Not to be confused with the former Prussian city of Königsberg. Kongsberg is a municipality in Viken county, Norway. Kongsberg is the administration center in Kongsberg municipality; the city is located on the river Numedalslågen at the entrance to the valley of Numedal. The municipality of Kongsberg was established on 1 January 1838; the rural municipalities of Ytre Sandsvær and Øvre Sandsvær were merged into the municipality of Kongsberg on 1 January 1964. Kongsberg is the site of the Royal Norwegian Mint, which mints Norwegian coins and produces circulating and collectors' coins for other countries. Kongsberg is known for being the home of Norway's major defence contractor, Kongsberg Gruppen Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk. Two of its well-known products were the Krag -- Jørgensen rifle; the name Konningsberg, a modern form Kongsberg, is based on the following two elements: the genitive case of konge which means "king" and berg which means "mountain". The coat-of-arms was designed by Hallvard Trætteberg.
They were granted on 25 August 1972. They are based upon the old seal for the city from 1689 which shows the Roman god Janus dressed as an emperor; the colour green represents the forests, silver represents the mountains, gold represents wealth. Kongsberg was founded by Danish-Norwegian king Christian IV as a mining community in 1624 after the discovery of silver. In the second year, the town of Kongsberg and the Kongsberg Silver Mines were built. According to official records, the Kongsberg silver mine was discovered by the shepherds Jacob Grosvold and Helge Værp in the summer of 1623. According to the indications of silver mining, the existence of a large amount of precious metals was known before. With the rise of the silver mining industry, it became the largest industrial center in Norway before the industrial revolution. By the peak of the Kongsberg silver mine in the early eighteenth century, Kongsberg's silver mining industry and related industries contributed 10% of the Denmark–Norway gross national product.
In order to develop the Kongsberg Silver Mines, Christian IV hired Germans from the silver mines of Saxony and Harz. In addition, there are Germans from other mines in Norway; the Germans brought the basic knowledge of mining, important during the start-up phase of the Kongsberg Silver Mines. Before 1623, the area where the city was located was the royal territory of the original Sandsvær. Four years after the establishment of the Kongsberg Silver Mines, most of the 1,500 workers and officials were still German; the Norwegians entered the work of Kongsberg and were hired as supervisors. In 1636, 1,370 Germans and 1,600 Norwegians participated in the work. In 1648, 1,500 Germans and 2,400 Norwegians worked in Kongsberg. Since 1681, gunpowder has been introduced for mining. Mining in the hard Kongsberg Mountain is energy intensive, so the silver mine continues to develop technology throughout the operation to reduce production costs. A large artificial dam powers the mine's hoisting system before electricity is introduced.
In 1624, a road from Hokksund to Kongsberg was built to serve the Kongsberg Silver Mines, the most important road built in Norway in the 17th century. In 1665, the road was extended to Larvik. In 1683, the mining industry became the pillar industry of the state; the rapid development of Kongsberg means that the number of workers in the city has increased by the end of the 17th century. The proportion of Norwegians in the workforce has increased, but for a long time, the position of the main staff is still dominated by the Germans. Kongsberg is a small part of Germany in Norway: the mine has a German name, the official language is only in German, in German and Danish. In Kongsberg, the German mountain justice system is used; this means that the city is bound by independent regulations, such as separating the mining community from the country's general laws. The Germans brought a Knappschaft, including free medical assistance, a pension plan, worker sick leave and a Saturday break; the most characteristic ring agriculture in Kongsberg may be inspired by Germany.
The proceeds from the silver mining industry provided a valuable grant for the tight finances of Denmark. Denmark–Norway relies on the silver of Kongsberg to support the ongoing war against Sweden. Precious metals are becoming more and more important in the Denmark–Norway currency production. Therefore, in order to get closer to the source of raw materials, the 1686 Royal Mint moved from Akershus to Kongsberg. During the Great Northern War, in 1716, the city became the main target of Karl XII’s stay in Norderhof. Kongsberg is known for its Kongsberg Silver Mines and its high purity，at the same time, Kongsberg's mine contains a certain amount of high-purity gold and a large amount of copper, lead-zinc and fluorite. From which 15,750 tonnes of silver was extracted between the discovery of the silver ore seams in 1623 and the last year of mining in 1957; the mining volume of the Kongsberg silver mine began to increase at the end of the 17th century. In the 1769 census, the mines employed about 4,000 workers.
With 8,000 inhabitants in total, the town was the second largest in Norway, after Bergen. In Norway's 1749 census, Kongsberg was the most populous town in Eastern Norway, it was granted its royal charter of trade—amounting to official township—in 1802. Following several hard years with reduced silv
Nicholas Perrin is the 16th president of Trinity International University, a Christian university located in Deerfield, Illinois. His presidency was announced on June 7, 2019, he was the Franklin S. Dyrness Professor of Biblical Studies at Wheaton College, Illinois. Where his work focused on the New Testament and early Christianity. Perrin has published on the Gospel of Thomas and proposed the theory that Thomas is dependent on Tatian's Diatessaron. In addition to his writings on Christian origins and the Gnostic Gospels, Perrin has authored a number of popular lay introductions to works such as the Gospel of Judas and Gospel of Thomas. In 2007 Lost in Transmission was published as a response to Bart Ehrman's popular Misquoting Jesus dealing with issues of textual criticism of the New Testament. In 2008 Perrin delivered a public lecture on the historical Jesus at the University of Georgia. Perrin was announced as the 16th president of Trinity International University in 2019, replacing David Dockery.
Perrin, Nicholas. Thomas and Tatian: The Relationship between the Gospel of Thomas and the Diatessaron. Academia Biblica. 5. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature. ———. The Judas Gospel. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780877840398. OCLC 85356223. ———. Lost in Transmission: What We Can Know about the Words of Jesus. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson. ISBN 9780849903670. OCLC 144598103. ———. Thomas: The Other Gospel. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664232115. OCLC 137305724. ———. Jesus the Temple. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. ISBN 9780801045387. OCLC 669750917. ———. Finding Jesus in the Exodus: Christ in Israel's journey from slavery to the Promised Land. New York: Faith Words. ISBN 9781455560684. OCLC 879246081. ———. The Exodus Revealed: Israel's journey from slavery to the Promised Land. New York: Faith Words. ISBN 9781455560653. OCLC 879246093. ———. Jesus the Priest. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. ISBN 9780801048593. OCLC 892879493. ———. Questioning Q: A Multidimensional Critique.
Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity. ISBN 9780830827695. OCLC 56614168. ———. Jesus and the people of God: a theological dialogue with N. T. Wright. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic. ISBN 9780830838974. OCLC 666492764. ———. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels; the IVP Bible dictionary series. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830824564. OCLC 966860946. ———. "Some Implications of Dispensing with Q". In Perrin, Nicholas. Questioning Q: A Multidimensional Critique. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity. ISBN 9780830827695. OCLC 56614168. ———. "Recent Trends in Gospel of Thomas Research: Part I, The Historical Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels". Currents in Biblical Research. 5: 183–206. ———. "No Other Gospel". Christian Biography. 96: 27–30. ———. "Where to Begin with the Gospel of Mark?". Currents in Theology and Mission. 35: 413–419. ———. "The Aramaic Origins of the Gospel of Thomas – Revisited". In Frey, Jorg. Das Thomasevangelium: Entstehung -- Rezeption -- Theologie. Beihefte zur für Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft. 157. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Pp. 50–59. ———. "Eschatological Aspects of the Sinai Experience in Patristic Interpretation". In Kenneth E. Kenneth E.. Israel in the Wilderness: Interpretations of the Biblical Narratives in Jewish and Christian Traditions. Themes in Biblical Narrative. 10. Leiden: Brill. Pp. 173–182. ISBN 9789004164246. ———. "The Diatessaron and the Second-Century Reception of the Gospel of John". In Rasimus, Tuomas; the Legacy of John: The Second Century Reception of the Fourth Gospel. Novum Testamentum, Supplements. 132. Leiden: Brill. Pp. 301–318. ISBN 9789047429777. ———. "Jesus' Eschatology and Kingdom Ethics: the twain shall meet". In ———. Jesus and the people of God: a theological dialogue with N. T. Wright. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic. ISBN 9780830838974. OCLC 666492764. ———. "Managing Jesus' Anger: Revisiting a Text-Critical Conundrum". Criswell Theological Review. 13: 3–16. ———. "Habakkuk and the End of Empire: A Fresh Perspective on Romans 13:1-7". In Dow, L. K. Fuller; the Language and Literature of the New Testament: Essays in Honor of Stanley E. Porter’s 60th Birthday.
Leiden: Brill. Pp. 536–54. ———. "New Exodus Traditions in Earliest Christianity". In Porter, Stanley E.. Christian Origins and the Establishment of the Early Jesus Movement. ECHC. 4. Leiden: Brill. Pp. 335–50. ———. "Jesus as Priest in the Gospels". Southern Baptist Journal of Theology. 22: 81–98. ———. BI301 A Biblical Theology of the Kingdom of God. Logos Mobile Education. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press. "Nicholas Perrin's Faculty Page". Retrieved January 23, 2019. An Interview with Nicholas Perrin on the Gospel of Thomas
Pasadena Museum of History is a private, nonprofit museum and research library located in Pasadena, California. It is the only institution dedicated to the history and culture of historic Pasadena and the west San Gabriel Valley. Headquartered on the grounds of a century-old Pasadena estate, facilities include the Pasadena Museum History Center, the Fenyes Estate and gardens, a research library and archives, the Curtin House, the Finnish Folk Art Museum. With public exhibits, lectures and workshops, the Pasadena Museum of History promotes an appreciation of history, culture and sciences relevant to Pasadena and adjoining communities; the City of Pasadena was founded in 1874, when members of the Indiana Colony settled along the banks of the Arroyo Seco. In 1924, the Pasadena Historical Society began to collect information about the area's history, with one filing cabinet of material collected by volunteers. In 1932, the historical society was given a room at the Pasadena Civic Auditorium. In 1958, the collection moved to the Pasadena Public Library.
In 1970, thanks to a gift from the Paloheimo family, the museum moved to its present location on the grounds on the historic two-acre Fenyes Estate. In 1993, the History Center was completed to house the research library and archival storage areas for the museum's growing collections. In 2000, the museum added galleries, conference rooms, a museum store, administrative offices; the museum is open to the public and offers special exhibits, lectures and workshops on aspects of local architecture, fine art, science, social issues, personal histories, exceptional historic achievements. Tours are offered to students in area schools. Pasadena Museum of History is supported by admission fees, donations from corporations, businesses and members of the Museum. Pasadena Museum of History's Research Library and Archives maintains the area's largest and most comprehensive collection of documents and artifacts related to the history of the city; the Research Library contains well over 1,000,000 historic photos, rare books and maps, architectural records, more.
The museum collection includes an extensive art collection, including paintings from local plein air painters, as well as textiles, ceramics and other three-dimensional materials of historic importance to the area. The museum's costume and textile collection includes more than 3,000 artifacts dating from 1880 to 1970. One million photographic images, some in negative format only, are contained in the museum's extensive photo archives which feature work by important early Pasadena photographers from the late 19th century as well as photo albums and postcards; the museum houses photo collections from the Pasadena Star-News and local photographers J. Allen Hawkins and Flag Studios; the museum's newspaper archive includes 15 linear feet of local newspapers, including bound copies of the Pasadena Star from 1886–1924. The research library houses a thousand books and more than 300 manuscripts dating from the 1830s to the present; the archives contain Design and Historic Preservation Reports of the Pasadena Planning Department, Pasadena city directories, historic maps of Pasadena and the West San Gabriel Valley, including a set of Sanborn Fire Insurance maps for Pasadena.
The archives house more than 150 special collections donated by individuals and individuals active in Pasadena. These include the Sylvanus Marston Collection of architectural drawings. Special collections are listed on the museum's website, some are available through the Online Archives of California website; the Research Library and Archives are located on the lower level of the History Center and open Thursday through Sunday from 1-4 p.m. Free parking is available at the museum lot. An extensive collection of decorative arts, costumes/ textiles, family papers from the Fenyes family is housed at Pasadena Museum of History, in the Fenyes Mansion itself. Built in 1906, the Fenyes Mansion is a historic property that housed four generations of the Fenyes-Curtin-Paloheimo family and a Pasadena Cultural Landmark; the museum maintains the Fenyes Mansion in traditional Edwardian fashion, the interior includes handsome furniture and period furnishings. The museum offers docent-led tours of surrounding gardens on a regular basis.
The Fenyes Family collection includes more than 3,800 watercolors and sketches painted by Eva Scott Fenyes, an artist and traveler who lived from 1866–1929, as well as fine and decorative art donated by the family to the museum. Pasadena Museum of History Archives of California website
The cast of the television series MythBusters perform experiments to verify or debunk urban legends, old wives' tales, the like. This is a list of the various myths tested on the show as well as the results of the experiments. Original air date: April 8, 2009This episode was an 87-minute-long special; the vehicles that were demolished during the episode all received an end credit in the form of an in memoriam. Based on numerous car chase scenes in films, the Build Team tested myths based on whether cars would be able to drive through/into various obstructions. Two criteria were used to test each scenario: whether the real crash appeared similar to its Hollywood counterpart, whether the car could be driven away afterward, they crashed into... Original air date: April 15, 2009As part of Discovery Channel's Alaska Week 2009 series, the MythBusters returned to Alaska to test more cold weather myths. Based on Geoffrey Pyke's proposed project of building an aircraft carrier out of pykrete during World War II, the MythBusters decided to test the viability of making a pykrete boat.
In additional footage shown on the MythBusters website, two additional tests were shown. Blocks of ice and regular pykrete were placed on nails against a board at room temperature; the ice melted faster than the pykrete. A "shock test" was performed on the three materials by dropping a block of each six feet onto the ground; the block of ice shattered into many pieces. The block of regular pykrete did not shatter; the block of pseudo-pykrete would not break when slammed down from the same height. Original air date: April 22, 2009 The Build Team tested several myths that involve creating diamonds with household materials such as... Unable to produce any diamonds using household items, the Build Team went on to test whether... Original air date: April 29, 2009Adam and the Build Team tested three myths drawn from videos seen on YouTube; this myth was not shown in the actual episode aired in the United States, but was featured in the version of the episode aired outside of North America and on the MythBusters website and included in the iTunes download as an extra scene.
It was based on a video created by the YouTube user: Household Hacker. Original air date: May 6, 2009Adam and Jamie explored the physics of swimming in syrup, while the Build Team probed two "magic bullet" myths. Original air date: May 13, 2009 Original air date: May 20, 2009Adam and the Build Team joined forces to investigate a puzzling seesaw myth; this is the second myth in which the Build Team tested a myth together. Original air date: May 27, 2009 Original air date: June 3, 2009 Adam and Jamie tested whether or not a person could... Original air date: June 10, 2009 To help test this myth, the MythBusters enlisted the aid of the Blue Angels and their F/A-18 Hornets; this myth was inspired by scenes from the film version of Wanted. Original air date: June 17, 2009 The Build Team tested various myths involving popcorn. Original air date: October 7, 2009 Original air date: October 14, 2009The MythBusters tackle various myths relating to the "handyman's secret weapon", they tested whether or not duct tape can...
Original air date: October 21, 2009Adam and Jamie test whether a dirty car gets better gas mileage than an equivalent clean car, while the Build Team test an old adage concerning beer and hangovers. Original air date: October 28, 2009The MythBusters test two potential kitchen disasters, as well as whether cheese can be used with a cannon. Original air date: November 4, 2009Adam and Jamie tested whether windows should be open or closed during a hurricane, while the Build Team took on two myths involving liquid nitrogen. Original US air date: November 11, 2009 Original UK air date: November 2, 2009 Adam and Jamie tested whether a car would explode when driven off a cliff; the Build Team saw. Original air date: November 18, 2009The MythBusters test new tangents from five previous myths; the Build Team tested various Hollywood methods for shooting around corners, beginning with an offshoot of the "Bend a Bullet" myth from episode 123. Grant and Tory tested other techniques of shooting around a corner in Hollywood movies.
Starting from Kari's position at the doorway, they tried to hit the target in the room by... According to Tory, this "complete set" appears to have set a first on MythBusters, where three myths were tested with one Confirmed, one Plausible, the other Busted. Taking off from the original Car Cling myth and Jamie tested whether or not someone could... The MythBusters pointed out that the tests were done with empty cardboard boxes, as they are in many Hollywood movies. A different result may suffice if they contained any shipment heavy ones like electronics or "anvils." Fans requested having this myth tested after the original Liquid Nitrogen myths were shown in the Hurricane Windows episode. The original Snowplow Split tests shown in the second Alaska Special focused only on the circumstances of the myth; this new, supersized test presented below looked onto the results. Original air date: November 25, 2009Adam and Jamie test a Hollywood chase scene jump, while the Build Team probes a gruesome diving disaster.
Kari departs to begin her maternity leave, Jessi Combs joins the build team in her absence. Original air date: December 2, 2009Adam and Jamie put a story of a prisoner's escape to the test, while the Build Team investigates a foolproof method for smugglers to avoid detection. Original air date: December 9, 2009Adam and Jamie test the Hollywood cowboy's abilit
The London 2010 Festival of Stamps is a yearlong series of events to mark the centenary of the accession of King George V to the British throne. King George V was an enthusiastic and distinguished philatelist, President Patron, of the Royal Philatelic Society London; the festival will include a variety of philatelic or stamp themed events including the London 2010 International Stamp Exhibition, an exhibition at the Guildhall Art Gallery titled "Empire Mail: George V and the GPO" as well as events at the British Museum, the British Library, Marylebone Cricket Club Museum, Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum, Bletchley Park, Bath Postal Museum and Twickenham Rugby Museum. Events are being co-ordinated by The British Postal Archive. Official website Schedule of events
The Hughleys is an American sitcom that aired on ABC from September 22, 1998 to April 28, 2000 and on the UPN network from September 11, 2000 to May 20, 2002. It starred comedian D. L. Hughley as the main character, Darryl Hughley, Elise Neal as Yvonne, his hard-working wife, who move their family from the inner city to suburban Los Angeles; the show starred D. L. Hughley as the main character, vending machine salesman Darryl Hughley. Elise Neal portrayed Darryl's wife Yvonne. Former Living Single co-star John Henton portrayed the couple's best friend Milsap from the "old neighborhood", who visited the family and helped them out. Ashley Monique Clark portrayed Darryl and Yvonne's 12-year-old daughter Sydney, Dee Jay Daniels portrayed their 10-year-old son Michael. Michael's best friends included Ronnie and Miles Martin Spanjers); the show's initial plot involved successful vending-machine business owner Darryl Hughley moving his family from a South Los Angeles ghetto to West Hills, a predominantly white neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley.
Darryl and his family try to adjust to living in an all-white area while trying not to forget who they are and where they came from. Darryl and Yvonne befriend their new neighbors and Dave, who are Darryl's polar opposite; the story has many racial themes that are comedic as Darryl makes fun of other races his white and Korean neighbors. Marietta DePrima and Eric Allan Kramer played Dave and Sally Rogers, a friendly, wholesome suburban white couple. Marla Gibbs played Darryl's happy-go-lucky mother Hattie Mae opposite Ellis Williams as his father Henry. Telma Hopkins portrayed Yvonne's mother, Paulette Williams, Sherman Hemsley portrayed Yvonne's father, James Williams, who thought of Darryl as a "jackass". Patricia Belcher appeared as Aunt Jessie Mae Hughley, Adele Givens portrayed Yvonne's older sister Shari Williams, Darryl's wisecracking, evil sister-in-law; the show spent two seasons on ABC. In its first season, it followed Home Improvement, but was canceled when ABC decided to revamp its TGIF lineup.
UPN picked up the show in the fall of 2000 and it aired in the Monday night lineup along Moesha, The Parkers and Girlfriends. While The Parkers and Girlfriends had improved ratings, The Hughleys aired its series finale after its fourth season; the series had many guest stars including Ashley Tisdale, Billy Dee Williams, as Darryl's biological father, Kelly Rowland, Lil' Romeo, Gary Coleman, Vivica A. Fox, Mo'Nique, Tyra Banks, Rose Marie. Darryl Hughley: a thirty-five-year-old successful salesman and business owner, his wife is Yvonne, they have two children and Michael. He moved from his old black neighborhood into a white surburban neighborhood, he is the son of Hattie Mae Hughley. Upon the show's move from ABC to UPN, the character was featured in a crossover appearance on the UPN series The Parkers in the Season 2 episode "Who's Your Mama?". He is best friends with Milsap, Dave Rogers. Yvonne Williams-Hughley: Darryl's wife, the mother of their two children, best friend of Sally, she does not get along with Darryl's mother Hattie, who criticizes everything she does.
Darryl calls her "Vonnie". Sydney and Michael Hughley: Darryl and Yvonne's 12-year-old daughter and 11-year-old son. Dave and Sally Rogers: the Hughley family's Caucasian neighbors and close friends, they hang out and travel together. Daryl was unwilling to befriend them out of fear that they were racists. Dave can be described as a "jolly giant", he owns a sporting goods store, is knowledgeable about sports and extreme activities. Sally and Darryl have a sort of brother/sister-like friendship, as sometimes he'll turn to her for advice or jokingly tease her. Dave and Sally have two children: daughter Gretchen. Sydney and Michael address Dave and Sally as "Uncle Dave" and "Aunt Sally". Milsap, Darryl's lifelong best friend, the sales manager of his company, he visits the Hughley household, provides much comic relief throughout the series. Unlike Darryl, Milsap is unmarried with no children. Early in the series, Dave becomes Milsap's second-best friend after the two form a strong friendship - which Darryl was jealous of at first until he learned to be friends with both men.
Darryl and Dave refer to him by his nickname "Sap", whereas Sydney and Michael address him as "Uncle Sap" or "Uncle Milsap". Hattie Mae Hughley, Darryl's somewhat aggressive mother, who made her first appearance in "The Thanksgiving Episode", she criticizes Yvonne, from her cooking habits to everything else. She appears to have a firm handle on Darryl as the no-nonsense mother who refuses to let him get away with anything, despite his adulthood; this is shown in many episodes, one example being Sydney and Michael failing to "punish" Daryl for drugs from his past, in which they get their grandmother to do it instead. She made her last appearance was "How Hattie Got Her Groove Back". Henry Hughley, Darryl's "father", who made his first appearance in "The Thanksgiving Episode". In the 2nd-season episode, Darryl discovers, he made his last appearance in "Bored of the Rings". Jessie Mae, Darryl's