The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Lyngby station is a station on the Hillerød radial of the S-train network in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located centrally in Kongens Lyngby, with its large bus terminal, situated on the east side of the station, it is an important hub for public transport in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen. The station building contains an arcade with circa 15 stores. Lyngby Station opened on 1 October 1863 as the terminus of the first stage of Nordbanen, the small station building was designed byVilhelm Carl Heinrich Wolf. The railway was extended to Helsingør in 1864, the Lyngby-Vedbæk Railway opened in 1890. The station building was demolished in connection with the introduction of double tracks between Hellerup and Holte, a new and larger station building, located a little to the south of the old one, was built in 1890-91 to design by Heinrich Wenck and N. P. C. The rail line was electrified and converted S-train service in 1936, the terminus of the Lyngby-Vedbæk Railway was moved to Jægersborg. The old station building was demolished in 1956, Lyngby Bypass runs along the roof of the station building which is located on the east side of the railway tracks.
The building contains a 200 metre long shopping arcade with circa 15 shops with a floor area of 8,369 square metres. In 2012, DSB Ejendomme acquired the arcade from Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality. It was subsequently refurbished with the assistance of Gottlieb Paludan Architects, the shopping arcade was acquired by Nordic Real Estate Partners in 2014. Stores include rwo Fakta and Nettp supermarket, a Matas and a Lagkagehuset bakery. Lyngby Station is served by B and E trains, media related to Lyngby Station at Wikimedia Commons
Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV, sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648. His 59-year reign is the longest of Danish monarchs, and of Scandinavian monarchies, a member of the house of Oldenburg, Christian began his personal rule of Denmark in 1596 at the age of 19. He is frequently remembered as one of the most popular, Christian IV obtained for his kingdom a level of stability and wealth that was virtually unmatched elsewhere in Europe. He engaged Denmark in numerous wars, most notably the Thirty Years War, which devastated much of Germany, undermined the Danish economy and he renamed the Norwegian capital Oslo as Christiania after himself, a name used until 1925. Christian was born at Frederiksborg Castle in Denmark on 12 April 1577 as the child and eldest son of King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway. He was descended, through his mothers side, from king John of Denmark, at the time, Denmark was still an elective monarchy, so in spite of being the eldest son Christian was not automatically heir to the throne.
However, in 1580, at the age of 3, his father had him elected Prince-Elect, at the death of his father on 4 April 1588, Christian was 11 years old. He succeeded to the throne, but as he was still under-age a regency council was set up to serve as the trustees of the power while Christian was still growing up. It was led by chancellor Niels Kaas and consisted of the Rigsraadet council members Peder Munk, Jørgen Ottesen Rosenkrantz and his mother Queen Dowager Sophie,30 years old, had wished to play a role in the government, but was denied by the Council. At the death of Niels Kaas in 1594, Jørgen Rosenkrantz took over leadership of the regency council, Christian continued his studies at Sorø Academy and received a good education with a reputation as a headstrong and talented student. In 1595, the Council of the Realm decided that Christian would soon be old enough to assume control of the reins of government. On 17 August 1596, at the age of 19, Christian signed his haandfæstning, twelve days later, on 29 August 1596, Christian IV was crowned at the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen by the Bishop of Zealand, Peder Jensen Vinstrup.
He was crowned with a new Danish Crown Regalia which had made for him by Dirich Fyring. On 30 November 1597, he married Anne Catherine of Brandenburg, Christian took an interest in many and varied matters, including a series of domestic reforms and improving Danish national armaments. New fortresses were constructed under the direction of Dutch engineers, the Danish navy, which in 1596 had consisted of but twenty-two vessels, in 1610 rose to sixty, some of them built after Christians own designs. The formation of a national army proved more difficult, up until the early 1620s, Denmarks economy profited from general boom conditions in Europe. This inspired Christian to initiate a policy of expanding Denmarks overseas trade and he founded a number of merchant cities, and supported the building of factories. He built a number of buildings in Dutch Renaissance style
Fredensborg is a railway town located in Fredensborg Municipality, North Zealand, some 30 kilometres north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is most known for Fredensborg Palace, one of the residences of the Danish Royal Family. As of 1 January 2015, the town had a population of 8, the town of Fredensborg emerged outside Fredensborg Palace which was completed in 1722. The name, which means the Palace of Peace, was chosen to commemorate the termination of the Great Northern War, Fredensborg Station opened on the new North Line in 1868. Fredensborg Palace is mainly used by the Danish Royal Family in spring, many of the houses that line the street which leads up to the main entrance to the palace are listed. This is the location of Store Kro, an inn which reopened in 2014. Asminderød Church dates from the 12th century, the current tower dates from the 16th century. The Fredensborg Houses were designed by Jørn Utzon, the architect of Sydney Opera House, Fredensborg is home to two public primary schools, Holte Skole and Endrupskolen on Emdrupvej.
Fredensborg Municipality operates primarys schools in Karlebo, Humlebæk, the nearest upper secondary schools are Frederiksborg Gymnasium in Hillerød and Espergærde Gymnasium in Espergærde. Fredensborg station is located on the Little North railway line between Hillerød and Helsingør, the railway company Lokaltog operates the local train service with frequencies of twice an hour in the daytime on weekdays and once an hour in the evening and on weekends. National route 6, locally known as Hillerødvej and Helsingørvej, connects Fredensborg to Helsingør in the northeast and Hillerød, Fredensborg Kongevej links Fredensborg with Hørsholm to the southeast
Magasin du Nord
Magasin du Nord is a Danish chain of department stores. Its flagship store is located on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen, the company is a subsidiary of the British department store retailer Debenhams. The company traces its roots back to 1868 when Theodor Wessel and it was an immediate success and in 1871 moved to Immervad where the Aarhus store is still located. In 1870 the company opened a shop in Copenhagen in rented rooms in the mondain Hotel du Nord on Kongens Nytorv where Hans Christian Andersen had boarded from 1838 until 1847. The shop occupied a larger part of the hotel and the company adopted the name Magasin du Nord after it in 1879. In 1876 the two founded a textile manufactury in Nørrebro, Wessel & Fiala, which moved to Østerbro where it produced textiles for furniture. The factory has now been demolished, by 1889, Magasin du Nord had taken over the entire hotel. The executive architect was Olaus Mynster, the company opened branches throughout Denmark. In 1892, it had 50 stores all over the country, Wessel & Vett branch followed in Malmö.
The company was listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in 1952, Magasin du Nord took over its competitor Illum in 1991 but it was sold to Merrill Lynch in 2003. The company was controlled by Emil Vetts until the mid-1990s, to reduce its debts after a period with economic difficulties, the company chose to part with its buildings at Kongens Nytorv, in Lyngby and in Aalborg in a sale and lease back scheme. In 2004, Magasin du Nord was sold to an Icelandic consortium headed by Baugur Group, Magasin du Nord was acquired by Debenhams in November 2009 while Solstra kept the 20% share of Illum and all properties. In May 2010, Fiyaz took full ownership of Solstra, in December 2010, he sold the properties in Lyngby and Odense to ATP and PensionDanmark for an estimated price of DKK1.5 billion, keeping only the flagship building at Kongens Nytorv. Magasin du Nord has three stores in the Copenhagen area, located in the Fields shopping centre in Ørestad and in the suburbs of Lyngby. The chain further comprises branches in the cities of Odense and Aarhus, on 2 February 2013, an exhibition about Magasin du Nords history opened at the Kongens Nytorv store.
It illustrates more than 150 years of history in Denmark. It is run by the Magasin du Nord Foundation
The road originates in a royal road which was built in 1587 between Copenhagen and Frederiksborg Castle, Frederick IIs new North Zealand residence. The southern part of the road has now replaced by Lyngbyvej. Lyngby Omfartsvej is the continuation of Lyngbyvej, diverging from Helsingør Motorway just south of Vintapper Sø. Lyngby Kongevej was the first of a number of royal roads created by Frederick II, the royal roads were reserved for the king and his men, including the royal mail coaches and couriers. The roads were protected by locked boom gates, unauthorized use of the roads was originally sanctioned with confiscation of horses and load and with half a year of forced labour at Bremerholm or Spindehuset. Remains of the road can still be seen in Rude Skov. The road was created in 1584 to provide a link between Copenhagen and Fredericks new Frederiksborg Castle from where it was extended to Fredensborg and Helsingør. The road was opened to the public as a road in the 1767. The new road between Vibenhus and Fredensborg was completed in 1775, the road stretch today known as Lyngby Hovedgade was partly built over with houses in the 1780s.
Lyngby Kongevej remained a toll road until 1 June 1915, the southern part of the original road, has been expanded several times to cope with increasing car traffic. The southern part of the Helsingør Motorway was called the Lyngby Motorway until 2005, a number of old milestones, representing different periods, can be seen along the road. The oldest date from Ole Rømers time
Virum is a mostly residential, suburban neighbourhood in Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality, located on both sides of Lyngby Kongevej, approximately 15 km north of central Copenhagen, Denmark. The neighbourhood is bounded by Lake Furesø to the west, Holte in Rudersdal Municipality to the north, Brede to the east and Kongens Lyngby, Virum station is located on the Hillerød radial of the S-train network and is served by the Btrains. The village of Virum is first mentioned in a letter from 1186 but is no doubt considerably older. The name a place which is easy to defend. In the letter, Pope Clement III gives the Virum as well as other villages in the area tio to Bishop Absalon. Absalon soon ceded the villages to the Bishopric of Roskilde, the Bishop of Roskilde constructed the small castle Hjortholm at the site in circa 1250. The castle was destroyed during the Counts Feud in 1535, frederick III took over the estate in 1668. He renamed it Grederiksdal and constructed a hunting lodge at the site. The village of Virum was located where Virumgade is today and it belonged to the parish of Lyngby.
The land was divided into three areas called Geelsvang, Mellemvang and Høftevang which were suddivided into fields and crops were rotated in accordance with the three-field system, the marchy land down towards Furesøen was grazed by livestock. In 1682, it consisted of 13 farms, three houses with land and 14 houses without land, the modern suburb was planned in connection with the conversion of the North Line into an S-train line. The ambition was to create a healthy, well-functioning suburb with a population the size of a medium large Fanish provincial town, the centre of the new suburb was Virum Torv, a mixed-use development centred on a roundabout next to the station. It contained retail space, service functions and apartments and its northeastern corner was completed in 1939, its southeastern corner in 1943 and its southwestnern corner less than a year later. A cinema, Virum Bio, was from the beginning located in the building on the southeastern conrer, the same building contained an Irma supermarket.
Frederiksdal Castle is located in Virum and its main building was built from 1744–45 and was used as a summer residence for Foreign Affairs, Privy Councilor Johan Sigismund Schulin. The Schulin Family still owns the estate, Virum station is located on the Hillerød radial of the S-train network and is served by the Btrains. Brede Station in the outskirts of Virum is served by the Lokaltog service on the Nærum Line between Jægersborg in the south and Nærum to the north. Virum Church is from 1937 and was designed by Niels Skrivers
Dyrehavsbakken, commonly referred to as Bakken, is an amusement park near Klampenborg, but which belongs under Lyngby-Taarbæk Kommune, about 10 km north of Copenhagen. It opened in 1583 and is the worlds oldest operating amusement park, with 2. 5-2.7 million visitors per year, it is the second most popular attraction in Denmark, after the more widely known Tivoli Gardens amusement park. Residents of Copenhagen were attracted to the due to the poor water quality in central Copenhagen during this period. Many believed the natural spring water to have properties, and therefore Piils discovery drew large crowds. These large crowds attracted entertainers and hawkers, whose presence began the origins of amusement parks as are presently known, for a period the area that the spring was located on was not open to the public due to it being on royal hunting grounds. In 1669, King Frederick III decided to set up a park in the area and his son, Christian V. The area was named Jægersborg Dyrehave, its present name, in 1671, the park was off-limits to the general public under Christian V and this did not change until 1756, under Frederick V.
Open to the public once again, Dyrehavsbakken began to flourish. Bakken continued to grow throughout the Napoleonic Wars. Its popularity was aided by easier accessibility due to the development of steamships and railroads, as well as good publicity from poets. As the popularity of Bakken grew, its conditions worsened, as a result, some of the business owners, or tent owners as they are still called today, created the Dyrehavsbakken Tent Owners’ Association of 1885. The association improved garbage collection, restroom facilities, water supply, the association is still around today, and all businesses operating in the park are required to join. The entertainment options improved over time, cabarets such as Sansouci, which opened in 1866, and Bakkens Hvile, which opened in 1877, became increasingly popular. The 20th century brought other popular ventures, such as the Circus Revue, over time, more modern rides and entertainment options have been introduced. Bakken may have started as a place to get clean spring water, Bakken is home to six roller coasters, the most famous of which is Rutschebanen, a wooden roller coaster open since 1932.
Rutschebanen has been deemed an American Coaster Enthusiasts Coaster Classic, the park is home to dozens of other flat, or amusement, rides suited for all ages. Each of the rides requires a number of coupons. Bumper Cars - bumper cars Crazy Theater - indoor laser shoot-out, 5D Cimema - shows 4 different movies, each about 10 –12 minutes long
Frederiksdal is a country house on the Furesø Lake north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Frederiksdal takes its name after King Frederick III who in 1668 acquired the land which had been the site of a mill, Hjortholm Mill. The king had plans to build a large maison de plaisance in the grounds but died in 1780, on 30 December 1743, Schulin was granted the property from the king as a New Year present. He charged royal architect Niels Eigtved with the design of a summer risidence which was completed in 1747, Schulin was created Count in 1750 but died that same year. His wife Catarine Marie Schlin carried out alterations on the house in 1752 and 1753 with the assistance of the architect Johann Gottfried Rosenberg, the property has remained in the Schulin family to the present day. Frederiksdal is credited with being the earliest example of a maison de plaisance in Denmark and it stands in white-dressed masonry with sandstone decorations above the windows and two corner risalits on the main facade. The house originally had a roof while the mansard roof is the result of alterations carried out by Johann Gottfried Rosenberg between 1752 and 1753.
The interior features a combination of large and small rooms arranged around the main axis vestibule. There are rich Rococo-style stucco decorations, particularly in the Garden Hall, executed by Carlo Enrico Brenno, the property is currently owned by the seventh generation of the Schulin family. The main building plays host to a series of classical concerts. The estate covers 328 hectares of land of which circa 200 hectares are forest