the buildings along the water will be located on 11 individual islands. A greenspace will mark the transition to H. C, Enghave Brygge will be a station on the planned South Harbour Line of the Copenhagen Metro. Bridges will connect Enghave Brygge to Teglholmen to the south and across the harbor to the part of Islands Brygge
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology and it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is used in its plural form, telecommunications. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth, the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, and the Latin communicare, meaning to share.
Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, in the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could pass a single bit of information. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, in 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris. However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres, as a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. Homing pigeons have occasionally used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post is thought to have Persians roots and was used by the Romans to aid their military, frontinus said that Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul.
The Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons, in the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Java and Sumatra. And in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke invented the telegraph in 1837. Also, the first commercial electrical telegraph is purported to have constructed by Wheatstone and Cooke. Both inventors viewed their device as an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph not as a new device, samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837
Burmeister & Wain
Burmeister & Wain was a large established Danish shipyard and leading diesel engine producer headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded by two Danes and an Englishman, its earliest roots stretch back to 1846, over its 150-year history, it grew successfully into a strong company through the end of the 1960s. In the 1970s, global competitive pressures, particularly from the far east, in 1980, B&W became MAN B&W Diesel A/S, part of MAN B&W Diesel Group, a subsidiary of the German corporation MAN AG, with operations worldwide. The company still maintains operations at three sites in Denmark for manufacturing and licensing of its two-stroke engines. Hans Heinrich Baumgarten was from the town of Halstenbek near Pinneberg, in Schleswig-Holstein and he was apprenticed as a coffin maker by a farmer whose livestock he cared for. Later he was a carpenter before becoming a machine minder at the Danish newspaper Berlingske Tidende, shortly thereafter, in 1843 he was granted a Danish Royal Charter and what would become Burmeister & Wain was launched with the opening of a mechanical workshop in Copenhagen.
Carl Christian Burmeister was born into poverty, the son of a cook and restaurant keeper, he studied at the Polytechnical Institute in Copenhagen from 1836–1846, now the Technical University of Denmark. He had been awarded a scholarship abroad after recommendation following an assistantship to Hans Christian Ørsted who was there at the time. Burmeister joined the H. H. Baumgarten Company in 1846, which became a partnership with the opening of its engineering works, with Baumgarten as a co-owner, in 1865, William Wain joined what became B&W. In 1872 the company became A/S B&W, a limited liability corporation and that same year saw the founding of the Refshale Island shipyard. At this point, Baumgarten, as the first founder, became a director of the board of what he would see become Burmeister & Wain Maskin- og Skibsbyggeri in 1880. Wain, from Bolton, England had apprenticed as an engineer in his youth and he had worked for the Royal Danish Navy and the Royal Dutch dockyards. He came to have several designs to his credit within the company, production of stationary paraffin engines began in 1890.
Then, in 1898, a year after introducing it to the world, a test engine was built that same year. The 1903-1904 year saw delivery of their first diesel engine to the N. Larsen Carriage Factory, 1911-1912 saw the worlds first ever ocean-going diesel-powered ship, M/S Selandia, start her maiden voyage from Copenhagen to Bangkok with two B&W four-stroke main engines. The larger Teglholmen iron foundry was established in the 1920-1921 year to provide capacity for growth in the years of business acquisition. William Elmgreen worked at Burmeister & Wain in Copenhagen as a 20 year old apprentice in 1922 and his father Jens Peter Elmgreen had worked there in the 1890s. He recalled that at that time some 12,000 workers were engaged to build ships, manufacture diesel engines and he was one of 2,500 men on Refshale Island and repairing ships
The working class are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and in skilled, industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some jobs, and most service-work jobs. As with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and socialists, is that the class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labor-power. When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labor. For certain types of science, as well as scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups, Unskilled laborers, outworkers, a common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers, to define their own social class, in feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the class, a group made up of different professions, trades. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the social unit. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies, the social position of these laboring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested, particularly by peasants, for example during the German Peasants War, wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics. In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P, starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class. Since then, four major states have turned towards semi-market-based governance.
Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes, since 1960, large-scale proletarianisation and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes. Additionally, countries such as India have been slowly undergoing social change, karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production. He argued that they were responsible for creating the wealth of a society and he asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, and nurse children, but do not own land, or factories
The S-train is a type of hybrid urban-suburban rail serving a metropolitan region. Some of the larger S-train systems provide service similar to transit systems. There is no definition of an S-train system. S-trains are, where they exist, the most local type of railway stopping at all existing stations inside and they are slower than mainline railways but usually serve as fast crosstown services within the city. Most S-train systems are built on older local railways, or in some cases parallel to an existing dual track railway. Most use existing local mainline railway trackage, but a few branches can be purpose built S-train lines, S-trains typically use overhead lines or a third rail for traction power. In Hamburg the S-trains use both the methods, depending on which line is powered. Busy S-train corridors sometimes have sections of exclusive trackage of their own, a good example of this is the part of Berlins S-Bahn, which is regarded as a tourist attraction and has a special name, Berliner Stadtbahn.
However, in more lightly used sections outside the city center, the S-trains stop at all stations, while other mainline trains only stop at the largest stations. S-trains are generally service the hinterland of a city, rather than connecting different cities. The S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland constitutes the main railway system for Leipzig but connects to Halle. The Rostock S-Bahn is an example of a smaller S-Bahn system, many of the larger S-train systems have central sections that individual suburban branches feed into, creating high frequency corridors. For instance, on weekdays, the section of the Copenhagen S-train has five services connecting to. Further out from the parts of a city the individual services branch off into lines with distances between stations can exceed 5 km, similar to commuter rail. This allows the S-train to serve a dual purpose, local transport within a city center. The rolling stock used in S-Trains reflect its hybrid purpose. The interior is designed for short journeys with provision for standing passengers but may have space allocated to larger.
Integration with other local transport for ticketing and easy interchange between lines or other system like metros is typical for S-trains
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including sex. National LEB figures reported by national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB. In the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, LEB was 26 years, for recent years, in Swaziland LEB is about 49, and in Japan, it is about 83. But for those who survive early hazards, a life expectancy of 60 or 70 would not be uncommon, for example, a society with a LEB of 40 may have few people dying at precisely 40, most will die before 30 or after 55. In populations with high infant mortality rates, LEB is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Mathematically, life expectancy is the number of years of life remaining at a given age. It is denoted by e x, which means the number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x. Longevity, maximum lifespan, and life expectancy are not synonyms, Life expectancy is defined statistically as the mean number of years remaining for an individual or a group of people at a given age.
Longevity refers to the characteristics of the long life span of some members of a population. Maximum lifespan is the age at death for the individual of a species. Moreover, because life expectancy is an average, a person may die many years before or many years after the expected survival. The term maximum life span has a different meaning and is more related to longevity. Life expectancy is used in plant or animal ecology, life tables, an analysis published in 2011 in The Lancet attributes Japanese life expectancy to equal opportunities and public health as well as diet. The oldest confirmed recorded age for any human is 122 years and this is referred to as the maximum life span, which is the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years any human is known to have lived. Theoretical study shows that the life expectancy at birth is limited by the human life characteristic value δ. The following information is derived from the 1961 Encyclopædia Britannica and other sources, unless otherwise stated, it represents estimates of the life expectancies of the world population as a whole.
In many instances, life expectancy varied considerably according to class, Life expectancy at birth takes account of infant mortality but not prenatal mortality. Life expectancy increases with age as the individual survives the higher mortality rates associated with childhood, for instance, the table above listed the life expectancy at birth among 13th-century English nobles at 30