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Konstantios Doukas

Konstantios Doukas, Latinized as Constantius Ducas, was a junior Byzantine Emperor from 1060–1078, a senior Byzantine Emperor for a short time in 1078. Konstantios was the son of Empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa. Upon his birth, he was elevated to junior emperor, along with his brother Michael VII, he remained as junior emperor during the reigns of Constantine, Romanos IV Diogenes, Michael VII, before he became senior emperor on 31 March 1078, due to the abdication of Michael VII. He was soon handed over to a usurper, due to his inability to rule, he was sent to live in a monastery, where he stayed until recalled by Alexios I Komnenos, who made him a general. He was killed on 18 October 1081, in the Battle of Dyrrhachium. Konstantios Doukas was born in 1060, the son of Emperor Constantine X and Empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, he was born during Constantine's reign. His father Constantine became emperor on November 24, 1059, after Isaac I Komnenos selected him as his heir, shortly before Isaac abdicated.

In 1060, Constantine elevated both Michael VII and Konstantios to junior emperors under him, but did not elevate his middle son Andronikos Doukas to junior emperor, for unknown reasons. Konstantios retained his title of junior emperor during the reigns of Constantine, Romanos IV Diogenes, Michael VII. Konstantios was engaged to Anna Vsevolodovna of Kiev in 1074. Michael VII abdicated on 31 March 1078, due to severe unpopularity and the two active revolts against him by Nikephoros III and Nikephoros Bryennios, retiring to the Monastery of Stoudios. Michael VII chose Konstantios to succeed him. Konstantios only had to contend with Nikephoros III, as Nikephoros Bryennios had been defeated by Nikephoros III at the Battle of Kalavrye, subsequently blinded by him. Konstantios lost support, as it became clear he had no skill as a ruler. In the same year, his own supporters handed him over to Nikephoros III, who sent him to be tonsured and live in a monastery on one of the Princes Islands in the Propontis, as a monk.

By becoming a monk he became unable to marry, thus his engagement to Anna Vsevolodovna of Kiev was cancelled. He was recalled by Alexios I Komnenos, who succeeded Nikephoros, and, related to Konstantios by way of his marriage to Irene Doukaina, in 1081, he was made a general, sent to campaign against the Normans. After Alexios seized the throne, he elevated Constantine Doukas to co-emperor. Konstantios fought in the Battle of Dyrrhachium on 18 October 1081, where Byzantine forces besieging Dyrrachium were engaged by Norman forces. Although the Byzantines were successful, with the Norman right wing being routed by the Byzantine left wing, the Norman center routed the central forces of the Byzantines. During this engagement, the Varangian Guard, which whom Konstantinos was fighting, was separated from the core body of the Byzantine army and massacred. Konstantinos himself perished in the combat. Konstantios Doukas is thought to be engraved on the Holy Crown of Hungary, given to Hungarian King Géza I of Hungary by Konstantios' brother Michael VII, depicted alongside King Geza I and Michael VII.

Buckley, Penelope. The Alexiad of Anna Komnene: Artistic Strategy In The Making Of A Myth. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107037229. Finlay, History of the Byzantine and Greek Empires from 1057–1453, 2, William Blackwood & Sons, OCLC 25020128 Kaldellis, Anthony. Streams of Gold, Rivers of Blood: The Rise and Fall of Byzantium, 955 A. D. to the First Crusade. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190253233. Norwich, John Julius, Byzantium: The Apogee, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-011448-3 Pevny, Olenka Z.. Perceptions of Byzantium and Its Neighbors: 843-1261: the Metropolitan Museum of Art Symposia. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780870999710. Savvides, Alexios G. C.. Byzantino-Normannica: The Norman Capture of Italy and the First Two Invasions in Byzantium. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 9789042919112. Vernadsky, George. Kievan Russia. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300016475

Luis FariƱa

Luis Carlos Fariña Olivera is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for Cerro Porteño. Born in Buenos Aires, Fariña graduated from Racing Club de Avellaneda's youth system, he made his professional debut on 28 August 2009, replacing Sebastián Grazzini in a 1–1 home draw against Club Atlético Colón for the Argentine Primera División championship. Fariña appeared sparingly in the following campaigns used as a backup, he was only utilized in the 2012–13 campaign, after profiting from both Giovanni Moreno and Lucas Castro's departures. Fariña scored his first professional goals on 19 November 2012, netting a brace in a 4–0 home win against Quilmes Atlético Club, he finished the season with 28 matches and four goals, attracting the interest of S. L. Benfica, S. C. Braga and Sporting CP. On 24 July 2013 Fariña signed for Benfica on a five-year deal for €3.5 million, joining fellow Racing teammates José Shaffer and José Luis Fernández. On 9 August, however, he was loaned to UAE Arabian Gulf League side Baniyas SC, in a season-long deal.

On 27 July 2014, Fariña moved to Deportivo de La Coruña in a temporary deal. He made his La Liga debut on 23 August, starting in a 1–2 away loss against Granada CF. Fariña scored his first goal in the main category of Spanish football on 15 December, netting the winner in a home success over Elche CF. In August 2015, he joined Rayo Vallecano on loan for one season, until it was terminated early in January 2016, with the Argentine moving to Universidad de Chile until June. On 7 August 2016, Fariña moved to Greek Super League club Asteras Tripoli in another temporary deal. A year the 26-year old rescinded his contract with Benfica, without representing them, signed a three-year contract with Aves. Fariña's parents were born in Paraguay, with himself holding a Paraguayan citizenship since December 2014. Racing ClubCopa Argentina: Runner-up 2011–12 Luis Fariña at ForaDeJogo Luis Fariña – Argentine Primera statistics at Fútbol XXI Luis Fariña at ESPN FC Luis Fariña at Soccerbase Luis Fariña at Soccerway

Greenstone (archaeology)

Greenstone is a common generic term for valuable, green-hued minerals and metamorphosed igneous rocks and stones which early cultures used in the fashioning of hardstone carvings such as jewelry, ritual tools, various other artifacts. Greenstone artifacts may be made of greenschist, serpentine, chrysoprase, nephrite, chloromelanite among other green-hued minerals; the term includes jade and jadeite, although these are more identified by these latter terms. The greenish hue of these rocks derives from the presence of minerals such as chlorite, hornblende, or epidote. Greenstone minerals were selected for their color rather than their chemical composition. In archaeology therefore, having a loosely applied general term is at least influenced by the observation that ancient cultures used and considered these various green-hued materials as interchangeable. Greenstone objects are found considerable distances from the source of the rock, indicating early travel or trading networks. A polished jadeite axe head in the British Museum was found in Canterbury, Kent but uses stone from the Alps of Northern Italy, objects from other parts of the world had travelled comparable distances to their findspots.

Ancient China and Mesoamerica have special reputations for the prevalence and significance of greenstone usage. Greenstones figure prominently in the indigenous cultures of southeastern Australia, among the Māori of New Zealand. Neolithic Europe used greenstone for prestige versions of axe tools, not made for use. H. D. Skinner, Otago University Museum. "New Zealand Greenstone". Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 65: 211–220. F. J. Turner, Otago University. "Geological Investigation of the Nephrites and Related "Greenstones" used by the Maoris of Otago and South Canterbury". Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 65: 187–210