Gunnar Fridtjof Thurmann Sønsteby DSO was a member of the Norwegian resistance movement during the German occupation of Norway in World War II. Known by the nickname "Kjakan" and as "Agent No. 24", he was the most decorated citizen in Norway, including being the only person to have been awarded the War Cross with three swords, Norway's highest military decoration. Born in Rjukan, in Telemark, he was the son of Gustav Sønsteby; as a boy he enjoyed walking in the mountains around Rjukan with his school friends, many of whom became members of the Resistance alongside him. He attended what is now Rjukan videregående skole. Among the members of his graduating class in 1937 were Resistance fighters such as Knut Haugland, Halvor Rivrud, Olav Skogen, Leif Nilsen, Rolf Solem, Turjus Aarnes, Knut Berge, Einar Nordgaard. After graduating from gymnasium, he moved to Oslo, where he studied at Otto Treiders Business School; the next year he began studying social economy at the University of Oslo. While in Oslo he carried out his obligatory military service and worked in a series of jobs.
Sønsteby was working as an accountant when the Germans occupied Norway in 1940. Norway's regular armed forces surrendered on 10 June 1940, after two months of fighting, the country was subsequently occupied by the Germans, he joined the Norwegian Resistance forces in Østlandet. He fought in Philip Hansteen's Skiløperkompani, he was involved in the underground press. In 1941 he was brought into the secret British military unit called Special Operations Executive at their office in Stockholm, he became "Agent 24" in the SOE. While on assignment in Stockholm in 1942, he was interned and imprisoned for three months by Swedish police, but managed to convince them that he was not the same Gunnar Sønsteby for whom they were looking. Back in Norway in 1943, he was managed to escape and flee to Sweden. From there, he was sent to Britain, where in June of that year he enrolled in the Linge Company, formed to participate in British-led operations in Norway, to organise and the lead the Norwegian Resistance Movement, to serve as a link between the home front and the outside world, to perform intelligence work.
In October, he became a leader of the Milorg group. In that same month he became head of the newly established Oslo Gang, a sabotage group, whose other members were Andreas Aubert, Viggo Axelsen, Gregers Gram, Henrik Hop, William Houlder, Max Manus, Martin Olsen, Arthur Pevik, Birger Rasmussen, Tor Stenersen, Edvard Tallaksen; the British historian William Mackenzie called the Oslo Gang "the best group of saboteurs in Europe". After saboteur training in England in 1943, he became the contact for all SOE agents in eastern Norway and head of the Norwegian Independent Company 1 group in Oslo; this group performed several spectacular acts of sabotage. Sønsteby's gang carried out the "Mardonius" action, blowing up several ships in Oslo harbour in April 1943, they attacked Kongsberg munitions factory in September 1944, destroying guns and vital machine tools. In addition, they killed several leading figures in the Occupation Forces, including the Nazi head of police in Norway, Karl Marthinsen. Other actions included the theft of 75,000 ration books, which allowed pressure to be placed on authorities, stopping a threatened cut in rations.
After D-Day, Sønsteby concentrated on bombing Norwegian railways, thereby keeping German reinforcements from being moved back to the front line. His team sank the German transport ship Donau outside Drobak in 1945. Operating in occupied territory, being high on the Gestapo list of wanted men, Sønsteby became a master of disguise, he operated under 30 to 40 different names and identities, the Germans did not acquire his real name until near the end of the war. They were never able to catch him, his obituary in Aftenposten attributed his ability to elude capture to "resourcefulness, intuition," and "such an ordinary appearance that he was hardly noticed when he rode his bicycle through Oslo's streets."Sønsteby himself explained his ability to get through the war without capture on his ability to carry out many of his actions himself and on his ability to arrange for his own ID papers. He had 20 to 30 places where he spent the night, many for only one night at a time, never used any of them for more than a couple months.
To avoid detection, he moved from flat to flat daily. One of his hideaways was above a bakery. "When I came to the baker's shop I always looked at the girl selling bread. If she gave a special face I would know. I would turn around," Sønsteby said. Aftenposten described him as having "nerves of steel" and he himself said that he had inherited a strong psychological makeup from his parents. "I was so cold," he once said, "that some time I didn't react the way I should have." During the last six mont
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
Districts of Norway
The country Norway is divided into a number of districts. Many districts have deep historical roots, only coincide with today's administrative units of counties and municipalities; the districts are defined by geographical features valleys, mountain ranges, plains, or coastlines, or combinations of the above. Many such regions were petty kingdoms up to the early Viking age. A high percentage of Norwegians identify themselves more by the district they live in or come from, than the formal administrative unit whose jurisdiction they fall under. A significant reason for this is that the districts, through their strong geographical limits, have delineated the region within which one could travel without too much trouble or expenditure of time and money, thus and regional commonality in folk culture tended to correspond to those same geographical units, despite any division into administrative districts by authorities. In modern times the whole country has become more connected, based on the following: Communication technologies such as telegraph, telephone, radio and TV, in particular Televerket and NRK.
The construction of mountain crossings, tunnels through mountains, undersea tunnels. Establishing a coastal express route of combined passenger and cargo ships, like the Hurtigruten, sailing from Bergen to Kirkenes and back again, stopping by at a host of cities and towns along the western and northern coast; the construction of railroads between distant parts of the country. The opening of dozens of new airports all over the country through the 1960s and 1970s; the release of private cars from government rationing and import restrictions from the 1950s onwards. A concrete display of the Norwegian habit of identifying themselves by district can be seen in the many regional costumes, called bunad connected to distinct districts across the country. City dwellers proudly mark their rural origins by wearing such a costume, from their ancestral landscape, at weddings, visits with members of the royal family, Constitution Day, other ceremonial occasions; the following list is non-exhaustive and overlapping.
The first name is the name in the second Nynorsk. Helgeland Lofoten Ofoten Salten VesterålenSee Finnmark, Hålogaland and Troms. Agder Kristiansandregionen Lister Setesdal Fosen Gauldalen Innherad Namdalen Orkdalen Stjørdalen Dalane Hardanger Haugalandet Jæren Midhordland Nordfjord Nordhordland Nordmøre Romsdal Ryfylke Sogn Sunnfjord Sunnhordland Sunnmøre Voss Follo Glåmdalen Grenland Gudbrandsdalen Hadeland Hallingdal Hedmarken Land Numedal Ringerike Romerike Toten Upper Telemark Valdres Vestfold Østerdalen ØstfoldSee Viken and Vingulmark. Regions of Norway Counties of Norway Metropolitan regions of Norway Subdivisions of Norden Traditional districts of Denmark Districts of Norway in 1950 – From the documentation project at the University of Oslo Regionalization and devolution: Proposed new regions of Norway Map showing regions of Medieval Norway
Labour Party (Norway)
The Labour Party the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway. It was the senior partner of the governing Red-Green Coalition from 2005 to 2013, its leader, Jens Stoltenberg, was Prime Minister of Norway during that time; the party is led by Jonas Gahr Støre. The Labour Party is committed to social-democratic ideals, its slogan since the 1930s has been "everyone shall take part", the party traditionally seeks a strong welfare state, funded through taxes and duties. Since the 1980s, the party has included more of the principles of a social market economy in its policy, allowing for privatization of government-held assets and services and reducing income tax progressivity, following the wave of economic liberalization in the 1980s. During the first Stoltenberg government, the party's policies were inspired by Tony Blair's New Labour and saw the most widespread privatization by any Norwegian government to that date; the party has been described as neoliberal since the 1980s, both by political scientists and opponents on the left.
The Labour Party profiles itself as a progressive party that subscribes to cooperation on a national as well as international level. Its youth wing is the Workers' Youth League; the party is a member of the Party of Progressive Alliance. The Labour Party has always been a strong supporter of Norway's NATO membership and has supported Norwegian membership in the European Union during two referendums. During the Cold War, when the party was in government most of the time, the party aligned Norway with the United States at the international level and followed an anti-communist policy at the domestic level, in the aftermath of the 1948 Kråkerøy speech and culminating in Norway being a founding member of NATO in 1949. Founded in 1887, the party increased in support until it became the largest party in Norway in 1927, a position it has held since; this year saw the consolidation of conflicts surrounding the party during the 1920s following its membership in the Comintern from 1919 to 1923. It formed its first government in 1928, has led the government for all but 16 years since 1935.
From 1945 to 1961, the party had an absolute majority in the Norwegian parliament, the only time this has happened in Norwegian history. The domination by the Labour Party, during the 1960s and early 1970s, was broken by competition from the left from the Socialist People's Party. From the end of the 1970s however, the party started to lose voters to the right, leading to a turn to the right for the party under Gro Harlem Brundtland during the 1980s. In 2001 the party achieved its worst electoral results since 1924. Between 2005 and 2013, Labour returned to power after committing to a coalition agreement with other parties in order to form a majority government. Since losing nine seats in the 2013 election, Labour has been in opposition; the party lost a further six seats in the 2017 election, yielding the second lowest number of seats Labour has held since 1924. The party was founded in 1887 in Arendal and first ran in elections to the Parliament of Norway in 1894, it entered Parliament in 1904 after the 1903 election, increased its vote until 1927, when it became the largest party in Norway.
The party were members of Comintern, a Communist organisation, between 1918 and 1923. From the establishment of Vort Arbeide in 1884, the party had a growing and notable organisation of newspapers and other press outlets; the party press system resulted in Norsk Arbeiderpresse. In January 1913 the party had 24 newspapers, 6 more newspapers were founded in 1913; the party had the periodical Det 20de Aarhundre. In 1920 the party had 6 semi-affiliated newspapers; the party had its own publishing house, Det norske Arbeiderpartis forlag, succeeded by Tiden Norsk Forlag. In addition to books and pamphlets, Det norske Arbeiderpartis forlag published Maidagen, Arbeidets Jul and Arbeiderkalenderen. From its roots as a radical alternative to the political establishment, the party grew to its current dominance through several eras: The party experienced a split in 1921 caused by a decision made two years earlier to join the Communist International, the Social Democratic Labour Party of Norway was formed.
In 1923 the party left the Communist International, while a significant minority of its members left the party to form the Communist Party of Norway. In 1927, the Social Democrats were reunited with Labour; some Communists joined Labour, whereas other Communists tried a failed merger endeavor which culminated in the formation of the Arbeiderklassens Samlingsparti. In 1928, Christopher Hornsrud formed Labour's first government. During the early 1930s Labour set a reformist course. Labour returned to government in 1935 and remained in power until 1965. During most of the first twenty years after World War II, Einar Gerhardsen led the party and the country, he is referred to as "Landsfaderen", is considered one of the main architects of the rebuilding of Norway after World War II. This is considered the "golden age" of the Norwegian Labour Party; the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1938 and 1940. In 1958 two Workers' Youth League members contacted MPs of the Labour Party, to have MPs sign a petition, as a part of what is known as the Easter Uprising of
Brandval is a parish and former municipality in Hedmark county, Norway. Brandval is located in the Norwegian traditional district of Solør; the parish forms the northern part of Kongsvinger municipality. Brandval is situated north of Kongsvinger on the Glåma river. Brandval was separated from Grue municipality in 1867. In 1941 part of Grue was transferred into Brandval; the municipalities of Brandval and Vinger were merged with the city and municipality of Kongsvinger in 1964. Finnskogen or the Finn's forest is a belt about 32 km wide and running continuously along the frontier in the districts of Austmarka, Grue, Hof, Åsnes, Våler; the municipality is named after the old farm Brandval. The first element is brandr m'fire. Brandval church is a neo-Gothic, cruciform church dating from 1651; the church was built of wood. The church was subject to a restoration in 1839 and underwent a renovation in 1876-77. Johan Heinrich Günther Schüssler was the architect behind the rebuilding; the baroque pulpit and altar date from 1651.
They were made by Lauritz Lauritzen and painted by Thomas Blix in 1728. The Baptismal font is from the Middle Ages. Langen, Helge.
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t