Konstanz is a university city with 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland. The city houses the University of Konstanz and was for more than 1200 years residence of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Konstanz. Konstanz is situated on Lake Constance; the river Rhine, which starts in the Swiss Alps, passes through Lake Constance and leaves it larger, by flowing under a bridge connecting the two parts of the city. North of the river lies the larger part of the city with residential areas, industrial estates, the University of Konstanz. Car ferries provide access across Lake Constance to Meersburg, the Katamaran provides a shuttle service for pedestrians to Friedrichshafen. At the old town's southern border lies the Swiss town of Kreuzlingen. Konstanz is subdivided into districts; the island of Mainau belonged to the ward of Litzelstetten, a separate municipality until its incorporation into Konstanz on December 1, 1971. The first traces of civilization in Konstanz date back to the late Stone Age.

During the reign of Augustus, the Celts living south of the Danube were conquered by the Romans. Around 40 AD, the first Romans settled on the site; this small town on the left bank of the Rhine was first called Drusomagus and belonged to the Roman province of Raetia. Its name Constantia, comes either from the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus, who fought the Alemanni in the region and built a strong fortress around 300 AD, or from his grandson Constantius II, who visited the region in 354; the remains of the late Roman fortress Constantia were discovered in 2003. Around 585 the first bishop took up residence in Konstanz and this marked the beginning of the city's importance as a spiritual center. By the late Middle Ages, about one quarter of Konstanz's 6,000 inhabitants were exempt from taxation on account of clerical rights. Trade thrived during the Middle Ages. Konstanz owned the only bridge in the region, which crossed the Rhine, making it a strategic location in the Duchy of Swabia, its linen production had made an international name for the city and it was prosperous.

In 1192, Konstanz gained the status of Imperial City so it was henceforth subject only to the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1414 to 1418, the Council of Constance took place, during which, on 6 July 1415, John Hus, seen as a threat to Christianity by the Roman Catholic Church, was burned at the stake, it was here that the Papal Schism was ended and Pope Martin V was elected during the only conclave held north of the Alps. Ulrich von Richental's illustrated chronicle of the Council of Constance testifies to all the major happenings during the Council as well as showing the everyday life of medieval Konstanz; the Konzilgebäude where the conclave was held can still be seen standing by the harbour. Close by stands the Imperia, a statue, erected in 1993 to satirically commemorate the Council. In 1460, the Swiss Confederacy conquered Konstanz's natural hinterland. Konstanz made an attempt to get admitted to the Swiss Confederacy, but the forest cantons voted against its entry, fearing over-bearing city states.

In the Swabian War of 1499, Konstanz lost its last privileges over Thurgau to the Confederation. The Protestant Reformation took hold in Konstanz in the 1520s, headed by Ambrosius Blarer. Soon the city declared itself Protestant, pictures were removed from the churches, the bishop temporarily moved to Meersburg, a small town across the lake; the city first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession, the Augsburg Confession. However, in 1548 Emperor Charles V imposed the Imperial Ban on Konstanz and it had to surrender to Habsburg Austria which had attacked, thus Konstanz lost its status as an imperial city. The new Habsburg rulers were eager to re-Catholicise the town and in 1604 a Jesuit College was opened, its accompanying theatre, built in 1610, is the oldest theatre in Germany still performing regularly. The city became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806. In 1821, the Bishopric of Constance became part of the Archdiocese of Freiburg. Konstanz became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany.

After World War I it was included within the Republic of Baden. On 22 October 1940, 110 of the last Jewish residents were deported to Gurs internment camp in France. Most of those who were still alive in August 1942 were murdered in either Auschwitz; because it lies within Switzerland, directly adjacent to the Swiss border, Konstanz was not bombed by the Allied Forces during World War II. The city left all its lights on at night, thus fooled the bombers into thinking it was part of Switzerland. After the war, Konstanz was included first in South Baden and in the new state of Baden-Württemberg; the Altstadt, large considering the small size of modern Konstanz, has many old buildings and twisting alleys. The city skyline is dominated by Konstanz Cathedral, several other churches and three towers left over from the city wall, one of which marks the place of the former medieval bridge over the Rhine; the University of Konstanz was established close to the town in 1966. It houses an excellent library with two million books, all accessible 24 hours a day, as well as a botanical garden

Cyborg antenna

A cyborg antenna is an osseointegrated device implanted in a human skull. The antenna, composed of a wireless camera on one end and a wireless sound vibration implant on the other end, allows wireless communication and wireless transmission of images, sound or video from skull to skull; the antenna uses audible vibrations in the skull to report information. This includes measurements of electromagnetic radiation, phone calls, music, as well as video or images which are transmitted through audible vibrations; the Wi-Fi enabled antenna allows the reception signals and data from satellites. The first antenna was created in England in 2003 by Neil Harbisson; the invention, under the heading Bridging the Island of the Colourblind Project, won a British award in Innovation and a European award in Content Tools and Interface Design. In 2007, Peter Kese, a software developer from Kranj, made further developments to the antenna by increasing the number of color hues to 360 and adding color saturation through different volume levels.

In 2009, Matias Lizana, a student from Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya developed the antenna into a chip as part of his final year project. The chip allows users to have the antenna implanted and to hear colors beyond the limits of human perception such as infrared and ultraviolet. Harbisson's Sonochromatic Music Scale is a microtonal and logarithmic scale with 360 notes in an octave; each note corresponds to a specific degree of the color wheel. The scale was introduced to the first antenna in 2004. Harbisson's Pure Sonochromatic Scale is a non-logarithmic scale based on the transposition of light frequencies to sound frequencies; the scale discards color as being part of a color wheel and ignores musical/logarithmic perception so it can overstep the limits of human perception. The introduction of the new scale to the eyeborg in 2010, allows users to decide whether they want to perceive colors logarithmically or not. Since 2005, antennas have been donated to blind communities in Europe and America with the aim of helping the blind develop the sense of color.

The first blind person to try out an eyeborg was Sabriye Tenberken followed by blind students from Braille Without Borders in Tibet and members of the Sociedad de Ciegos de Pichincha in Ecuador. In 2011, vice-president of Ecuador Lenin Moreno announced that his government would collaborate with the Cyborg Foundation to create antennas and new sensory extensions. In 2012, after lecturing at Escola Politécnica de Pernambuco in Recife, the Cyborg Foundation signed a partnership to create antennas and other new human extensions in collaboration with Universidade de Pernambuco in Brazil. Antennas are being treated as body parts rather than as devices. Neuroprosthetics Sonochromatism Synesthesia Video: How the eyeborg works Eyeborg Website Article about an eyeborg user on Wired Eyeborg user example on The Sunday Times Information from BBC Neil Harbisson's personal website

Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose (Nueva Ecija)

The Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose in the Philippines is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines. The diocese was founded in 1984, having formed part of the Diocese of Cabanatuan, it is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lingayen-Dagupan. The diocese held its first Diocesan Synod in March 2011 led by the Apostolic Nuncio to the Philippines; the diocese celebrated its Silver Anniversary of Canonical Erection last July 14, 2009. On April 20, Pope Benedict XVI named its third bishop, Most Rev. Mylo Hubert C. Vergara, as the bishop of Pasig. At present, the diocese is headed by its fourth bishop Most Rev. Roberto C. Mallari D. D. former Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of San Fernando, Pampanga. The Diocese of San Jose, Nueva Ecija, was created on Feb. 16, 1984 by Pope John Paul II and canonically erected on July 14, 1984. Its territory was taken from the Diocese of Cabanatuan which at same time of the division comprised the entire province of Nueva Ecija.

Sixteen parishes, out of forty one parishes of the Diocese of Cabanatuan were adjudicated to the Diocese of San Jose, Nueva Ecija. 80 percent of the people are Roman Catholics and the rest of 20 percent are members of different sects and denominations. Bishop Florentino F. Cinense, DD, was appointed the diocese's first diocesan bishop on July 14, 1984; when appointed coadjutor bishop of Tarlac, he remained as Apostolic Administrator of San Jose, until the appointment of his successor Bishop Leo M. Drona, SDB, DD, on July 25, 1987. Bishop Leo M. Drona had been a Salesian of Don Bosco for twenty nine-years prior to his Episcopal appointment, he is the first Filipino Salesian priest as well as the first Filipino Salesian Bishop. In June 2004, Bishop Drona was transferred to the Diocese of Laguna as its third bishop, he was succeeded by Bishop Mylo Hubert C. Vergara, installed as the third bishop of the Diocese of San Jose de Nueva Ecija on May 14, 2005. Bishop Mylo C Vergara transferred to the Diocese of Pasig.

It was May 15 when Pope Benedict XVI named the current Bishop Roberto C. Mallari. Florentino Ferrer Cinense, DD: 24 May 1984 Appointed - 17 Aug 1985 Appointed, Coadjutor Bishop of Tarlac Leo Murphy Drona, S. D. B. DD: 10 Jun 1987 Appointed - 14 May 2004 Appointed, Bishop of San Pablo Mylo Hubert Claudio Vergara, S. T. D. DD: 12 Feb 2005 Appointed - 20 Apr 2011 Appointed, Bishop of Pasig Roberto Calara Mallari, DD: 15 May 2012 - present Vicar General: Very Rev. Getty A. Ferrer, JCD Chancellor: Rev. Fr. Rufo Ramil H. Cruz, PhD Vice Chancellor: Rev. Fr. Michael J. Grospe Oeconomous: Rev. Fr. Nestor E. Romano. Judicial Vicar: Rev. Fr. Getty A. Ferrer, JCD There are 21 Parishes in the Diocese of San Jose de Nueva Ecija. Cathedral of St. Joseph the Worker - San Jose CityRev. Fr. Getty Ferrer, Rev. Fr. Redentor Asuncion, Rev. Fr. Nestor Romano, Rev. Fr. Paul Silva | May 1 Mary Help of Christians Parish - Malasin, San Jose CityRev. Fr. Ian Christopher Andal | May 24 St. Nicholas of Tolentine Parish - CarranglanRev.

Fr. Jimmy Reyes | Sep. 10 Sto. Niño Quasi-Parish - Puncan, CarranglanRev. Fr. Rodelio Paglinawan | 3rd Sun. of Jan. St. James the Great Parish - LupaoRev. Fr. Jun Flores | Jul. 25 St. Andrew the Apostle Parish - PantabanganRev. Fr. Ace Cara Fernando | Nov. 30 Husband of Mary Parish - RizalRev. Fr. Ronald Rhoel Ocampo | Mar. 19 Immaculate Conception Parish - LlaneraRev. Fr. Marc Louie Caniza | Dec. 8 St. John the Evangelist Parish - GuimbaRev. Fr. Josix Tolentino and Rev. Fr. Ernie Pesimo | Dec. 27 Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Parish - Triala, GuimbaRev. Fr. Gabriel Galido, MSC | Sun. Before the Solemnity of Sacred Heart of Jesus St. Roch Parish - CuyapoRev. Fr. Arleen Ragasa | Aug. 16 St. Anthony of Padua Parish - Butao, CuyapoRev. Fr. Wilfredo Villanueva, SOLT | Jun. 13 Diocesan Shrine of the Holy Face of Jesus and Immaculate Conception Parish - NampicuanRev. Fr. Richard Lagos and Rev. Fr. Bonifacio Flores | Shrove Tuesday and Dec. 8 Our Mother of Perpetual Help Parish - TalugtugRev. Fr. Pedro Albino, Jr. | Jun. 27 St. Dominic of Guzman Parish - Sto.

DomingoRev. Fr. Michael Grospe | Aug. 8 Diocesan Shrine and Parish of St. Jerome - Baloc, Sto. DomingoRev. Fr. Christian Magtalas | Oct. 31 St. Sebastian the Martyr Parish - Science City of MunozRev. Fr. Ariel Capuyon, Rev. Fr. Menardo Natividad | Jan. 20 Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish - Bantug, Science City of MunozRev. Fr. Jojie G. Balinton, MSC | Fri. after Corpus Christi Sun. Christ the Worker Chaplaincy - Central Luzon State University, Science City of MunozRev. Fr. Rufo Ramil H. Cruz Holy Family Parish - QuezonRev. Fr. Rosalito Cabanting | Sun. After Christmas Day Our Lady of the Holy Rosary Parish - LicabRev. Fr. Mitchell Cinense | Oct. 7 Rolando Mabutol, HP Paulo Romeo Nietes, HP Nestor Romano Luzvimindo Sayson Renato Santos Jr. Remigio Malgapo Menardo Natividad Bonifacio Flores Edwin Bravo, PhD Rosalito Cabanting Arleen Ragasa Cesar Vergara Pedro Albino Ernie Pesimo Jun Flores, Ph. D Jose Victor Villalobos Michael Grospe Josix Tolentino Christian Magtalas Ronald Rhoel Ocampo Lloyd Nepumuceno Ariel Capuyon Getty Ferrer, JCD Rufo Ramil Cruz, Ph.

D Richard P. Lagos Mitchelle Cinense Paul Silva Rodelio Paglinawan Ian Andal Renz Jane Valente Louie Cañiza Jimmy Reyes Fr. Tito Y. Maratas, MSC Fr. Diomedes Burgos, MSC Fr. Jojie G. Balinton, MSC Fr. Gabriel Galido MSC Fr. Ritchie Y. Estrada MSC Fr. Wilfredo Villanueva, SOLT Fr. Daniel Dabule, Jr. SDB Fr. Jerry Santos, SDB Fr. Clarence Pangilinan, SDB Fr. Dennis Pineda, OSA Our Lady of the Sacred Hea