Fortine is a census-designated place in Lincoln County, United States. The population was 169 at the 2000 census. Fortine is located at 48°45′52″N 114°54′11″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.0 square miles, of which, 3.0 square miles of it is land and 0.33% is water. Fortine was named for Octave Fortine, it was a station on the Great Northern Railway line. The first post office was established in 1905; as of the census of 2000, there were 169 people, 74 households, 48 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 56.3 people per square mile. There were 85 housing units at an average density of 28.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.45% White, 0.59% African American, 0.59% Native American, 2.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.59% of the population. There were 74 households out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families.
28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.82. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 3.0% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 33.7% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,500, the median income for a family was $35,625. Males had a median income of $30,625 versus $31,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,140. About 6.0% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. Fortine Information
The Yaak River is a tributary of the Kootenay River in the U. S. state of Montana and the Canadian province of British Columbia. The Yaak River originates near Yahk Mountain, in the Yahk Range, part of the Purcell Mountains, in southeast British Columbia; the river flows south, crossing into Montana. It receives the East Fork Yaak River the West Fork Yaak River; the West Fork originates in Montana near Rock Candy Mountain, flows northeast into British Columbia southeast back into Montana to join the main Yaak River. Below the West Fork confluence, the Yaak River receives the South Fork Yaak River before curving broadly west south, receiving numerous tributaries creeks such as Spread Creek, Hellroaring Creek, Burnt Creek, before flowing into the Kootenai River near Yaak Mountain and the small city of Troy, Montana. In Montana, the Yaak River and its tributaries lie within Kootenai National Forest; the river has Class IV-V whitewater. The river is Class III-V from Yaak Falls to its confluence with the Kootenai River for the purposes of public access for recreational purposes.
According to British Columbia's Geographical Names Information System, "Yahk" is a Kootenay word meaning either "arrow" or "bow" and referring either to the Yaak River or the Kootenay River. The southward curve of the Kootenay River is said to be a "bow", with the Yaak River being the "arrow". According to the USGS, variant names of the Yaak River include A'ak, Yahk and Yak. Montana Stream Access Law List of rivers of Montana List of British Columbia rivers
The Purcell Mountains are a mountain range in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. They are a subrange of the Columbia Mountains, which includes the Selkirk and Cariboo Mountains, they are located on the west side of the Rocky Mountain Trench in the area of the Columbia Valley, on the east side of the valley of Kootenay Lake and the Duncan River. The only large settlement in the mountains is the Panorama Ski Resort and Kicking Horse Resort, though there are small settlements, such as Yahk and Moyie along the Crowsnest Highway, residential rural areas dependent on the cities of Creston and Cranbrook, which are located adjacent to the range; the Purcells are shown on some United States maps as the Percell Mountains, where their southern limit protrudes into the states of Idaho and Montana, abutting Lake Koocanusa, a reservoir on the Kootenai River. American geographic classifications consider the Percells to be part of the Rocky Mountains but in Canada that terminology is reserved for ranges on the east side of the Rocky Mountain Trench.
In the Purcell Mountains, most of the peaks are above 10,000 feet in elevation. The Purcells were formed in the Proterozoic eon, which spans from 2,500 million years ago to about 540 million years ago. Carbonate Range Dogtooth Range Farnham Group MacBeth Group McGillivary Range Moyie Range Septet Range Spillimacheen Range Starbird Ridge Stockdale Group Toby Glacier Truce Group Yahk Range The Bugaboos List of mountain ranges in Montana
Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument
The Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument is a national monument protecting the Missouri Breaks of central Montana, United States. It is managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Called "The Breaks" by locals, it is a series of badland areas characterized by rock outcroppings, steep bluffs and grassy plains. Created by Proclamation by President William J. Clinton on January 17, 2001, it encompasses 495,502 acres, most of which were managed by the U. S. government. The adjacent Missouri River was designated a Wild and Scenic River in 1976 and forms a western boundary while the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge is to the east; the Breaks country was a model for many of the paintings done by painter Charles M. Russell. French trappers found the area in the late 18th century peopled by Native American tribes such as the Blackfoot, Northern Cheyenne, Assiniboine, Gros Ventre, Plains Cree and Plains Ojibwa; the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed through the Breaks in 1805 and were the first to document the region through notes and drawings, their sighting and documentation of bighorn sheep in the Breaks region was the first time this species was recorded in North America by white explorers.
Much of the Breaks region has remained as it was when Clark's party first saw it. "The confluence of the Judith and Missouri Rivers was the setting for important peace councils in 1846 and 1855. In 1877, the Nez Perce crossed the Missouri and entered the Breaks country in their attempt to escape to Canada; the Cow Island Skirmish occurred in the Breaks and was the last encounter prior to the Nez Perce's surrender to the U. S. Army at the Battle of Bear Paw just north of the monument." A full management plan is still under development due to various private inholdings and lease agreements between private citizens and the federal government. While conservationists would like to see some of the Breaks monument lands become designated as Wilderness, local ranchers and farmers under long standing lease agreements with the federal government, who graze upwards of 10,000 head of cattle annually within the new monument, are concerned that the monument status may adversely affect their livelihood and the economies of local towns.
Under the proposed management plan from the Department of the Interior, although the resources of the monument will be given better protection, "currently permitted livestock grazing, hunting and similar activities will not be affected, nor will private property and state land within the boundary of the proposed monument, as well as other valid existing rights."In 2013, the U. S. Court of Appeals ruled that the Bureau of Land Management's management plan violated historic site laws with their practices; the National Trust for Historic Preservation cited the site as one of ten historic sites saved in 2013. The Breaks is home to at least 60 mammal hundreds of bird species. Willows and shrubs are found along the Missouri River banks while sagebrush and short grass prairie are dominant elsewhere. Montana Wilderness Association "Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument". U. S. Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved 2018-07-15. "Upper Missouri Breaks National Monument". The Wilderness Society. Archived from the original on 2006-07-10.
Retrieved 2006-08-13. "Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument". Montana Wildlife Federation. Retrieved 2011-08-11. Map Bureau of Land Management Friends of the Missouri Breaks
Nez Perce National Historic Trail
The Nez Perce National Historic Trail follows the route taken by a large band of the Nez Perce Indian tribe in 1877 during their attempt to flee the U. S. get to Canada, to avoid being forced on to a reservation. The 1,170-mile trail was created in 1986 as part of the National Trails System Act and is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; the trail traverses through portions of the U. S. states of Oregon, Idaho and Montana and connects 38 separate sites across these four states that commemorate significant events that took place as the Nez Perce tried to escape capture by the U. S. Cavalry; the sites are part of the National Park Service's Nez Perce National Historical Park, managed overall by the National Park Service, with some sites managed by local and state affiliated organizations. A band of 750 Nez Perce warriors accompanied women and elders, they were parties to the Treaty of Walla Walla with the U. S. Government, fought numerous engagements with the 7th Cavalry, their maneuvers had several objectives: To avoid the initial violence they faced when trying to surrender to the 7th Cavalry and proceed to the reservation.
Beginning near 8d Lake in eastern Oregon, the Nez Perce headed east into Idaho. They crossed Lolo Pass into Montana and fought a major battle at what is now known as Big Hole National Battlefield. After that, the Nez Perce continued traveling south and east, back into Idaho and into Wyoming entering Yellowstone National Park near West Yellowstone, Montana; the tribe followed the Clarks Fork River back into Montana. From there the Nez Perce headed straight north for Canada and made it; the Nez Perce were near starvation and exhaustion after fighting their last battle north of the Bear Paw Mountains, less than 40 miles from the Canada–US border, when they surrendered to U. S. authorities. Chief Joseph is credited with leading the Nez Perce on this journey, he served as a camp supervisor and guardian, entrusted with handling the logistics of camp and travel, taking care of the women and children. At the time of the surrender, Chief Joseph was the most prominent surviving leader among the group. A few members of the tribe did reach Canada, but the vast majority were relocated to Kansas and Oklahoma for eight years before being allowed to relocate to the reservation in Idaho, near their ancestral home.
The trail passes through numerous National Park Service managed areas, National Forests, Bureau of Land Management Public Lands. While Oregon was a state, the other three states the trail now passes through were still territories. None of the forest lands were managed by the federal government, but Yellowstone National Park was created 5 years before the Nez Perce journey; the trail passes through owned property and it is best advised to obtain permission to enter these areas from local landowners. Little of the trail is a foot trail although much of the journey can be followed by roads. Attempts are underway to continue to preserve right of way to allow greater access for visitors. Nez Perce National Historical Park Nez Perce National Historic Trail map U. S. Forest Service. "Nez Perce National Historical Trail". Retrieved 2006-07-08. Nez Perce Trail Foundation
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than 247.3 million acres of public lands in the United States which constitutes one eighth of the landmass of the country. President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies: the General Land Office and the Grazing Service; the agency manages the federal government's nearly 700 million acres of subsurface mineral estate located beneath federal and private lands severed from their surface rights by the Homestead Act of 1862. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states: Alaska, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming; the mission of the BLM is "to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations." BLM holdings were described as "land nobody wanted" because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits and leases for livestock grazing on 155 million acres of BLM public lands.
The agency manages 221 wilderness areas, 27 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Conservation Lands, totaling about 36 million acres. In addition the National Conservation Lands include nearly 2,400 miles of Wild and Scenic Rivers, nearly 6,000 miles of National Scenic and Historic Trails. There are more than 63,000 gas wells on BLM public lands. Total energy leases generated $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, Native American groups. The BLM's roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787; these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution. As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored and made available for settlement. During the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies.
After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, England and Spain, ceded territory to the United States. In the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function. Land was sold. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted; the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by error. In 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were fulfilled. Over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land. Several different types of patents existed; these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, town lots. A system of local land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land, surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory.
This pattern spread across the entire United States. The laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. In the early 20th century, Congress took additional steps toward recognizing the value of the assets on public lands and directed the Executive Branch to manage activities on the remaining public lands; the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, oil and sodium to take place on public lands. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees; the Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937 referred as the O&C Act, required sustained yield management of the timberlands in western Oregon. In 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for this new agency to reorganize. In the end, the Bureau of Land Management became less focused on land disposal and more focused on the long term management and preservation of the land; the agency achieved its current form by combining offices in the western states and creating a corresponding office for lands both east of and alongside the Mississippi River. As a matter of course, the BLM's emphasis fell on activities in the western states as most of the mining, land sales, federally owned areas are located west of the Mississippi. BLM personnel on the ground have been oriented toward local interests, while bureau management in Washington are led by presidential guidance. By means of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, Congress created a more unified bureau mission and recognized the value of the remaining public lands by declaring that these lands would remain in public ownership; the law directed that these lands be managed with a view toward "multiple use" defined as "management of the public lands and their various resource values so that th
West Coast of the United States
The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the continental Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean. As a region, this term most refers to the coastal states of California, Oregon and Alaska. More it refers to an area defined on the east by the Alaska Range, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert, on the west by the Pacific Ocean; the United States Census groups the five states of California, Washington and Hawaii together as the Pacific States division. As of the 2010 Census, the estimated population of the Census Bureau's Pacific Region was 47.8 million – about 15.3% of U. S. population. The largest city on the west coast of the United States is Los Angeles. Major cities and metropolitan areas on the West Coast include: Anchorage metropolitan area Anchorage Spokane metropolitan area Spokane Spokane Valley Seattle metropolitan area Seattle Bellevue Tacoma Portland metropolitan area Portland Gresham Vancouver Eugene Sacramento metropolitan area Sacramento San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Oakland San Jose Stockton Modesto Fresno Bakersfield Inland Empire San Bernardino Riverside Los Angeles metropolitan area Los Angeles Long Beach Anaheim San DiegoHowever, of these aforementioned cities and metropolitan areas, only Los Angeles, Long Beach, San Francisco, San Diego are directly on the open Pacific Ocean.
The history of the West Coast begins with the arrival of the earliest known humans of the Americas, Paleo-Indians, crossing the Bering Strait from Eurasia into North America over a land bridge, that existed between 45,000 BCE and 12,000 BCE. Small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far into Alaska. Between 16,500 BCE and 13,500 BCE, ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America and by sea. Alaska Natives, indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, California indigenous peoples descended from the Paleo-Indians, they developed established trade routes. Spanish, French and American explorers and settlers began colonizing the area; the West Coast of the United States has an oceanic climate in its Northern and Eastern edge towards the Canada–U. S. Border, but from the California border towards the Mexico–U. S. Border the climate is mediterranean; the coastline sees mild temperatures when compared to the inland areas during summer.
In far Northern California there is a difference of 17 °C between Eureka and Willow Creek in spite of only 25 miles separating the locations and Willow Creek being located at a 500 metres elevation. Narrower fluctuations can be seen all through the coastline, could be explained by the cold currents in the Pacific Ocean moderating coastal temperatures and the mountain ranges blocking the maritime air from moving farther inland than its foothills during summer. Coastal fog is prevalent in keeping shoreline temperatures cool; this does not only occur in the San Francisco Bay Area, but it affects Santa Monica in Los Angeles, Southern California, with little yearly temperature differences but with cool summers similar to those expected in Northern Europe. A short journey inland and summer temperatures are comparable with the rest of the United States on the same latitudes, sometimes warmer due to prevailing winds from the Nevada and Arizona hot desert climate. Since the West Coast has been populated by immigrants and their descendants more than the East Coast, its culture is younger.
Additionally, its demographic composition underlies its cultural difference from the rest of the United States. California's history first as a major Spanish colony, Mexican territory, has given the lower West Coast a distinctive Hispanic tone, which it shares with the rest of the Southwest. Two of the three cities in which Asian Americans have concentrated, San Francisco and Los Angeles, are located on the West Coast, with significant populations in other West Coast cities. San Francisco's Chinatown, the oldest in North America, is a vibrant cultural center; the West Coast has a proportionally large share of green cities within the United States, which manifests itself in different cultural practices such as bicycling and organic gardening. On the other hand, French writer Guillaume Faye, comparing California to Europe, wrote that "as super-America, California stands out as the absolute antithesis of authentic Europe California has set itself up as the world center of the simulacrum and the inauthentic, as the absolute synthesis of "cool" Stalinism.
An hysterical land. Other writers, like Jean Baudrillard, Mike Davis, Umberto Eco, have made related statements on Californian culture. In the Pacific Northwest and Seattle are both considered among the coffee capitals of the world. While Starbucks originated in Seattle, both towns are known for small-scale coffee roasters and independent coffeeshops; the culture has been shaped by the environment by its forests and rain. This may account for the fact that the Northwest has many high-quality libraries and bookshops and a "bibliophile soul"; the region has a marginal, but growing independence movement based on bioregionalism and a