Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
The Jardwadjali people are Indigenous Australians who occupy the lands in the upper Wimmera River watershed east to Gariwerd and west to Lake Bringalbert. The towns of Horsham, Coleraine, Minyip, there were 37 Jardwadjali clans who formed an alliance with the neighboring Djab wurrung people through intermarriage, shared culture and moiety system. The Jardwadjali language shares 90 percent common vocabulary with Djab wurrung, sub-dialects include Jagwadjali and Nundadjali. The Jardwadjali people have lived in the area for up to 30,000 to 40,000 years, one site in the Victoria Range has been dated from 22,000 years ago. In 1836 the squatter Edward Henty was exploring Jardwadjali land from the south, a further wave of European occupation occurred from the north in 1840 with Lieutenant Robert Briggs squatting near Lake Lonsdale. The Jardwadjali called these mountains Gariwerd with Gar meaning ‘pointed mountain’, i meaning ‘the’, Jardwadjali people formed the nucleus of the Australian Aboriginal cricket team in England in 1868, although efforts were made by the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines to stop the tour.
The team played 47 matches, winning 14, losing 14, settlement was marked by resistance to the invasion often by driving off or stealing sheep which resulted in conflict and sometimes a massacre of aboriginal people. Very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court, after the massacre at Fighting Hills, John Whyte travelled to Melbourne to inform Governor La Trobe in person of the massacre. The depositions of the Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright who had investigated the massacre were disallowed. At the time aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law, the incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported, it is likely other incidents occurred that were never reported and not documented officially. There was much opposition to this proposal by European descendants, the Brambuk centre, representing five aboriginal communities, advocated a dual name for the main area, Gariwerd/Grampians. The indigenous peoples of the Wimmera won native title recognition on 13 December 2005 after a legal process.
It was the first successful native title claim in south-eastern Australia and in Victoria, determined by Justice Ron Merkel involving Wotjobaluk, Jardwadjali, unamurriman, better known in cricket circles as Johnny Mullagh was born around 1843
National Gallery of Victoria
The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australias oldest and most visited art museum, the St Kilda Road building, designed by Sir Roy Grounds, opened in 1968, and was redeveloped by Mario Bellini before reopening in 2003. It houses the international art collection and is on the Victorian Heritage Register. Designed by Lab Architecture Studio, the Ian Potter Centre opened in 2002, further money was set aside in the early 1860s for the establishment of the first National Gallery. On 24 May 1874, the first purpose built gallery, known as the McArthur Gallery, was opened in the McArthur room of the State Library, the undressed box was only ever intended as a temporary home until the much grander vision was to be realised. However such an edifice did not eventuate and the complex was instead developed incrementally over several decades, the National Gallery of Victoria Art School, associated with the gallery, was founded in 1867 and remained the leading centre for academic art training in Australia until about 1910.
The Schools graduates went on to some of Australias most significant artists. In 1887, the Buvelot Gallery was opened, along with the Painting School studios, in 1892, two more galleries were added, Stawell and La Trobe. The gallerys collection was built from both gifts of works of art and monetary donations, the most significant, the Felton Bequest, was established by the will of Alfred Felton and from 1904, has been used to purchase over 15,000 works of art. £3 million was put forward in February 1960 and Roy Grounds was announced as the architect, in 1962, Roy Grounds split from his partners Frederick Romberg and Robin Boyd, retained the commission, and designed the gallery at 180 St Kilda Road. By 1967, the new $14 million complex began to take shape, and the gallery was finally relocated to the new building in the summer of 1967-1968. The new bluestone clad building was opened on Tuesday 20 August 1968 by Victorian premier Henry Bolte. In 1999, redevelopment of the building was proposed, with Mario Bellini chosen as architect, the proposal was to leave the original architectural fabric intact including the exterior facade and Leonard French stained glass ceiling, but to significantly modernise the spaces.
During the redevelopment, many works were moved to a temporary external annex known as NGV on Russell, at the State Library with its entrance on Russell Street. NGV on Russell closed on 30 June 2002 to make way for the opening of the new St Kilda Road gallery. The Ian Potter Centre, NGV Australia was designed by Lab Architecture Studio, the NGVs Australian art collection encompasses Indigenous art and artefacts, Australian colonial art, Australian Impressionist art, 20th century and contemporary art. The NGV houses many of the most recognisable Australian paintings, including Frederick McCubbins The Pioneer, phillips Fox, John Glover, Eugene von Guerard, Hans Heysen, George W. A large number of works were donated by Dr. Joseph Brown in 2004 which form the Joseph Brown Collection, in 2011 the NGV celebrated its 150th birthday and acquired an important painting by Correggio
The Yolngu or Yolŋu are an Indigenous Australian people inhabiting north-eastern Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia. Yolngu means person in the Yolŋu languages, the term Murngin was formerly used by some anthropologists for the Yolngu. The complete system of Yolngu law is known as the Maḏayin, Maḏayin embodies the rights of the owners of the law, or citizens who have the rights and responsibilities for this embodiment of law. This law covers the ownership of land and waters, the resources on or within these lands and it regulates and controls production and trade and the moral and religious law including laws for the conservation and the farming of plants and aquatic life. Yolŋu believe that living out their life according to Maḏayin is right, the Maḏayin creates a state of Magaya, which is a state of peace, freedom from hostilities and true justice for all. Yolŋu groups are connected by a kinship system. This system governs fundamental aspects of Yolŋu life, including responsibilities for ceremony, Yolŋu life is divided into two moieties and Yirritja.
Each of these is represented by people of a number of different groups, each of which have their own lands, totems, a Yirritja person must always marry a Dhuwa person and vice versa. If a man or woman is Dhuwa, their mother will be Yirritja, as with nearly all Aboriginal groups, avoidance relationships exist in Yolngu culture between certain relations. The two main avoidance relationships are, son-in-law – mother-in-law brother – sister Brother–sister avoidance called mirriri normally begins after initiation, in avoidance relationships, people dont speak directly or look at one another, and try to avoid being in too close proximity with each other. Yolngu speak a dozen dialects of a group known as Yolngu Matha. English can be anywhere from a third to a language for Yolŋu. Yolŋu identify six distinct seasons, Dhaarratharramirri, Worlmamirri, Yolŋu sustained good trade relations with Macassan fishermen for several hundred years. The Macassans respected the land as Yolŋu land, they only ever camped on the beach and they made yearly visits to harvest trepang and pearls, paying Yolŋu in kind with goods such as knives, canoes and pipes.
The Yolŋu folklore has preserved accounts of the Baijini people, who appear to be distinct from the Macassans, in 1906, the South Australian Government did not renew the Macassans permit to harvest trepang. This loss of trade caused some disruption to the Yolŋu way of life, Yolŋu had well established trade routes within Australia, extending to Central Australian clans and other Aboriginal countries. (For example, they did not make boomerangs, but obtained these via trade from Central Australia, Yolŋu had known about Europeans prior to the arrival of British in Australia through their contact with Macassan traders, which probably began around the sixteenth century. Their word for European, Balanda, is derived from Hollander, in the late nineteenth century, white Australians began to open up Arnhem Land for cattle grazing
Their traditional territory spreads from Wollombi in the south, to the Lower Hunter River near Newcastle and Lake Macquarie in the north. In the traditional language, Awaba is the word for Lake Macquarie, meaning flat or plain surface, the Awabakal were bounded to the north–west by the Wonnarua, the Worimi to the north–east, and the Darkinjung peoples to the west and south. The Awabakal people, like most of the Aboriginal Australian tribes in Australia, awabagal is a common alternate name for the Awabakal people. Awaba is now the name of a town in the region. Tindale claims that the Ninyowa clan were from the Newcastle area, the Awabakal language was used by the Awabakal people and by the Wonnarua people. Oral historians and linguists are reviewing the language in order to develop a dictionary of the language of the Hunter River. The eaglehawk or wedge-tailed eagle has special significance for the Awabakal people, their celestial entity, looks like an Aboriginal man, but in flight resembles an eagle-hawk.
The Awabakal people played a significant part in shaping the environment of their region and they practised fire-stick farming extensively, which helped them to hunt and to navigate through dense prickly scrub along the coast. Tracks and paths were maintained, including a path from the shore to the top of a hill which became Watt Street in Newcastle, particularly for shellfish, was a significant part of the Awabakal peoples diet and culture pre-colonisation. Academic research by Webb indicates east coast Australia tribes were violent, the Awabakal Newcastle Aboriginal Cooperative Limited is a not-for-profit community controlled organisation operating in the Newcastle, Lake Macquarie and Hunter Region with 195 members. In 2014 financial year, Awabakal had income of $10. 7million, approximately half of the income is used on employee benefits expenses, being $5. 87million in 2014. Total assets for both 2013 and 2014 were ca, in 1976, the Awabakal Environmental Education Centre began operating.
It is a NSW Department of Education and Communities facility, the centre provides opportunities for teachers and students in the Hunter Region to learn about the environment and human interactions with the natural world. The Centre contains examples of habitats including perched lagoons, creek catchments and wet sclerophyll forest. Being located on Awabakal land, the centre provides the opportunity for students to learn about Aboriginal perspectives, knowledge. There is a significant Awabakal presence at the Wollotuka Institute at the University of Newcastle, Wollotuka is an Awabakal word meaning eating and meeting place. Attempts by the Awabakal Local Aboriginal Land Council to claim native title over land within Newcastle, biraban – a recognised headman of the Awaba clan who assisted the Rev Lancelot Threlkeld compile the first grammar of an Aboriginal language in Australia
The territory was bordered by the Djab wurrung and Wada wurrung in the north, the Dhauwurd wurrung in the west, and the Djargurd Wurrung and Gadubanud in the east. The Framlingham Aboriginal Reserve was established in Girai wurrung territory bordering the Gunditjmara people, the Girai wurrung people had 21 clans with a patriarchal hierarchy and a matrilineally based descent system based on the Gabadj and Guragidj moieties. The clans gathered with the Djab wurrung, Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung peoples to harvest eels at Lake Bolac and they met at Mirraewuae swamp near Hexham to hunt emus and other game and to conduct business. European settlement of the began in 1838 and in the early 1840s the Girai wurrung engaged in a sustained guerilla war with the encroaching pastoralists. Dispossession from their land led to starvation and the theft of sheep resulted in murderous reprisals, assistant Aboriginal Protector Charles Sievwright was successful in bringing charges against G. S. This decision was made despite the nature of the squatters licence by the Government to allow for Aboriginal access for hunting.
Gunditjmara from Portland and Lake Condah refused to settle at Framlingham, historian Ian Clark asserts that from 1868 the history of the Girai wurrung becomes the history of Framlingham
Redfern, New South Wales
Redfern is an inner-city suburb of Sydney located 3 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney. Strawberry Hills is a locality on the border with Surry Hills, the area experienced the process of gentrification in recent years. Redfern was subject to redevelopment plans by the state government, to increase the population and reduce the concentration of poverty in the suburb. The suburb is named after surgeon William Redfern, who was granted 100 acres of land in area in 1817 by Lachlan Macquarie. He built a house on his property surrounded by flower. His neighbours were Captain Cleveland, an officer of the 73rd regiment, who built Cleveland House and John Baptist, sydneys original railway terminus was built in Cleveland Paddocks and extended from Cleveland Street to Devonshire Street and west to Chippendale. The stations name was chosen to honour William Redfern, at that time, the present Redfern station was known as Eveleigh.
The remains of Cleveland Paddocks became Prince Alfred Park, in August 1859, Redfern became a municipality of Sydney Redfern has been characterised by migrant populations that have lived in the area. In the late 19th century many of the businessmen in the area were from Lebanon such as George Dan 1890, Stanton and Aziz Melick in 1888 and Shafiqah Shasha and Anthony, as waves of immigrants arrived in Australia, many made Redfern their first home. On 17 January 1908 at Redfern Town Hall the South Sydney club was formed to compete in the first season of the New South Wales Rugby Football League Premiership. The notorious Redfern Mail Exchange was built in 1965, after 300 people were evicted from their homes on the 2.15 hectare site and it became the scene of many industrial disputes when the automatic mail-sorting machinery which was supposed to sort efficiently, actually destroyed many letters. It became known as the Redfern Mangler, the 2004 Redfern riots began on 14 February 2004, at the end of Eveleigh Street outside Redfern station, sparked by the death of Thomas TJ Hickey.
The teenager, riding on his bicycle, was allegedly being chased by a police vehicle, members of his family were reported to have started grieving for TJ around Eveleigh Street with a crowd gathering commiserating with the family. Fliers were distributed blaming police for TJs death, the police closed the Eveleigh Street entrance to the railway station, but youths in the crowd became violent, throwing bricks and bottles, this escalated into a riot. A subsequent inquest found that although the police were following Hickey, they had not caused the accident, the riots sparked fresh debate into the welfare of Aboriginal Australians and the response of the police to those living in the Redfern area. The main shopping strip is located on Redfern Street, east of Redfern railway station, there are commercial developments nearby, along Regent Street and surrounding streets. The Redfern skyline is dominated by two towers and two residential blocks located between Regent Street and Gibbons Street, beside Redfern railway station.
Redfern railway station, located on the edge of the suburb is a major station on the Sydney Trains network
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes, Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of geography and physical geography. Geography has been called the world discipline and the bridge between the human and the physical sciences, Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names, although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
The interdisciplinary nature of the approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places. are not geography. know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself and this is a description of the world—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause, just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main fields, human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the environment and how humans create, manage. The latter examines the environment, and how organisms, soil, water. The difference between these led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science and it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns.
Physical geography can be divided into broad categories, Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns. It encompasses the human, cultural, and it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include, emergency management, environmental management, geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography
They were part of the Kulin alliance of tribes. There were 16 clans, which adhered to a patrilineal system, like the other Kulin peoples there were two moieties, Bunjil the eagle and Waa the crow. The Dja Dja Wurrung were bound to their land by their belief system deriving from the Dreaming, when mythic beings had created the world. They were part of established trade networks which allowed goods and information to flow over substantial distances, the Tachylite deposits near Spring Hill and the Coliban River may have been important trade goods as stone artefacts from this material have been found around Victoria. There is evidence that smallpox swept through the Dja Dja Wurrung in 1789 and 1825, the epidemics were incorporated into aboriginal mythology as a giant snake, the Mindye, sent by Bunjil, to blow magic dust over people to punish them for being bad. The trade networks would have carried news of the white men settling on the Eora land in the early 1790s. Thomas Mitchell was probably the first white man to be seen in Dja Dja Wurrung country when he explored and surveyed central Victoria in 1836, the settlement of the Goulburn and Loddon Districts began the following year by squatters eager to carve out a station and run.
On 7 February 1841 Munangabum was shot and wounded by settlers while his companion Gondiurmin died at Far Creek Station, three settlers were apprehended and tried on 18 May 1841 but were acquitted for want of evidence as aborigines could not give evidence in courts of law. He was murdered in 1846 by a rival clan-head from the south, an important source of frontier conflict was sexual relations between European settlers and aboriginal women. Abduction and rape of women was relatively common, often leading to violent interactions. Parker expressed in 1842 the firm conviction and that nine out of ten outrages committed by the blacks derived either directly or indirectly from sexual relations. The Dja Dja wurrung peoples experienced two waves of settlement and dispossession, from the south from 1837 and from the north from 1845, very few of these reports were acted upon to bring the settlers to court. On the few occasions when this did happen, the cases were dismissed as aborigines were denied the right to give evidence in courts of law.
The incidents listed below are just the cases that have been reported and he arrived in Melbourne in January 1839 with Robinson appointing Parker to the northwest or Loddon District in March. He did not start his protectorate until September 1839, the Protectors duties included to safeguard aborigines from encroachments on their property, and from acts of cruelty, of oppression or injustice and a longer term goal of civilising the natives. Parker initially established his base at Jacksons Creek near Sunbury, which was not close enough to the nations of his protectorate. The Governor of NSW, Sir George Gipps and stations or reserves for each protector were approved in 1840. Parkers original choice for a reserve in September 1840 was a site, known as Neereman by the Dja Dja Wurrung, on Bet Bet Creek a tributary of the Loddon River
A corroboree is an event where Australian Aborigines interact with the Dreamtime through dance and costume. Their bodies painted in different ways, and they wore various adornments, the word corroboree was coined by the European settlers of Australia in imitation of an east coast local Aboriginal Australian word caribberie. In the northwest of Australia, corroboree is a word to define theatrical practices as different from ceremony. Whether it be public or private, ceremony is for invited guests, there are other generic words to describe traditional public performances and kobbakobba for example. In the Pilbara, corroborees are yanda or jalarra, across the Kimberley the word junba is often used to refer to a range of traditional performances and ceremonies. Corroboree and ceremony are strongly connected but different, corroborees are open performances in which everyone may participate taking into consideration that the songs and dances are highly structured requiring a great deal of knowledge and skill to perform.
Corroboree is a word to explain different genres of performance which in the northwest of Australia include balga, lirrga, Bardi Ilma. Throughout Australia the word corroboree embraces songs, rallies, in the past a corroboree has been inclusive of sporting events and other forms of skill display. It is an appropriated English word that has been reappropriated to explain a practice that is different from ceremony and more widely inclusive than theatre or opera
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country, with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australias states and territories. Other population centres in the state are relatively small, the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in Adelaide, most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The states colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at the Old Gum Tree by Governor John Hindmarsh, as with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The first British settlement to be established was Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, the guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was employed by the New Zealand Company.
The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties, although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its wine and numerous cultural festivals. The states economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries, the state has an increasingly significant finance sector as well. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity, in addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels, thijssen named his discovery Pieter Nuyts Land, after the highest ranking individual on board. The complete coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders, the land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales.
Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and it took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, the act stated that 802,511 square kilometres would be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province, although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay in November 1836, the Colonisation Commissioners intended to establish a police service as soon as misconduct within the increasing population warranted it